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Hypertension Causes

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101. TGF-β activation by bone marrow-derived thrombospondin-1 causes Schistosoma- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PubMed)

TGF-β activation by bone marrow-derived thrombospondin-1 causes Schistosoma- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an obstructive disease of the precapillary pulmonary arteries. Schistosomiasis-associated PAH shares altered vascular TGF-β signalling with idiopathic, heritable and autoimmune-associated etiologies; moreover, TGF-β blockade can prevent experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pre-clinical models. TGF-β is regulated at the level

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2017 Nature communications

102. Induced vomiting for attention seeking and secondary gain: An unusual cause of pseudo-resistant hypertension (PubMed)

Induced vomiting for attention seeking and secondary gain: An unusual cause of pseudo-resistant hypertension In patients with complex psychosocial history presenting with resistant hypertension, observed therapy should be implemented early on to avoid unnecessary investigations and delayed diagnosis.

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2017 JRSM open

103. Hypertension Caused by Lenvatinib and Everolimus in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (PubMed)

Hypertension Caused by Lenvatinib and Everolimus in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Multikinase inhibitors (MKI) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors prolong progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by reducing angiogenesis and tumor growth. In this regard, the MKI lenvatinib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus proved effective when applied alone, but more effective when they were administered (...) combined. Recently, both drugs were included in clinical trials, resulting in international clinical guidelines for the treatment of mRCC. In May 2016, lenvatinib was approved by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the use in combination with everolimus, as treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma following one prior antiangiogenic therapy. A major problem of treating mRCC with lenvatinib and everolimus is the serious adverse event (AE) of arterial hypertension. During the treatment

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

104. Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension (PubMed)

Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension We describe a patient presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia who was ultimately diagnosed with liquorice- induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. This rare cause of secondary hypertension illustrates the importance of a methodical approach to the assessment of hypertension.

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2017 JRSM open

105. Causes of peripheral cytopenia in hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly (PubMed)

Causes of peripheral cytopenia in hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly The clinical data of 183 patients with hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly complicated by peripheral cytopenia were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the causes of peripheral cytopenia, as well as the proportion of the causes in these patients. All patients underwent splenectomy. Before operation, these patients had one or more types of peripheral cytopenia (cumulative cytopenia (...) to a combination of factors, and in 3.6% [14/390] it had nothing to do with the hypersplenism. Thus, hypersplenism is a major cause, but not the only cause, of peripheral cytopenia in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly, and splenectormy is an effective treatment for these patients. Impact statement For a long time, the development of peripheral cytopenias as a complication to cirrhotic portal hypertension has been attributed to hypersplenism; however, this has never been fully

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2017 Experimental Biology and Medicine

106. Revascularization in a 17-Year-Old Girl with Neurofibromatosis and Severe Hypertension Caused by Renal Artery Stenosis (PubMed)

Revascularization in a 17-Year-Old Girl with Neurofibromatosis and Severe Hypertension Caused by Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis caused by neurofibromatosis is a rare cause of renovascular hypertension. This hypertension can develop during childhood and is one of the leading causes of poor outcome. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who was incidentally diagnosed with severe hypertension. During her examination for secondary hypertension, we reached a diagnosis (...) evaluation. We think that percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty can be effective in select patients who have neurofibromatosis type 1 and refractory hypertension caused by renal artery stenosis.

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2017 Texas Heart Institute Journal

107. Drug-induced causes of secondary hypertension (PubMed)

Drug-induced causes of secondary hypertension 28936443 2018 11 13 2305-5839 5 17 2017 Sep Annals of translational medicine Ann Transl Med Drug-induced causes of secondary hypertension. 349 10.21037/atm.2017.06.16 Aronow Wilbert S WS Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA. eng Editorial China Ann Transl Med 101617978 2305-5839 Conflicts of Interest: The author has no conflicts of interest to declare. 2017 9 23 6 (...) 0 2017 9 25 6 0 2017 9 25 6 1 ppublish 28936443 10.21037/atm.2017.06.16 atm-05-17-349 PMC5599270 J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Mar;54(3):227-46 23294014 Hypertension. 2000 Sep;36(3):461-5 10988282 Hypertension. 2011 Nov;58(5):811-7 21968750 Hypertension. 2008 Jun;51(6):1403-19 18391085 Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(12):2376-81 24931259 JAMA. 1994 Sep 14;272(10):781-6 8078142 Int Urol Nephrol. 2013 Jun;45(3):885-92 23065431 Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1113-26 21880846 J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011

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2017 Annals of Translational Medicine

108. Atlantoaxial Misalignment Causes High Blood Pressure in Rats: A Novel Hypertension Model (PubMed)

Atlantoaxial Misalignment Causes High Blood Pressure in Rats: A Novel Hypertension Model Atlantoaxial disorders are often correlated with hypertension in practice. In order to study the relationship between atlantoaxial disorder and hypertension, we attempted to construct an animal model. In this work, we presented an animal model where their atlantoaxial joints were misaligned. We investigated the changes of blood pressure before and after treatments of the modeled rats. We had the following (...) , we concluded that we successfully constructed cervical atlantoaxial disorder models in rats that showed hypertension symptom. However, the underlying mechanism connecting atlantoaxial disorder and hypertension still requires further study.

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2017 BioMed research international

109. Severe pulmonary hypertension due to combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: another cause of death among smokers (PubMed)

Severe pulmonary hypertension due to combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: another cause of death among smokers In 2005, the combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) was first defined as a distinct entity, which comprised centrilobular or paraseptal emphysema in the upper pulmonary lobes, and fibrosis in the lower lobes accompanied by reduced diffused capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Recently, the fibrosis associated with the connective tissue disease was also (...) included in the diagnosis of CPFE, although the exposure to tobacco, coal, welding, agrochemical compounds, and tire manufacturing are the most frequent causative agents. This entity characteristically presents reduced DLCO with preserved lung volumes and severe pulmonary hypertension, which is not observed in emphysema and fibrosis alone. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a history of heavy tobacco smoking abuse, who developed progressive dyspnea, severe pulmonary hypertension, and cor

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2017 Autopsy & Case Reports

110. Linking Vascular Remodeling and Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Is There a Common Root Cause? (PubMed)

Linking Vascular Remodeling and Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Is There a Common Root Cause? 28665225 2018 02 21 2018 11 13 1535-4989 57 1 2017 07 American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. Linking Vascular Remodeling and Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Is There a Common Root Cause? 15-17 10.1165/rcmb.2017-0102ED Thistlethwaite Patricia A PA 1 Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery University of California, San Diego (...) La Jolla, California. eng Editorial United States Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 8917225 1044-1549 0 Transcription Factors IM Animals Gene Expression Regulation Humans Hypertension, Pulmonary genetics metabolism pathology Inflammation genetics metabolism pathology Transcription Factors genetics metabolism Vascular Remodeling genetics 2017 7 1 6 0 2017 7 1 6 0 2018 2 22 6 0 ppublish 28665225 10.1165/rcmb.2017-0102ED PMC5516285 Oncogene. 2015 Apr 16;34(16):2022-31 24909161 Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011 Dec

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2017 American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology

111. Hypertension in Obese Black Women is Not Caused by Increased Sympathetic Vascular Tone (PubMed)

Hypertension in Obese Black Women is Not Caused by Increased Sympathetic Vascular Tone Black women have one of the highest prevalence rates of hypertension and obesity in the United States. We previously reported that sympathetic activation induced by obesity is a significant contributor to hypertension in white patients. It is unknown whether sympathetic activity similarly contributes to hypertension in obese black women.We studied 42 obese women (16 white, body mass index 36±4 kg/m2, 44 (...) % with hypertension; 26 black, body mass index 35±4 kg/m2, 46% with hypertension). Antihypertensive medications were discontinued for 2 weeks before the day of the study. All patients underwent complete autonomic blockade with trimethaphan at a dosage of 4 mg/min. Resting sympathetic activity determined from muscle sympathetic nerve recordings was similar between obese black women with hypertension and those with normotension. In whites, sympathetic activity was elevated in obese patients with hypertension

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2017 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

112. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for pulmonary hypertension. (PubMed)

'Summary of findings' tables.We included 36 studies with 2999 participants (with pulmonary hypertension from all causes) in the final review. Trials were conducted for 14 weeks on average, with some as long as 12 months. Two trials specifically included children.Nineteen trials included group 1 PAH participants. PAH participants treated with PDE5 inhibitors were more likely to improve their WHO functional class (odds ratio (OR) 8.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.95 to 18.72; 4 trials, 282 (...) Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a group of complex and heterogenous conditions, characterised by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, and which left untreated leads to right-heart failure and death. PH includes World Health Organisation (WHO) Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); Group 2 consists of PH due to left-heart disease (PH-LHD); Group 3 comprises PH as a result of lung diseases or hypoxia, or both; Group 4

2019 Cochrane

113. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults 60 years or older. (PubMed)

of antihypertensive treatment for hypertension in this age group, as well as separately for people 60 to 79 years old and people 80 years or older.Primary objective• To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug treatment as compared with placebo or no treatment on all-cause mortality in people 60 years and older with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic hypertensionSecondary objectives• To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug treatment as compared with placebo or no treatment on cardiovascular (...) for adult patients (≥ 60 years old) with hypertension defined as blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg.Outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality; cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality; coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality; and withdrawal due to adverse effects. We modified the definition of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity to exclude transient ischaemic attacks when possible.This update includes one additional trial (MRC-TMH 1985). Sixteen

2019 Cochrane

114. A new approach to identifying hypertension-associated genes in the mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. (PubMed)

indicate that a relationship exists between these genes and the cause and/or worsening of hypertension in SHR and SHRSP.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. (...) A new approach to identifying hypertension-associated genes in the mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in humans who live a modern lifestyle. Alongside more effective care, clarification of the genetic background of hypertension is urgently required. Gene expression in mesenteric resistance arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) and two types

2019 Journal of Hypertension

115. First-line drugs inhibiting the renin angiotensin system versus other first-line antihypertensive drug classes for hypertension. (PubMed)

First-line drugs inhibiting the renin angiotensin system versus other first-line antihypertensive drug classes for hypertension. This is the first update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors include angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and renin inhibitors. They are widely prescribed for treatment of hypertension, especially for people with diabetes because of postulated advantages for reducing (...) diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite widespread use for hypertension, the efficacy and safety of RAS inhibitors compared to other antihypertensive drug classes remains unclear.To evaluate the benefits and harms of first-line RAS inhibitors compared to other first-line antihypertensive drugs in people with hypertension.The Cochrane Hypertension Group Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to November 2017

2018 Cochrane

116. Blood pressure targets for the treatment of people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Blood pressure targets for the treatment of people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This is the first update of the review published in 2017. Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure to below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase (...) adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown.To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease

2018 Cochrane

117. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

and the related neuroimaging signs. Furthermore, no secondary cause of intracranial hypertension is apparent. IIH can either be self-limited or have a lifelong chronic course. Wall M. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Clin. 2010;28:593-617. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908600/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20637991?tool=bestpractice.com Shah VA, Kardon RH, Lee AG, et al. Long-term follow-up of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the Iowa experience. Neurology. 2008;70:634-640 (...) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary The most popular hypothesis is that idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome of reduced cerebrospinal fluid absorption. Clinical features include headaches, pulse-synchronous

2018 BMJ Best Practice

118. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

and include dyspnoea on exertion, fatigue, and a loud pulmonary component of the second heart sound. Diagnosis of exclusion. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterisation can diagnose pulmonary hypertension. Laboratory tests and imaging studies can rule out known causes of pulmonary hypertension. General supportive therapy includes oral anticoagulants, diuretics, supplemental oxygen, and digoxin. Targeted treatment options include parenteral and inhaled prostanoids, oral (...) (PVR) and, ultimately, right ventricular failure and death. Humbert M, Sitbon O, Simmonnau G. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1425-1436. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15459304?tool=bestpractice.com It is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure >25 mmHg at rest with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <15 mmHg and PVR >3 Woods units, without a known cause. Badesch DB, Champion HC, Sanchez MA, et al. Diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial

2018 BMJ Best Practice

119. Essential hypertension

for all patients: weight loss, exercise, decreased sodium intake, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and moderation of alcohol consumption. Choice of drug therapy is often driven by considerations related to comorbid disease, but achievement of blood pressure goal may be accomplished with a variety of therapeutic agent(s). Definition Essential hypertension is defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mmHg, with no secondary cause identified. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (...) Essential hypertension Essential hypertension - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Essential hypertension Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Typically diagnosed by screening of an asymptomatic individual. Treatment of uncontrolled hypertension reduces the risks of mortality and of cardiac, vascular, renal, and cerebrovascular complications. Lifestyle changes are recommended

2018 BMJ Best Practice

120. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

and the related neuroimaging signs. Furthermore, no secondary cause of intracranial hypertension is apparent. IIH can either be self-limited or have a lifelong chronic course. Wall M. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Clin. 2010;28:593-617. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908600/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20637991?tool=bestpractice.com Shah VA, Kardon RH, Lee AG, et al. Long-term follow-up of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the Iowa experience. Neurology. 2008;70:634-640 (...) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary The most popular hypothesis is that idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome of reduced cerebrospinal fluid absorption. Clinical features include headaches, pulse-synchronous

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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