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Hypertension Causes

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161. Adequate intake of potassium does not cause hyperkalemia in hypertensive individuals taking medications that antagonize the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. (PubMed)

Adequate intake of potassium does not cause hyperkalemia in hypertensive individuals taking medications that antagonize the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. Reduced potassium excretion caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase the risk of hyperkalemia (serum potassium concentration >5 mmol/L) in the setting of increased potassium intake.The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of increasing dietary potassium (...) on serum potassium concentration in hypertensive individuals with normal renal function treated with an ACEi or ARB. We hypothesized that an increase in dietary potassium would not provoke hyperkalemia in this population despite treatment with either an ACEi or ARB.We conducted a controlled, parallel-design clinical trial in 20 hypertensive subjects with normal renal function treated with an ACEi or ARB, with random assignment to a usual diet or a high-potassium diet (HKD). Fruit and vegetable intake

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2016 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

162. Docosahexaenoic acid causes rapid pulmonary arterial relaxation via KCa channel-mediated hyperpolarisation in pulmonary hypertension. (PubMed)

Docosahexaenoic acid causes rapid pulmonary arterial relaxation via KCa channel-mediated hyperpolarisation in pulmonary hypertension. Cardioprotective benefits of ω-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well established, but the regulatory effect of DHA on vascular tone and pressure in pulmonary hypertension is largely unknown.As DHA is a potent regulator of K+ channels, we hypothesised that DHA modulates the membrane potential of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs (...) ) through K+ channels and thus exerts its effects on pulmonary vascular tone and pressure.We show that DHA caused dose-dependent activation of the calcium-activated K+ (KCa) current in primary human PASMCs and endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary arteries. This vasodilation was significantly diminished in KCa-/- (Kcnma1-/-) mice. In vivo, acute DHA returned the right ventricular systolic pressure in the chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension animal model to the level of normoxic animals

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2016 European Respiratory Journal

163. Prevalence of orthostatic hypertension in the very elderly and its relationship to all-cause mortality. (PubMed)

Prevalence of orthostatic hypertension in the very elderly and its relationship to all-cause mortality. To investigate the association with mortality of orthostatic hypertension (OHYPER) amongst the oldest old.Two waves of community-dwelling residents born in 1920-1921 were examined at age of 85 (n = 1004) and 90 (n = 437). OHYPER, orthostatic hypotension (OHYPO), or orthostatic normotension (ONORMO) were so classified when difference of standing-sitting SBP either increased or decreased

2016 Journal of Hypertension

164. Rare cause of arterial hypertension (PubMed)

Rare cause of arterial hypertension 27879308 2017 03 03 2018 12 07 1757-790X 2016 2016 Nov 22 BMJ case reports BMJ Case Rep Rare cause of arterial hypertension. bcr2016218075 10.1136/bcr-2016-218075 Arantes Carina C Department of Cardiology, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Braga, Portugal. Ferreira Nuno N Department of Cardiology, Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia Espinho, Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto, Portugal. Ponte Marta M Department of Cardiology, Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia Espinho (...) , Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto, Portugal. Fonseca Conceição C Department of Cardiology, Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia Espinho, Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto, Portugal. eng Case Reports Journal Article 2016 11 22 England BMJ Case Rep 101526291 1757-790X IM Aorta, Thoracic abnormalities diagnostic imaging Aortic Arch Syndromes complications diagnostic imaging Humans Hypertension etiology Male Middle Aged Conflicts of Interest: None declared. 2016 11 24 6 0 2016 11 24 6 0 2017 3 4 6 0 epublish 27879308

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2016 BMJ case reports

165. Body Mass Index and the Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study Among Adults in Beijing, China (PubMed)

Body Mass Index and the Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study Among Adults in Beijing, China Studies on the association between body mass index (BMI) and death risk among patients with hypertension are limited, and the results are inconsistent. We investigated the association between BMI and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in a population of Beijing, China.We (...) conducted a prospective cohort study of 2535 patients with hypertension aged 40 to 91 years from Beijing, China. Participants with a history of CVD at baseline were excluded from analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of BMI stratification with CVD and all-cause mortality.During a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, 486 deaths were identified, including 233 cases of CVD death. The multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios for all-cause

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2016 Journal of Epidemiology

166. Coeliac disease as a potential cause of idiopathic portal hypertension: a case report (PubMed)

Coeliac disease as a potential cause of idiopathic portal hypertension: a case report Idiopathic portal hypertension is a disorder that has various clinical features. It is mostly characterized by bleeding oesophageal varices, obvious splenomegaly, anaemia and, occasionally, jaundice and ascites. Here we described an interesting case of idiopathic portal hypertension caused by coeliac disease in a 38-year-old woman. By putting this patient on a gluten-free diet, liver function tests became (...) normal and portal vein diameter returned to normal range. This report indicates that, in coeliac disease, repetitive stimulation by antigens along the portal vein-and immune responses to them-can result in the development of idiopathic portal hypertension.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

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2016 Gastroenterology report

167. Central Artery Stiffness in Hypertension and Aging: A Problem with Cause and Consequence (PubMed)

Central Artery Stiffness in Hypertension and Aging: A Problem with Cause and Consequence 26846637 2016 06 29 2018 11 13 1524-4571 118 3 2016 Feb 05 Circulation research Circ. Res. Central Artery Stiffness in Hypertension and Aging: A Problem With Cause and Consequence. 379-81 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.307722 Humphrey Jay D JD From the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT (J.D.H.); Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (D.G.H (...) States R01 HL125865 HL NHLBI NIH HHS United States R01 HL105294 HL NHLBI NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural United States Circ Res 0047103 0009-7330 IM Age Factors Aging Animals Arterial Pressure Arteries physiopathology Biomechanical Phenomena Humans Hypertension physiopathology Models, Cardiovascular Risk Factors Vascular Stiffness arteries blood pressure hypertension pulse wave analysis vascular stiffness 2016 2 6 6 0 2016 2 6 6 0 2016 6 30 6 0 ppublish

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2016 Circulation Research

168. Hypertension Does Not Alter the Increase in Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity Caused by Moderate Cold Exposure (PubMed)

Hypertension Does Not Alter the Increase in Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity Caused by Moderate Cold Exposure Exposure to cold increases blood pressure and may contribute to higher wintertime cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive people, but the mechanisms are not well-established. While hypertension does not alter responses of vagally-mediated heart rate variability to cold, it is not known how hypertension modifies baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and blood pressure variability (...) during cold exposure. Our study assessed this among untreated hypertensive men during short-term exposure comparable to habitual winter time circumstances in subarctic areas. We conducted a population-based recruitment of 24 untreated hypertensive and 17 men without hypertension (age 55-65 years) who underwent a whole-body cold exposure (-10°C, wind 3 m/s, winter clothes, 15 min, standing). Electrocardiogram and continuous blood pressure were measured to compute spectral powers of systolic blood

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2016 Frontiers in physiology

169. Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Augments Lung Injury and Airway Reactivity Caused by Ozone Exposure (PubMed)

Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Augments Lung Injury and Airway Reactivity Caused by Ozone Exposure Ozone (O3)-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O3 can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O3-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity (...) (10.0% O2), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1ppm O3 or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O3 exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O3 exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O3 exposure led to increased inflammation

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2016 Toxicology and applied pharmacology

170. Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats Causes an Imbalance in the Asymmetric Dimethylarginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway and ROS Activity: A Possible Synergistic Mechanism for Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension? (PubMed)

Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats Causes an Imbalance in the Asymmetric Dimethylarginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway and ROS Activity: A Possible Synergistic Mechanism for Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension? Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) are associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, may contribute to HAPH. This study assessed changes in the ADMA/NO pathway

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2016 Pulmonary medicine

171. Amyloidosis: an unusual cause of portal hypertension (PubMed)

Amyloidosis: an unusual cause of portal hypertension Amyloidosis comprises a group of diseases that occurs in five to nine cases per million patients per year worldwide irrespective of its classification. Although the hepatic involvement in primary amyloidosis is frequent, the clinical manifestations of liver amyloidosis are mild or even absent. The authors report the case of an aged man who complained of diffuse abdominal pain and marked weight loss and presented clinical signs of hepatopathy (...) . Clinical workup revealed portal hypertension with ascites, hemorrhoids, and esophageal varices. The laboratory tests showed the cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, renal insufficiency and massive proteinuria accompanied by the presence of serum pike of monoclonal lambda light chain protein. The outcome was unfavorable, and the patient died. The autopsy findings revealed the diagnosis of amyloidosis predominantly involving the liver and kidneys. The bone marrow examination

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2016 Autopsy & Case Reports

172. Association of resting heart rate and hypertension stages on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Koreans: the Kangwha Cohort Study (PubMed)

Association of resting heart rate and hypertension stages on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Koreans: the Kangwha Cohort Study Elevated resting heart rate and hypertension independently increase the risk of mortality. However, their combined effect on mortality in stages of hypertension according to updated clinical guidelines among elderly population is unclear.We followed a cohort of 6100 residents (2600 males and 3500 females) of Kangwha County, Korea, ranging from 55 (...) to 99 year-olds as of March 1985, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for 20.8 years until December 31, 2005. Mortality data were collected through telephone calls and visits (to 1991), and were confirmed by death record matching with the National Statistical Office (1992-2005). Hazard ratios were calculated for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by resting heart rate and hypertension defined by Eighth Joint National Committee criteria using the Cox proportional hazard model after

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2016 Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC

173. Congenital lobar emphysema: A rare cause of hypertension (PubMed)

Congenital lobar emphysema: A rare cause of hypertension Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare disease, which is characterized by pulmoner hyperinflation. Depending on the degree of bronchial obstruction, the clinical presentation may be variable. We report a rare case with congenital lobar emphysema in a 38-days-old male infant who presented with severe respiratory distress and hypertension. Air trapping in the left upper lung and significant mediastinal shift to the right were observed (...) on the chest x-ray. Emphysematous changes were detected on the thorax computed tomography and considered as congenital lobar emphysema. The upper left lobectomy was successfully performed by pediatric surgeons. On postoperative follow up, no sign of respiratory distress occured and the patient was normotensive. In this report, a case with congenital lobar emphysema, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress and hypertension is discussed.

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2016 Saudi medical journal

174. ROMK expression remains unaltered in a mouse model of familial hyperkalemic hypertension caused by the CUL3Δ403‐459 mutation (PubMed)

ROMK expression remains unaltered in a mouse model of familial hyperkalemic hypertension caused by the CUL3Δ403‐459 mutation Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt) is a rare inherited form of salt-dependent hypertension caused by mutations in proteins that regulate the renal Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC Mutations in four genes have been reported to cause FHHt including CUL3 (Cullin3) that encodes a component of a RING E3 ligase. Cullin-3 binds to WNK kinase-bound KLHL3 (the substrate (...) recognition subunit of the ubiquitin ligase complex) to promote ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of WNK kinases. Deletion of exon 9 from CUL3 (affecting residues 403-459, CUL3(Δ403-459)) causes a severe form of FHHt (PHA2E) that is recapitulated closely in a knock-in mouse model. The loss of functionality of CUL3(Δ403-459) and secondary accumulation of WNK kinases causes substantial NCC activation. This accounts for the hypertension in FHHt but the origin of the hyperkalemia is less clear. Hence

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2016 Physiological reports

175. Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model (PubMed)

Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans (...) blood vessels by TB cells. In summary, this animal model of placental HPX identifies several aspects of abnormal placental development, including increased TB proliferation and decreased migration and invasion of TBs into the spiral arteries, the consequences of which are associated with maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction.© 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

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2016 Biology of reproduction

176. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant (PubMed)

Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who (...) presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma.

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2016 AJP Reports

177. Free-Floating, Pigmented Cysts in the Anterior Chamber Causing Ocular Hypertension (PubMed)

Free-Floating, Pigmented Cysts in the Anterior Chamber Causing Ocular Hypertension The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and histopathological features of a 36-year-old male with hundreds of recurrent, unilateral, free-floating, pigmented cysts in the anterior chamber causing ocular hypertension.The patient was referred to ocular oncology for blurry vision of the right eye and was found to have myriad pigmented, free-floating cysts in the anterior chamber and heavy pigmentation

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2016 Ocular oncology and pathology

178. miR-138 and miR-25 Downregulate MCU, Causing Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension's Cancer Phenotype. (PubMed)

miR-138 and miR-25 Downregulate MCU, Causing Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension's Cancer Phenotype. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an obstructive vasculopathy characterized by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation, migration, and apoptosis resistance. This cancer-like phenotype is promoted by increased cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyto), aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial fission.To determine how changes in mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex (MCUC

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2016 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

179. Blood pressure targets for the treatment of people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Blood pressure targets for the treatment of people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people (...) with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown.To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/ 90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease).The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following

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2017 Cochrane

180. Blood pressure targets for hypertension in older adults. (PubMed)

Blood pressure targets for hypertension in older adults. Eight out of 10 major antihypertensive trials in older adults attempted to achieve a target systolic blood pressure (BP) less than 160 mmHg. Collectively these trials demonstrated benefit for treatment, as compared to no treatment, for an older adult with BP greater than 160 mmHg. However an even lower BP target of less than 140 mmHg is commonly applied to all age groups. At the present time it is not known whether a lower or higher BP (...) target is associated with better cardiovascular outcomes in older adults.To assess the effects of a higher (less than 150 to 160/95 to 105 mmHg) BP target compared to the lower BP target of less than 140/90 mmHg in hypertensive adults 65 years of age or older.The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to February 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health

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2017 Cochrane

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