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Hypertension Causes

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34701. Influence of Minor Dental Surgery with and without Intravenous Sedation on Levels of Hormones Responsible for Volume Homeostasis in Elderly Hypertensive Patients (PubMed)

Influence of Minor Dental Surgery with and without Intravenous Sedation on Levels of Hormones Responsible for Volume Homeostasis in Elderly Hypertensive Patients Changes in the hormones responsible for volume homeostasis were observed before, during, and after minor dental surgery in 25 elderly hypertensive patients. These patients were divided into two groups. Group L patients were operated on using local anesthesia alone. Group LS patients were operated on using local anesthesia (...) suggest that increased HANP levels represent a compensatory response to offset further elevation of blood pressure. However, these increases did not seem to be sufficient to actually cause a decrease in blood pressure.

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1998 Anesthesia progress Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34702. Vascular Effects of ACE Inhibition Independent of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertensive Renovascular Disease : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial. (PubMed)

Vascular Effects of ACE Inhibition Independent of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertensive Renovascular Disease : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial. -To evaluate whether ACE inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 blockade exert beneficial effects on NO availability independent of their blood pressure-lowering effect, we used a double-blind crossover design to study vascular function in 18 patients with hypertensive renovascular disease during 6 weeks of therapy with enalapril (Ena (...) =12) compared with control subjects (n=13) (increase 42+/-20% versus 107+/-65%, P:<0.05). Crossover from Dox to Val (n=6) had no effect on serotonin response (increase 50+/-14%), but crossover to Ena (n=6) caused a significant improvement (increase 79+/-39%, P:<0.05 versus Dox). In an assessment of all patients, serotonin-induced vasodilation during Ena (n=12, increase 75+/-31%) was increased compared with both Val and Dox (43+/-14% and 42+/-20%, respectively; both P:<0.05 versus Ena

2001 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34703. Can Diastolic Blood Pressure be Excessively Lowered in the Treatment of Isolated Systolic Hypertension? (PubMed)

Can Diastolic Blood Pressure be Excessively Lowered in the Treatment of Isolated Systolic Hypertension? In older populations, and those with prevalent cardiovascular disease, there is increasing evidence that reducing diastolic blood pressure below a level of 80-85 mm Hg is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular end points and all cause mortality. We sought to confirm this finding in participants in Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program, a placebo controlled trial of blood (...) pressure reduction in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. We found that, among subjects randomized to active treatment, for each 5 mm Hg lower achieved value in diastolic blood pressure increases the risk for stroke by 14%, coronary heart disease by 8%, and all cardiovascular disease 11%. This effect was not observed in the placebo group. Significant increases in cardiovascular disease risk were especially noted among patients for whom diastolic blood pressure was 60 mm Hg. This brief

2000 Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34704. Cardiovascular and Hormonal Effects of Domperidone, A Peripheral Dopaminergic Blocker, in Bromocriptine-Treated Hypertensive Patients. (PubMed)

Cardiovascular and Hormonal Effects of Domperidone, A Peripheral Dopaminergic Blocker, in Bromocriptine-Treated Hypertensive Patients. Nine patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension were studied at the Vargas Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela. After antihypertensive treatment discontinuation, all patients were placed on placebo during a 1-week period, after which domperidone, a peripheral DA(2) dopaminergic blocker, was orally administered at the dose of 20 mg every 12 h during (...) a period of 1 week. A final 1-week period of bromocriptine, 2.5 mg orally every 8 h, followed the domperidone period. Cold pressor test caused an increase of mean blood pressure and of heart rate, which was more accentuated after adding bromocriptine. Domperidone also caused an increase of serum aldosterone levels. Our results suggest that a dopaminergic mechanism is acting during the cold pressor test and during aldosterone secretion.

1995 American journal of therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34705. Ketanserin in essential hypertension: effects during rest and exercise. (PubMed)

Ketanserin in essential hypertension: effects during rest and exercise. Ketanserin is a new, specific serotonin receptor blocking agent, which causes vasodilatation, presumably by an action on the vascular wall. The antihypertensive response to ketanserin 40 mg twice daily as monotherapy was assessed in 8 patients with essential hypertension. The investigation was an 8 week, double-blind, cross over study, which also included measurements during isometric (handgrip) and dynamic exercise (...) (bicycle ergometry), as well as determination of plasma catecholamines and ketanserin. Ketanserin caused a reduction of supine and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) during rest and a slight bradycardia. Although there was attenuation of the pressor response to handgrip, treatment with ketanserin did not really affect the changes in BP or heart rate during exercise, i.e. the base-line differences remained the same. There was no significant correlation between the effect on BP

1983 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34706. Diazoxide and labetalol in acute hypertension during haemodialysis. (PubMed)

Diazoxide and labetalol in acute hypertension during haemodialysis. The antihypertensive effect of the peripheral vasodilator diazoxide in 13 patients and the alpha-beta adrenoceptor blocking agent labetalol in 12 patients were compared in 46 severe acute hypertensive episodes during haemodialysis. A single dose of diazoxide 150 mg or labetalol 50 mg was effective in 74% and 70% of the hypertensive episodes, respectively. In the diazoxide-treated patients blood pressure fell from 192 +/- 3/115 (...) +/- 4 mmHg to 141 +/- 8/85 +/- 4 mmHg 2 h after injection. In 7 hypertensive episodes a second dose of diazoxide 150 mg was given 60 +/- 11 min after the first injection. The reduction in mean arterial blood pressure at the end of haemodialysis was 21.5 +/- 2.6% in patients treated with a single dose and 24.8 +/- 3.5% in patients treated with the repeated dose of diazoxide. In the labetalol-treated patients blood pressure in 17 instances fell from 198 +/- 5/104 +/- 4 mmHg to 143 +/- 7/89 +/- 5 mmHg

1983 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34707. [Clinical studies on induced hypertension chemotherapy based on functional characteristics of microcirculation of tumor vessels]. (PubMed)

[Clinical studies on induced hypertension chemotherapy based on functional characteristics of microcirculation of tumor vessels]. Selective increase in blood flow in tumor tissue by elevation of blood pressure induced with angiotensin II was observed, but no increase was noted in normal but tissue in rat. This result was found to be the cause of the lack of autoregulation of blood flow system in tumor tissue. This finding was clinically applied to cancer chemotherapy for enhancing drug delivery (...) to tumor tissue selectively. Since 1978, clinical trials on induced hypertension chemotherapy (IHC) have been performed in 102 cases with various advanced cancers based on the results of animal experiments. A three-drug regimen with adriamycin, 5-FU and mitomycin C or adriamycin, vincristine and carboquone was mainly used in this study. Among 84 cases acceptable for evaluation, the treatment was evaluated as CR in 8 cases and PR in 33 cases. The overall response rate was 48.6%, and the response rate

1984 Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34708. Effect of stepped care treatment on the incidence of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. 5-Year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. (PubMed)

Effect of stepped care treatment on the incidence of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. 5-Year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. Information on indices of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) (angina pectoris by Rose Questionnaire, MI by Rose Questionnaire, history, and electrocardiogram) was obtained in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-Up Program (U.S. National Institutes of Health) at baseline, Year 2, and Year 5 of follow-up (...) . The presence of any of these findings at baseline markedly increased all-cause mortality during the 5 years of observation. In individuals with negative findings at baseline, the 5-year incidence of MI and angina pectoris by these indices was less in the Stepped Care than Referred Care cohort. These results are compatible with the conclusion that antihypertensive therapy reduces the incidence of symptomatic CHD.

1984 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34709. Differing dosages of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of hypertension: long-term effects metabolic values and intracellular electrolytes. (PubMed)

Differing dosages of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of hypertension: long-term effects metabolic values and intracellular electrolytes. The effects of long-term treatment with differing dosages of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in combination were evaluated in 22 hypertensive patients. There was no significant difference in antihypertensive efficacy between captopril 25 mg twice a day in combination with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg once or twice daily and captopril 50 mg (...) twice a day in the same combination. About 75% of patients achieved normotension. Once daily therapy with captopril 50 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg was effective in only 25% of patients. Long-term treatment (11 months) with captopril and hydrochlorothiazide did not cause any of the metabolic effects usually observed during diuretic administration. Intracellular (lymphocytic) Na+ was significantly reduced and intracellular K+ significantly increased by captopril and hydrochlorothiazide

1985 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34710. Hemodynamic effects of combined beta-adrenoceptor blockade and precapillary vasodilatation in hypertension. (PubMed)

Hemodynamic effects of combined beta-adrenoceptor blockade and precapillary vasodilatation in hypertension. Carvedilol (BM14190) is a new compound with combined properties of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade, devoid of ISA, and precapillary vasodilatation. Its acute hemodynamic effects were studied with invasive technique (dye-dilution using Cardio-Green) in 10 patients taking 25 mg orally and noninvasive (fore-arm plethysmography) in 10 patients taking 25 mg and in 10 patients taking 50 (...) mg orally, all with essential hypertension. Significant reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p less than 0.05 - 0.001) were observed in all groups. TPR did not change acutely whereas resistance in the fore-arm was reduced by 16% (p less than 0.05). When a comparison with propranolol (80 mgx2) was made in a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial comprising 30 patients with essential hypertension, carvedilol acutely reduced blood pressure significantly 13/6 mm Hg (25 mg

1985 Acta medica Scandinavica. Supplementum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34711. Working ability and exercise tolerance during treatment of a mild hypertension. I. Comparison between a beta-adreno-receptor blocking drug and a calcium antagonist. (PubMed)

Working ability and exercise tolerance during treatment of a mild hypertension. I. Comparison between a beta-adreno-receptor blocking drug and a calcium antagonist. A randomized cross-over trial was undertaken on 21 occupationally active persons who had a stable mild or moderate hypertension with the purpose of comparing the effect of a beta-adreno-receptor blocking agent (atenolol) with that of a calcium channel inhibitor (nifedipine). The doses recommended by the manufactures were used (...) to the extent that they wanted to terminate the study. Nifedipine therapy with doses of 10 mg, three times a day, resulted in a modest, but statistically insignificant reduction in arterial blood pressure, which contrasts with previous published results. It is suggested that the modest effect is caused or related to the poor compliance and a daily dose that was quantitatively too small. No unfavourable side effects were seen during muscular efforts when the subjects were on nifedipine medication.

1985 International archives of occupational and environmental health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34712. Clinical studies with ketanserin in hypertension. (PubMed)

Clinical studies with ketanserin in hypertension. To assess efficacy and side effects during chronic oral therapy, we studied the effect of ketanserin (Kn) in 17 hypertensive patients for a period up to 1 year. Ketanserin controlled blood pressure satisfactorily in 25%, in part in 50% and had little or no effect in 25%. Reduction in diastolic pressure equalled that in systolic pressure at rest and after exercise and during handgrip. Pulse rate was slowed. Dosage in excess of 60 mg of Kn per day (...) caused troublesome central nervous system symptoms or headache in some patients. A nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug appeared to antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Kn in one patient. Red cell rigidity and platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen were significantly decreased. Serum potassium and uric acid were significantly decreased; serum creatinine increased during Kn treatment. The antihypertensive and pulse slowing effects of Kn were confirmed during the year's study, in a randomized

1985 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34713. Indapamide and bendrofluazide: a comparison in the management of essential hypertension. (PubMed)

Indapamide and bendrofluazide: a comparison in the management of essential hypertension. 1 To compare the efficacy of indapamide with that of bendrofluazide a randomised trial was carried out in twenty patients with essential hypertension. 2 Indapamide (2.5 mg a day) and bendrofluazide (5 mg a day) produced a significant but equivalent fall in blood pressure. 3 Both drugs caused a reduction in body weight and serum potassium with a rise in plasma renin activity but there were no other major

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1981 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34714. Haemodynamic effects of noise exposure before and after beta 1-selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension. (PubMed)

Haemodynamic effects of noise exposure before and after beta 1-selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension. 1. Noise stimulation (100 dBA) for 10 min caused a significant increase in diastolic (7.0%, P less than 0.001) and mean arterial blood pressure (4.3%, P less than 0.01) in patients with essential hypertension. 2. The blood pressure response to noise was due to an increase in total peripheral resistance (4.8%, P less than 0.02); heart rate (...) , stroke volume and cardiac output were unchanged. 3. beta 1-selective adrenoceptor blockade (metoprolol) did not change the haemodynamic reaction pattern induced by noise. 4. Noise exposure during non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade (propranolol) caused an accentuated blood pressure response with increments of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as a more pronounced rise in total peripheral resistance. 5. The haemodynamic changes induced by noise stimulation at 100 dBA totally

1981 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34715. Five-year blood pressure control and mortality following health education for hypertensive patients. (PubMed)

positive effect on appointment keeping, weight control, and blood pressure control. All-cause life table mortality rate was 57.3 per cent less for the experimental group compared to the control group (12.9/100 vs 30.2/100, p less than .05), while the hypertension-related mortality rate was 53.2 per cent less (8.9/100 vs 19.0/100, p less than .01). The results from this longitudinal study provide evidence to encourage health practitioners to utilize such educational programs in the long-term management (...) Five-year blood pressure control and mortality following health education for hypertensive patients. Three health education interventions for urban poor hypertensive patients were introduced sequentially in a randomized factorial design: 1) an exit interview to increase understanding of and compliance with the prescribed regimen; 2) a home visit to encourage a family member to provide support for the patient's regimen; and 3) invitations to small group sessions to increase the patient's

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1983 American Journal of Public Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34716. Effect of long-term beta-adrenergic-blockade on calf blood flow in hypertensive patients. (PubMed)

Effect of long-term beta-adrenergic-blockade on calf blood flow in hypertensive patients. The effect of a four-week treatment with propranolol and metoprolol on blood pressure and regional haemodynamics of the lower extremity at rest, after exercise and during reactive hyperaemia was studied in 34 patients with essential hypertension, but without peripheral arterial disease, in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. No significant difference in side-effects recorded during the trial (...) was observed between these two drugs. Treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking drugs reduced systemic blood pressure. Calf blood flow during vasodilatation was also decreased. The most marked changes were observed during reactive hyperaemia; mean calf blood flow was reduced from about 250 ml/min/litre of tissue to 200 ml/min/litre of tissue (P less than 0.01) by propranolol and to 214 ml/min/litre of tissue (P less than 0.01) by metoprolol. Both drugs caused a significant increase in peripheral resistance

1983 Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34717. A comparison of a combination of penbutolol and frusemide with the two compounds individually in the treatment of hypertension. (PubMed)

A comparison of a combination of penbutolol and frusemide with the two compounds individually in the treatment of hypertension. Forty-one patients completed a randomized, double-blind, between-group comparison of a combination of penbutolol and frusemide, with penbutolol alone, and frusemide alone in the management of mild to moderate essential hypertension. The results suggest that the combination caused a superior reduction in systolic and diastolic pressure compared with penbutolol

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1983 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34718. [Moderate supplementation of potassium in essential hypertension]. (PubMed)

pressure had fallen by 4% on potassium supplementation compared with placebo. Urinary potassium excretion increased from 62 +/- 4.7 mmol/24 h on placebo to 118 +/- 7.4 mmol/24 h on potassium. The fall in blood pressure was not related to urinary sodium excretion before entry to the trial or while on placebo. Moderate potassium supplementation caused a small but significant fall in blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and could be additive to the effects of moderate (...) [Moderate supplementation of potassium in essential hypertension]. 23 unselected patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension, whose average supine blood pressure after two months' observation on no treatment was 154/99 mm Hg, were entered into an eight week double blind randomised crossover study of one month's treatment with slow release potassium tablets (60 mmol/day) versus placebo without alteration of dietary sodium or potassium intake. By the fourth week mean supine blood

1984 Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34719. Studies of salivary flow in borderline hypertension: effects of drugs acting on structures innervated by the autonomic nervous system. (PubMed)

and phentolamine did not enhance saliva secretion in the borderline hypertensive group, whereas atropine caused the secretion to decrease in both groups. Intravenous infusions of neostigmine led to a dose-dependent increase of salivary flow. The dose-response curve for the stimulating effect of neostigmine on saliva production was shifted to the right in borderline hypertensive as compared with normotensive subjects. The results of the study support the assumption that in subjects with borderline hypertension (...) Studies of salivary flow in borderline hypertension: effects of drugs acting on structures innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Salivary flow and the influence of drugs on this were studied in subjects with borderline hypertension and in normotensive subjects. Saliva production at rest was lower in borderline hypertensive subjects than in normotensive subjects. Plasma catecholamine levels were similar in both groups of subjects studied. Intravenous injections of propranolol

1984 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

34720. A comparison of atenolol and long-acting trimazosin in mild to moderate essential hypertension. (PubMed)

was good. Atenolol caused significant elevation of plasma concentration of triglyceride, with reduction in high density lipoprotein concentration when compared with trimazosin. In conclusion, atenolol was confirmed as an effective agent for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. By comparison trimazosin in the longer-acting formulation was ineffective in this study. However, trimazosin may still find a place in treatment if used at higher dose. (...) A comparison of atenolol and long-acting trimazosin in mild to moderate essential hypertension. In a 12-week double-blind randomised study the efficacy of atenolol and a new longer-acting formulation of trimazosin were compared when given once daily in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Two parallel groups, each consisting of 18 patients, were studied. At randomisation the two groups were well matched for age and sex distribution. They were also well matched for blood pressure, pulse

1985 Scottish medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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