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Hypertension Causes

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21. Nonlinear dose-response association between body mass index and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension: A meta-analysis.

Nonlinear dose-response association between body mass index and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension: A meta-analysis. The present study examined the dose-response association of body mass index (BMI) and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with existing hypertension.A systematic search was done using PubMed and Scopus, from their inception up to January 25, 2017. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies reporting risk estimates (...) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for three or more quantitative categories of BMI were included. Studies which reported results as continuous also were included. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated using random effects models.Of initial 34,938 identified studies, 14 studies with a total of 489,222 hypertensive patients, involving 41,872 cases of all-cause mortality and 2,123 cases of cardiovascular mortality were included. A five-unit increment in BMI was associated with an 8

2018 Obesity research & clinical practice

22. Drug nonadherence is a common but often overlooked cause of hypertensive urgency and emergency at the emergency department. (PubMed)

Drug nonadherence is a common but often overlooked cause of hypertensive urgency and emergency at the emergency department. Over 70% of patients who visit the emergency department with a hypertensive emergency or a hypertensive urgency have previously been diagnosed with hypertension. Drug nonadherence is assumed to play an important role in development of hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency, but exact numbers are lacking. We aimed to retrospectively compare characteristics (...) of patients with hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency and to prospectively quantify the attribution of drug nonadherence.We retrospectively analysed clinical data including information on nonadherence obtained by treating physicians of patients with SBP at least 180 mmHg and DBP at least 110 mmHg visiting the emergency department between 2012 and 2015. We prospectively studied drug adherence among patients admitted to the emergency department with severely elevated BP by measuring plasma drug

2018 Journal of Hypertension

23. Long‐Term Exposure of Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension by Impaired Renal D1 Receptor–Mediated Sodium Excretion via Upregulation of G‐Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase Type 4 Expression in Sprague‐Dawley Rats (PubMed)

Long‐Term Exposure of Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension by Impaired Renal D1 Receptor–Mediated Sodium Excretion via Upregulation of G‐Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase Type 4 Expression in Sprague‐Dawley Rats Epidemiological evidence supports an important association between air pollution exposure and hypertension. However, the mechanisms are not clear.Our present study found that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes hypertension and impairs renal (...) role in the pathogenesis of PM2.5-induced hypertension.© 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

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2018 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

24. PULMONARY HYPERTENSION ARISING FROM LEFT HEART DISEASE CAUSES INTRAPULMONARY VENOUS ARTERIALIZATION IN RATS (PubMed)

PULMONARY HYPERTENSION ARISING FROM LEFT HEART DISEASE CAUSES INTRAPULMONARY VENOUS ARTERIALIZATION IN RATS 29245197 2018 11 13 1097-685X 155 1 2018 Jan The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. Pulmonary hypertension arising from left heart disease causes intrapulmonary venous arterialization in rats. 281-282 S0022-5223(17)31789-0 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.08.028 Katz Michael G MG Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York

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2018 The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery

25. Takayasu arteritis a cause of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy: a case report (PubMed)

Takayasu arteritis a cause of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy: a case report Takayasu arteritis is a rare, chronic, granulomatous systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology and a few cases have been reported in pregnancy. In pregnancies concomitant with Takayasu arteritis or after diagnosis, Takayasu arteritis negatively affects pregnancy by increasing 13-fold the odds of complications such as hypertensive disorders. The best recommendations in this scenario are still to be made.We present (...) a case of 21-year-old, gravid 1, Mexican woman of Mestizo descent with chronic hypertension diagnosed since she was 15-years old who presented severe hypertension during pregnancy (early second trimester); the diagnosis of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was ruled out requiring first-line and second-line antihypertensive therapy without serious associated maternal or fetal morbidity.Takayasu arteritis and pregnancy play an important role in maternal and fetal outcomes. Efforts should be made

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2018 Journal of medical case reports

26. Bilateral Obstructive Uropathy Caused by Congenital Bladder Diverticulum Presenting as Hypertensive Retinopathy (PubMed)

Bilateral Obstructive Uropathy Caused by Congenital Bladder Diverticulum Presenting as Hypertensive Retinopathy A congenital bladder diverticulum (CBD) is caused by inherent muscular weakness instead of obstruction of the bladder outlet. The major clinical conditions are recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and voiding dysfunction. This report describes a 15-year-old male adolescent who developed sudden visual disturbance resulting from hypertensive retinopathy. The cause of hypertension (...) was bilateral obstructive uropathy caused by enlarged paraureteral bladder diverticula. After the non-functioning right kidney and ureter and the bilateral diverticula were removed, the left ureter was reimplanted in the bladder. Pathologic findings showed chronic pyelonephritis and partial loss of the bladder musculature in the diverticular wall. This observation indicates that dilated CBD can cause latent UTI, ureteral obstruction, hydronephrosis, and secondary hypertension.© 2018 The Korean Academy

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2018 Journal of Korean medical science

27. Atrial Septal Defect as Unexpected Cause of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension (PubMed)

Atrial Septal Defect as Unexpected Cause of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Methamphetamine abuse is an increasingly prevalent cause of pulmonary artery hypertension in the United States. Conversely, an atrial septal defect rarely presents late as pulmonary artery hypertension. We present the case of a 44-year-old methamphetamine abuser who had a 3-month history of worsening fatigue and near-syncope. She had elevated cardiac enzyme levels and right-sided heart strain. Angiographic findings (...) suggested methamphetamine-induced pulmonary artery hypertension; however, we later heard S2 irregularities that raised suspicion of an atrial septal defect. Ultimately, the diagnosis was pulmonary artery hypertension and a large secundum atrial septal defect with left-to-right flow. One year after defect closure, the patient was asymptomatic. In addition to discussing this unexpected case of a secundum atrial septal defect masquerading as methamphetamine-induced pulmonary artery hypertension, we briefly

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2018 Texas Heart Institute Journal

28. Does Masked Hypertension Cause Early Left Ventricular Impairment in Youth? (PubMed)

Does Masked Hypertension Cause Early Left Ventricular Impairment in Youth? Objectives: Masked hypertension (MH) is not uncommon in the youth and may increase risks of long-term cardiovascular impairment. However, little is known about the subclinical heart damage in this group of patients. Currently, 3-layer speckle tracking imaging based on two-dimensional echocardiography is feasible to detect the early signs of myocardial damage. We therefore aimed to investigate whether subtle changes

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2018 Frontiers in pediatrics

29. Prenatal androgen exposure causes hypertension and gut microbiota dysbiosis (PubMed)

Prenatal androgen exposure causes hypertension and gut microbiota dysbiosis Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has (...) been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hypertension seen in PCOS has early origins in gut dysbiosis caused by in utero exposure to excess androgen. We investigated this hypothesis with a model of prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure and maternal hyperandrogenemia by single-injection of testosterone cypionate or sesame oil vehicle (VEH) to pregnant dams in late gestation. We

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2018 Gut microbes

30. Torsion of a wandering spleen as a cause of portal hypertension and mesenteric varices: a rare aetiology (PubMed)

Torsion of a wandering spleen as a cause of portal hypertension and mesenteric varices: a rare aetiology A wandering spleen is a condition characterized by excessive splenic mobility due to the mal-development or the laxity of its ligaments that leads to migration from its normal anatomical location. This condition renders its long mobile vascular pedicle liable to torsion and occasional infarction. Herein, we report a case of a 27-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with acute abdominal (...) pain and a tender right-sided pelvi-abdominal mass. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a torted, infarcted wandering spleen with portal hypertension and mesenteric varices that mandated an emergency splenectomy. Although there are a few reported cases describing the association of wandering spleen with portal hypertension and fundal varices, cases of mesenteric varices are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this case is considered the third reported case of a wandering spleen

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2018 Journal of surgical case reports

31. Uncontrolled hypertension increases risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in US adults: the NHANES III Linked Mortality Study (PubMed)

Uncontrolled hypertension increases risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in US adults: the NHANES III Linked Mortality Study Clinical trials had provided evidence for the benefit effect of antihypertensive treatments in preventing future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; however, the association between hypertension, whether treated/untreated or controlled/uncontrolled and risk of mortality in US population has been poorly understood. A total of 13,947 US adults aged ≥18 (...) years enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to conduct this study. Mortality outcome events included all-cause, CVD-specific, heart disease-specific and cerebrovascular disease-specific deaths, which were obtained from linked 2011 National Death Index (NDI) files. During a median follow-up of 19.1 years, there were 3,550 all-cause deaths, including 1,027 CVD deaths. Compared with normotensives, treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients were

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2018 Scientific reports

32. Prorenin independently causes hypertension and renal and cardiac fibrosis in cyp1a1-prorenin transgenic rats (PubMed)

Prorenin independently causes hypertension and renal and cardiac fibrosis in cyp1a1-prorenin transgenic rats Plasma prorenin is commonly elevated in diabetic patients and appears to predict the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, the pathological role of prorenin is unclear. In the present study, a transgenic, inducible, hepatic prorenin-overexpressing rat model was generated and the effect of prorenin in organ injury was examined. Four groups of rats (cyp1a1 prorenin transgenic male (...) in mRNA contents of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), TGFβ1, PAI-1, and collagen in the heart tissue. Furthermore, renal protein levels of p-NF-κB-p65 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAPDH oxidases, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane (8-IP), p-ERK, p-β-catenin, and p-Akt were dramatically increased in prorenin overexpressing rats. These results indicate that prorenin, without being converted into renin, causes

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2018 Clinical science (London, England : 1979)

33. Nephron‐Specific Disruption of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Causes Hypertension and Impaired Salt Excretion (PubMed)

Nephron‐Specific Disruption of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Causes Hypertension and Impaired Salt Excretion In vitro studies suggest that nephron nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) modulates tubule Na+ transport.To assess nephron NOS3 relevance in vivo, knockout (KO) mice with doxycycline-inducible nephron-wide deletion of NOS3 were generated. During 1 week of salt loading, KO mice, as compared with controls, had higher arterial pressure and Na+ retention, a tendency towards reduced plasma renin

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2018 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

34. Esophageal Ulcers in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Rare Cause of Hematemesis in the Setting of Portal Hypertension and Esophageal Varices (PubMed)

Esophageal Ulcers in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Rare Cause of Hematemesis in the Setting of Portal Hypertension and Esophageal Varices Our patient with primary biliary cholangitis, previously termed as primary biliary cirrhosis, presented with an unexpected and unusual cause of hematemesis in the form of multiple esophageal ulcers in-between variceal columns. Given that upon endoscopic examination, the esophageal ulcers were found to bleeding instead of the varices; they should

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2018 Gastroenterology research

35. A Case of Recurrent Thrombotic Microangiopathy Caused by Hypertensive Urgency (PubMed)

A Case of Recurrent Thrombotic Microangiopathy Caused by Hypertensive Urgency A 26-year-old man presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for four days. His medical history was significant for hypertension and end-stage renal disease managed with hemodialysis. He had been noncompliant with the antihypertensive regimen which included nifedipine, hydralazine, and spironolactone. At presentation, his blood pressure was 231/123 mmHg. Laboratory workup showed white (...) microangiopathy secondary to severe hypertension and was started on intravenous nicardipine. With appropriate blood pressure control, hematological parameters improved with normalization of the platelet count within 10 days. Notably, the patient had one similar episode of hypertension-induced thrombotic microangiopathy within a period of the last three months and ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13) activity was normal on his previous admission.

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2018 Cureus

36. In-the-bag multifocal intraocular lens causing pigment dispersion and refractory secondary ocular hypertension (PubMed)

In-the-bag multifocal intraocular lens causing pigment dispersion and refractory secondary ocular hypertension Pigment dispersion and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with sulcus placed hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) are described and are rare with in-the-bag IOLs. We report a case of a young lady with elevated IOP and pigment dispersion in one eye following an uneventful phacoemulsification and multifocal IOL implantation. The eye had eccentric capsulorrhexis and localized

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

37. Accessory Hepatic Lobe: A Rare Cause of Prehepatic Portal Hypertension in a Child (PubMed)

Accessory Hepatic Lobe: A Rare Cause of Prehepatic Portal Hypertension in a Child Accessory hepatic lobe is noted as and considered a rare disease in children. It can manifest with various symptoms and complications depending on the location, volume, type and position of the disease as presented on a child. The patient presented as a 14-month-old girl who was seen with a notable hepatosplenomegaly and portal hypertension. A diagnosis was made after taking an extensive medical history (...) , observation and radiological examinations. The formal diagnosis was a prehepatic portal hypertension associated with accessory hepatic lobe.

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2018 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition

38. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension - a unrecognized cause of high-shear high-flow haemostatic defects (otherwise referred to as acquired von Willebrand syndrome) in children. (PubMed)

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension - a unrecognized cause of high-shear high-flow haemostatic defects (otherwise referred to as acquired von Willebrand syndrome) in children. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is reported in high-flow high-shear congenital cardiac disorders. We hypothesized that the narrowed pulmonary vasculature in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) may induce AVWS. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of children with IPAH. Patients

2018 British journal of haematology

39. Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency Causes an Endothelial-Dependent Form of Hypertension. (PubMed)

Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency Causes an Endothelial-Dependent Form of Hypertension. Primary hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Insights obtained from the study of rare Mendelian forms of hypertension have been invaluable in elucidating the mechanisms causing primary hypertension and development of antihypertensive therapies. Endothelial cells play a key role in the regulation of blood pressure; however, a Mendelian form (...) of hypertension that is primarily due to endothelial dysfunction has not yet been described. Here, we show that the urea cycle disorder, argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD), can manifest as a Mendelian form of endothelial-dependent hypertension. Using data from a human clinical study, a mouse model with endothelial-specific deletion of argininosuccinate lyase (Asl), and in vitro studies in human aortic endothelial cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells from individuals

2018 American Journal of Human Genetics

40. A one-year risk score to predict all-cause mortality in hypertensive inpatients. (PubMed)

A one-year risk score to predict all-cause mortality in hypertensive inpatients. The aim of this study was to construct and internally validate a scoring system to estimate the probability of death in hypertensive inpatients. Existing predictive models do not meet all the indications for clinical application because they were constructed in patients enrolled in clinical trials and did not use the recommended statistical methodology. This cohort study comprised 302 hypertensive patients (...) hospitalized between 2015 and 2017 in Spain. The main variable was time-to-death (all-cause mortality). Secondary variables (potential predictors of the model) were: age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), physical activity, diet and quality of life. A Cox model was constructed and adapted to a points system to predict mortality one year from admission. The model was internally validated by bootstrapping, assessing both discrimination and calibration. The system

2018 European journal of internal medicine

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