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Hypertension Causes

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35361. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. (PubMed)

. Major cardiovascular events were reduced (relative risk, 0.68). For deaths from all causes, the relative risk was 0.87.In persons aged 60 years and over with isolated systolic hypertension, antihypertensive stepped-care drug treatment with low-dose chlorthalidone as step 1 medication reduced the incidence of total stroke by 36%, with 5-year absolute benefit of 30 events per 1000 participants. Major cardiovascular events were reduced, with 5-year absolute benefit of 55 events per 1000. (...) Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. To assess the ability of antihypertensive drug treatment to reduce the risk of nonfatal and fatal (total) stroke in isolated systolic hypertension.Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.Community-based ambulatory population in tertiary care centers.4736 persons

1991 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

35362. Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group. (PubMed)

Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group. To assess the effect of low-dose, diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event rates in older, non-insulin-treated diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), compared with nondiabetic patients.Double-blind, randomized (...) , placebo-controlled trial: the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP).Multiple clinical and support centers in the United States.A total of 4736 men and women aged 60 years and older at baseline with ISH (systolic blood pressure [BP], > or = 160 mm Hg; diastolic BP, <90 mm Hg) at baseline, 583 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients and 4149 nondiabetic patients (4 additional patients not so classifiable were randomized but not included in these analyses). Diabetes mellitus defined

1996 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

35363. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. (PubMed)

Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Despite treatment, there is often a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension than in normotensive individuals. Inadequate reduction of their blood pressure is a likely cause, but the optimum target blood pressure is not known. The impact of acetylsalicylic acid (...) (aspirin) has never been investigated in patients with hypertension. We aimed to assess the optimum target diastolic blood pressure and the potential benefit of a low dose of acetylsalicylic acid in the treatment of hypertension.18790 patients, from 26 countries, aged 50-80 years (mean 61.5 years) with hypertension and diastolic blood pressure between 100 mm Hg and 115 mm Hg (mean 105 mm Hg) were randomly assigned a target diastolic blood pressure. 6264 patients were allocated to the target pressure

1998 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

35364. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. (PubMed)

-cause mortality was not influenced (-14%; p = 0.22).Among elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension, antihypertensive drug treatment starting with nitrendipine reduces the rate of cardiovascular complications. Treatment of 1000 patients for 5 years with this type of regimen may prevent 29 strokes or 53 major cardiovascular endpoints. (...) Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Isolated systolic hypertension occurs in about 15% of people aged 60 years or older. In 1989, the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly investigated whether active treatment could reduce cardiovascular complications of isolated systolic hypertension. Fatal and non-fatal stroke

1997 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

35365. What could the possible causes be of a high urine protein creatinine ratio in a well controlled hypertensive who is asymptomatic and not diabetic and has normal blood renal function and a normal serum

What could the possible causes be of a high urine protein creatinine ratio in a well controlled hypertensive who is asymptomatic and not diabetic and has normal blood renal function and a normal serum What could the possible causes be of a high urine protein creatinine ratio in a well controlled hypertensive who is asymptomatic and not diabetic and has normal blood renal function and a normal serum albumin? - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title (...) @tripdatabase.com What could the possible causes be of a high urine protein creatinine ratio in a well controlled hypertensive who is asymptomatic and not diabetic and has normal blood renal function and a normal serum albumin? Unfortunately, we cannot answer this question. We searched the TRIP and Medline databases as well as the resources on chronic kidney disease in the NLH Specialist Library for Kidney Diseases, the Renal Association and the EDREN (Renal Unit of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh) websites

2007 TRIP Answers

35366. Comparison of the anti-hypertensive response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in intact and adrenal-demedullated spontaneously hypertensive rats. (PubMed)

lowered the blood pressure of SH-rats at low doses only, whereas propranolol evoked a pressor response in this model. 4 Whilst (+)-propranolol lowered the blood pressure of SHAD-rats only at a dose which caused myocardial depression, the anti-hypertensive response to (--)-propranolol did not parallel changes in heart rate and was preceded by a pressor response. 5 The results imply that adrenal catecholamine release contributes towards masking the anti-hypertensive effects of some beta-adrenoceptor (...) Comparison of the anti-hypertensive response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in intact and adrenal-demedullated spontaneously hypertensive rats. 1 The beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs atenolol, metoprolol, practolol, propranolol, timolol and oxrenolol (as racemates) were administered acutely at three dose levels (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mmol/kg i.p. or s.c.) to spontaneously hypertensive rats with intact adrenal glands (SH-rats) and following unilateral adrenalectomy and contralateral adrenal

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1980 British journal of pharmacology

35367. The effects of heparin treatment on hypertension and vascular lesions in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. (PubMed)

The effects of heparin treatment on hypertension and vascular lesions in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SPSHRs) were used to test the theory that heparin treatment may prevent the development of "malignant" hypertension and fibrinoid vascular lesions in the kidney. Subcutaneous injections of heparin (100 units/100 g body weight) were given every 8 hours over a 5-week period to 12 young (10-week-old) SPSHRs. A control group of 12 (...) is not caused by a significant reduction in blood volume or an acute hypotensive effect of heparin.

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1981 The American journal of pathology

35368. Comparison of enalapril and valsartan in cyclosporine A-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats on high-sodium diet (PubMed)

and urinary excretion of proteins at the end of the experiment. The activity of the renal kallikrein-kinin system was estimated by urinary kallikrein excretion. 4. CsA caused hypertension, impaired renal function and induced morphological nephrotoxicity with glomerular damage and interstitial fibrosis. Enalapril and the lower dose of valsartan attenuated the CsA-induced hypertension to the same extent, while the higher dose of valsartan totally abolished it. Icatibant did not reduce the antihypertensive (...) Comparison of enalapril and valsartan in cyclosporine A-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats on high-sodium diet 1. We compared the effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril and the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist valsartan in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. SHR (8 - 9 weeks old) on high-sodium diet were given CsA (5 mg kg(-1)d (-1) s.c. ) for 6

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2000 British journal of pharmacology

35369. The dual AngII/AVP receptor gene N119S/C163R variant exhibits sodium-induced dysfunction and cosegregates with salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rat model. (PubMed)

The dual AngII/AVP receptor gene N119S/C163R variant exhibits sodium-induced dysfunction and cosegregates with salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rat model. Essential hypertension is a prevalent complex polygenic disease and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in developed countries. Because of its complex and multifactorial nature, its genetic determinants still remain largely unknown. The Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (...) rat model exhibits impaired sodium handling, which is hypothesized to play a key role in the pathophysiology of polygenic hypertension. Thus, genes associated with renal regulation of salt and water balance are a priori likely candidates for a causative role in hypertension pathogenesis. The functional properties and renal-specific expression of the recently characterized AngII/AVP receptor suggest a putative modulator role in tubular sodium and fluid reabsorption. Based on these observations, we

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2002 Molecular Medicine

35370. Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. (PubMed)

Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. Isolated systolic hypertension occurs in around 8% of Chinese people aged 60 years or older. In 1988, the Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group started to investigate whether active treatment could reduce the incidence of stroke and other cardiovascular complications in older patients with isolated (...) strokes by 38% (from 20.8 to 13.0 endpoints per 1000 patient-years, P=0.01), all-cause mortality by 39% (from 28.4 to 17.4 endpoints per 1000 patient-years, P=0.003), cardiovascular mortality by 39% (from 15.2 to 9.4 endpoints per 1000 patient-years, P=0.03), stroke mortality by 58% (from 6.9 to 2.9 endpoints per 1000 patient-years, P=0.02), and ail fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints by 37% (from 33.3 to 21.4 endpoints per 1000 patient-years, P=0.004).Antihypertensive treatment prevents

1998 Journal of hypertension

35371. Therapeutic benefits and safety of carvedilol in the treatment of renal hypertension. An open, short term study. Carvedilol Renal Hypertension Study Group in Japan. (PubMed)

less than 0.01), but it did not cause orthostatic hypotension. Heart rate was decreased from 74.3 to 72.8 beats/min, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Serum creatinine and BUN levels were unchanged and other laboratory parameters were within normal limits. There were no side effects in any of the patients during the trial. These results suggest that carvedilol is a useful and safe drug for the treatment of renal hypertension. (...) Therapeutic benefits and safety of carvedilol in the treatment of renal hypertension. An open, short term study. Carvedilol Renal Hypertension Study Group in Japan. Carvedilol, a new beta-blocker with vasodilating activity, was given orally to 9 hypertensive inpatients with impaired renal function in a dosage regimen of 5 to 20mg once daily to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety. Treatment with carvedilol produced a significant decrease in blood pressure from 172/101 to 150/87mm Hg (p

1988 Drugs

35372. Effects of low dietary magnesium intake on development of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: role of reactive oxygen species. (PubMed)

, tempol (1 mmol/l).The low Mg2+ diet caused an initial decrease in SBP followed, 5 weeks later, by an exacerbated development of hypertension. This was associated with a transient reduction in the plasma concentrations of substances associated with the thiobarbituric acid reaction (markers of oxidative stress), which increased rapidly 2 weeks later. In the low Mg2+ group, acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation was decreased compared with that in controls ( P<0.05). The media : lumen ratio was greater (...) Effects of low dietary magnesium intake on development of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: role of reactive oxygen species. To investigate whether low dietary Mg2+ intake influences the development of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (spSHRs) and whether these effects are associated with vascular functional and structural changes, and to assess the role of reactive oxygen species and the activation of vascular mitogen-activated protein

2002 Journal of Hypertension

35373. Possible involvement of aminopeptidase A in hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and change of refractoriness in response to angiotensin II in pregnant SHRs. (PubMed)

Possible involvement of aminopeptidase A in hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and change of refractoriness in response to angiotensin II in pregnant SHRs. Hypertension complicated with pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality, but its pathophysiology is unclear.To investigate the pressor response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and the involvement of the Ang II degrading protease, aminopeptidase A, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).Pregnant SHRs (...) in SHRs than in WKY rats.Renal aminopeptidase A may be involved in the development of hypertension and the regulation of blood pressure in SHRs. Placental aminopeptidase A may be upregulated in response to fetal stress in pregnant SHRs.

2002 Journal of Hypertension

35374. Pulmonary hypertension associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in the absence of portal hypertension: a case report. (PubMed)

Pulmonary hypertension associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in the absence of portal hypertension: a case report. Pulmonary hypertension is well described in association with portal hypertension of any cause including end stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The essential feature of this association is the presence of portosystemic shunting, including surgically created shunts. A patient with primary pulmonary hypertension and PBC without portal hypertension is reported. This suggests (...) that primary pulmonary hypertension may be associated with PBC in the absence of portal hypertension. Decisions regarding appropriate organ transplantation may depend on whether pulmonary hypertension is primary or secondary to portal hypertension.

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1994 Gut

35375. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 2. Recommendations on obesity and weight loss. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health C (PubMed)

caused by untreated hypertension.Weight loss and the maintenance of healthy body weight reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The indirect benefits of a health body weight are well known. The negative effects of weight loss are primarily the frustrations associated with attaining and maintaining a healthy weight. The costs associated with weight loss programs were not measured in the studies reviewed.(1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine (...) Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 2. Recommendations on obesity and weight loss. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health C To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women).The main options

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

35376. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canad (PubMed)

, and graded according to the level of evidence.A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension.A reduction in alcohol consumption from more than 2 standard drinks per day reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The lowest overall mortality rates in observational studies were associated with drinking habits that were within these guidelines. Side effects and costs were not measured in any (...) Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canad To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women).There are 2 main options for those at risk

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

35377. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Healt (PubMed)

Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Healt To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals concerning the effects of regular physical activity on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults.People may engage in no, sporadic (...) or regular physical activity that may be of low, moderate or vigorous intensity. For sedentary people with hypertension, the options are to undertake or maintain regular physical activity and to avoid or moderate medication use; to use another lifestyle modification technique; to commence or continue antihypertensive medication; or to take no action and remain at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

35378. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Contro (PubMed)

reviewed, classified according to study design and graded according to level of evidence.A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension.Lifestyle modification by means of weight loss (or maintenance of healthy body weight), regular exercise and low alcohol consumption will reduce the blood pressure of appropriately selected normotensive and hypertensive people. Sodium restriction and stress management will reduce the blood (...) Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Contro To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals on lifestyle changes to prevent and control hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women).For people at risk for hypertension

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

35379. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 7. Recommendations on stress management. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, (PubMed)

hypertension, treatment, psychological, behavioural, cognitive, relaxation, mediation, biofeedback and stress management. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of the articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design and graded according to level of evidence.A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by uncontrolled (...) Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 7. Recommendations on stress management. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, To provide updated evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals concerning the effects of stress management on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women).Alternatives

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1999 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

35380. Role of the Renal Sympathetic Nerves in the Development and Maintenance of Hypertension in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (PubMed)

Role of the Renal Sympathetic Nerves in the Development and Maintenance of Hypertension in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Neurogenic factors and, in particular, enhanced renal sympathetic tone, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat of the Okamoto strain. To examine the hypothesis that the renal sympathetic nerves contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension by causing urinary sodium retention, 7-wk-old (early (...) and kidney renin activity of denervated animals did not differ significantly from that of sham-operated controls. In 18-wk-old rats renal denervation did not alter blood pressure or urinary sodium excretion. These data indicate that the renal sympathetic nerves contribute to the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat in part by causing enhanced sodium retention. Once hypertension is established the renal nerves do not play a significant role in the maintenance of increased

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1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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