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Hyperprolactinemia Causes

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1. Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history. (PubMed)

Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history. Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high circulating levels of prolactin. Idopathic hyperprolactinemia is the term used when no cause of prolactin hypersecretion can be identified and it is causally related to the development of miscarriage in pregnant women, especially women who have a history of recurrent miscarriage. A possible mechanism is that high (...) levels of prolactin affect the function of the ovaries, resulting in a luteal phase defect and miscarriage. A dopamine agonist is a compound with high efficacy in lowering prolactin levels and restoring gonadal function.To assess the effectiveness and safety of different types of dopamine agonists in preventing future miscarriage given to women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and a history of recurrent miscarriage.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June

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2016 Cochrane

2. Hyperprolactinemia Causes

Hyperprolactinemia Causes Hyperprolactinemia Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Hyperprolactinemia Causes (...) Hyperprolactinemia Causes Aka: Hyperprolactinemia Causes , Galactorrhea Causes From Related Chapters II. Causes: Timing of increases Very brief increases in (hours) Meals ralized Tonic-Clonic Sexual intercourse Transient increase in levels (days to weeks) First-generation s (e.g. ) Second-generation s (except ) Recent or nicotine use Sustained increase in levels (weeks to months) Exogenous Pregnancy s References Naus (2009) Federal Practitioner p. 44-9 III. Causes: Physiologic stimulation Sexual Intercourse

2018 FP Notebook

3. Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia

Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 (...) Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Aka: Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia , Medication Causes of Galactorrhea From Related Chapters II. Causes: Psychotropic Medications s (e.g. ) ( ) s (e.g. Moclobemide) s s (e.g. ) Butyrophenones (e.g. ) Phenothiazines (e.g. Thorazine or ) Thioxanthenes (e.g. Thiothixene) s - Second generation ( s) ( ) s - First generation ( ) or Perphenazine (Trilafon) Thiothixene HCl (Navane) Fluphenazine HCl (Prolixin

2018 FP Notebook

4. Idiopathic Hyperprolactinemia Presenting as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Identical Twin Sisters: A Case Report and Literature Review (PubMed)

the fact that androgen excess could be caused by either insulin resistance or hyperprolactinemia, we decided to treat one sister with insulin sensitizer metformin and other with dopamine agonist cabergoline. While cabergoline treatment resulted in normalization of prolactin levels and androgen excess, no significant biochemical or clinical improvement occurred with metformin treatment. Hyperprolactinemia was therefore considered to be the cause of androgen excess in both and cabergoline therapy (...) initiated in the other sister as well. Through the report, we conclude that diagnosis of PCOS should be made only after exclusion of alternative causes like hyperprolactinemia and detailed evaluation should be sought for any significant, unexplained prolactin elevation. Although rare, hyperprolactinemia can lead to androgen excess by increasing adrenal androgen secretion, which improves with dopamine agonist therapy.

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2018 Cureus

5. Hyperprolactinemia with Galactorrhea Due to Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Report and Review of Literature (PubMed)

Hyperprolactinemia with Galactorrhea Due to Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Report and Review of Literature Hyperprolactinemia is a common finding in primary hypothyroidism, but increased prolactin in the setting of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been scarcely reported in the literature. This is a rare case of hyperprolactinemia due to SCH that resolved with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The patient was not on any medications known to cause hyperprolactinemia but she was using (...) isoniazid for her latent tuberculosis. Isoniazid therapy may explain breast pain, but there is no reported relationship between isoniazid use causing subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. A literature review reveals that few cases of galactorrhea associated with subclinical hypothyroidism have been reported. Similar to the reported cases in the literature, our patient's thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin levels returned to normal with levothyroxine therapy.

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2018 Cureus

6. Effects of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs on Bone Metabolism

: September 18, 2018 See Sponsor: Shanghai Mental Health Center Information provided by (Responsible Party): Shanghai Mental Health Center Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The study is aimed to assess the severities of hyperprolactinemia caused by antipsychotic drugs and the effects of the duration of hyperprolactinemia on bone metabolism in schizophrenia patients. Condition or disease Schizophrenia Detailed Description: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic (...) Effects of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs on Bone Metabolism Effects of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs on Bone Metabolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2018 Clinical Trials

7. Hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk by activating JAK-STAT5 in precancerous lesions. (PubMed)

Hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk by activating JAK-STAT5 in precancerous lesions. Psychiatric medications are widely prescribed in the USA. Many antipsychotics cause serum hyperprolactinemia as an adverse side effect; prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling both induces cell differentiation and suppresses apoptosis. It is controversial whether these antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk.We (...) investigated the impact of several antipsychotics on mammary tumorigenesis initiated by retrovirus-mediated delivery of either ErbB2 or HRas or by transgenic expression of Wnt-1.We found that the two hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics, risperidone and pimozide, prompted precancerous lesions to progress to cancer while aripiprazole, which did not cause hyperprolactinemia, did not. We observed that risperidone and pimozide (but not aripiprazole) caused precancerous cells to activate STAT5

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2018 Breast cancer research : BCR

8. Adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (PubMed)

Adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hyperprolactinemia is a common and severe antipsychotic-induced adverse drug reaction. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials systematically examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Two independent investigators searched, extracted, and synthesized data. Weighted mean differences (...) %) with "moderate quality" based on the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation system. In patients with menstrual disturbances, the rate of menstruation resumption was 66.7% in the metformin group and 4.8% in the control group. Adverse drug reactions and all-cause discontinuation (three randomized controlled trials, n=339, risk ratio: 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.29, 1.97), p=0.57; I2= 0%) were similar between the two groups. Adjunctive metformin appears to be effective and safe

2017 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

9. Risperidone Induced Granulomatous Mastitis Secondary to Hyperprolactinemia in a Non-Pregnant Woman-A Rare Case Report in a Bipolar Disorder (PubMed)

it is idiopathic. Hyperprolactinemia have been proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying the development of granulomatous lesions of the breast. We report a case of hyperprolactinemia due to risperidone therapy for bipolar mood disorder in a woman who eventually developed granulomatous mastitis. Histologically, the diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of granulomatous lesion and by ruling out other potential causes. In this case, raised prolactin was possibly an important factor which was secondary (...) Risperidone Induced Granulomatous Mastitis Secondary to Hyperprolactinemia in a Non-Pregnant Woman-A Rare Case Report in a Bipolar Disorder Idiopathic granulomatous lesion is a rare entity of the breast seen in young-middle aged women. Diagnosis and management of granulomatous lesions with known aetiology does not impose major clinical problems. However, most often these lesions are undetected or unnoticed due to lack of timely diagnosis and inappropriate management, as primarily

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

10. Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Metformin Compared to Metformin Alone on Cycle Regularity in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease with Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial (PubMed)

Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Metformin Compared to Metformin Alone on Cycle Regularity in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease with Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder. Increasing serum prolactin in these patients could be detected in both follicular and luteal phase of the normal and stimulated cycles. Hyperprolactinemia affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis causing anovulation and abnormal (...) and significant decrease in serum prolactin level post-treatment.The use of cabergoline in addition to metformin had more favorable effect on cycle regularity and prolactin level in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with hyperprolactinemia than the use of metformin alone.

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2017 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

11. Pulmonary Artery Occlusion and Mediastinal Fibrosis in a Patient on Dopamine Agonist Treatment for Hyperprolactinemia (PubMed)

Pulmonary Artery Occlusion and Mediastinal Fibrosis in a Patient on Dopamine Agonist Treatment for Hyperprolactinemia Unusual forms of pulmonary hypertension include pulmonary hypertension related to mediastinal fibrosis and the use of serotonergic drugs. Here, we describe a patient with diffuse mediastinal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension while she was on dopamine agonist therapy. A young woman, who was treated with cabergoline and bromocriptine for hyperprolactinemia, presented (...) of the right pulmonary artery showed fibrosis and chronic inflammation. Subsequent investigations revealed that diffuse mediastinal fibrosis with concurrent pulmonary hypertension, and not CTEPH, was the most likely diagnosis and cabergoline and bromocriptine may have triggered the fibrotic changes. Both drugs are ergot-derived dopamine agonists, which are known to cause cardiac valve fibrosis and less frequently, non-cardiac fibrotic changes. The underlying mechanism is attributed to their interactions

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2017 Frontiers in pharmacology

12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia

on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Practice guidelines are presented for diagnosis and treatment of patients with elevated prolactin levels. These include evidence-based approaches to assessing the cause of hyperprolactinemia, treating drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, and managing prolactinomas in nonpregnant and pregnant subjects. Indications and side effects of therapeutic agents for treating prolactinomas are also presented. METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT OF EVIDENCE-BASED CLINICAL PRACTICE (...) of hyperprolactinemia as a distinct clinical entity and resulted in distinguishing prolactin-secreting tumors from nonfunctioning adenomas ( ). Prolactin acts to induce and maintain lactation of the primed breast. Nonpuerperal hyperprolactinemia is caused by lactotroph adenomas (prolactinomas), which account for approximately 40% of all pituitary tumors. Hyperprolactinemia may also develop due to pharmacological or pathological interruption of hypothalamic-pituitary dopaminergic pathways and is sometimes idiopathic

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2011 The Endocrine Society

13. Effects of pterostilbene on treating hyperprolactinemia and related mechanisms (PubMed)

Effects of pterostilbene on treating hyperprolactinemia and related mechanisms Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) frequently causes primary menopause and reproductive disorders. Pterostilbene is known to have anti-inflammation and modulation on cell apoptosis. However, its role in treating HPRL and potential mechanisms remain unclear yet. Healthy female virgin SD rats were randomly assigned into control, HPRL model group, bromocriptine treatment group, and low (20 mg/kg) and high (40 mg/kg

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2016 American journal of translational research

14. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland (PubMed)

Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT (...) demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused

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2016 Case reports in otolaryngology

15. Hyperprolactinemia

: Hyperprolactinemia From Related Chapters II. Causes See III. Symptoms Occurs in 90% of women with Hyperprolactinemia IV. Diagnosis with is pathognomonic for Hyperprolactinemia without is associated with normal V. Imaging: Brain MRI Brain with IV contrast Thin cuts through the sella turcica, and with cone down sella turcica Lower than MRI for and associated abnormalities VI. Approach: Initial Evaluation Confirm Hyperprolactinemia Repeat Repeat in 6 months if repeat normal Evaluate for Physiologic Cause History (...) stimulation or Sexual Intercourse temporally related to lab test Excessive Eating, , or Stress Labs ( ) Consider reproductive hormone levels if is present Serum VII. Approach: Prolactin 20 to 50 ng/ml Identify medication related Hyperprolactinemia cause Discontinue Repeat in 1-2 months No obvious medication cause Recheck in 3 months Consider lab testing as above (e.g. TSH, HCG) VIII. Approach: Prolactin 50 to 100 ng/ml Identify medication related Hyperprolactinemia cause Discontinue offending medication

2018 FP Notebook

16. Prolactin gene polymorphism (-1149 G/T) is associated with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. (PubMed)

Prolactin gene polymorphism (-1149 G/T) is associated with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Antipsychotic drugs can cause hyperprolactinemia. However, hyperprolactinemia was also observed in treatment-naive patients with a first schizophrenic episode. This phenomenon might be related to the role of prolactin as a cytokine in autoimmune diseases. Extrapituitary prolactin production is regulated by an alternative promoter, which contains (...) the functional single nucleotide polymorphism -1149 G/T (rs1341239). We examined whether this polymorphism was associated with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia.We recruited 443 patients with schizophrenia and 126 healthy controls. The functional polymorphism -1149 G/T (rs1341239) in the prolactin gene was genotyped with multiplexed primer extension, combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between groups with the χ2 test and logistic regression

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2016 Schizophrenia Research

17. Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia

Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 (...) Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia Aka: Medication Causes of Hyperprolactinemia , Medication Causes of Galactorrhea From Related Chapters II. Causes: Psychotropic Medications s (e.g. ) ( ) s (e.g. Moclobemide) s s (e.g. ) Butyrophenones (e.g. ) Phenothiazines (e.g. Thorazine or ) Thioxanthenes (e.g. Thiothixene) s - Second generation ( s) ( ) s - First generation ( ) or Perphenazine (Trilafon) Thiothixene HCl (Navane) Fluphenazine HCl (Prolixin

2015 FP Notebook

18. Hyperprolactinemia Causes

Hyperprolactinemia Causes Hyperprolactinemia Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Hyperprolactinemia Causes (...) Hyperprolactinemia Causes Aka: Hyperprolactinemia Causes , Galactorrhea Causes From Related Chapters II. Causes: Timing of increases Very brief increases in (hours) Meals ralized Tonic-Clonic Sexual intercourse Transient increase in levels (days to weeks) First-generation s (e.g. ) Second-generation s (except ) Recent or nicotine use Sustained increase in levels (weeks to months) Exogenous Pregnancy s References Naus (2009) Federal Practitioner p. 44-9 III. Causes: Physiologic stimulation Sexual Intercourse

2015 FP Notebook

19. Cavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm, a Rare Cause of Intrasellar Mass and Hyperprolactinemia. (PubMed)

Cavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm, a Rare Cause of Intrasellar Mass and Hyperprolactinemia. 22238387 2012 07 06 2016 11 25 1945-7197 97 3 2012 Mar The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Cavernous carotid artery aneurysm, a rare cause of intrasellar mass and hyperprolactinemia. 723-4 10.1210/jc.2011-3009 Faje Alexander T AT Neuroendocrine Clinical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Zero Emerson Place, Suite 112, Boston (...) , Massachusetts 02114-2217, USA. Tritos Nicholas A NA eng Case Reports Journal Article 2012 01 11 United States J Clin Endocrinol Metab 0375362 0021-972X AIM IM Adult Aneurysm complications diagnostic imaging Carotid Arteries diagnostic imaging Carotid Artery Diseases complications diagnostic imaging Female Humans Hyperprolactinemia etiology Radiography 2012 1 13 6 0 2012 1 13 6 0 2012 7 7 6 0 ppublish 22238387 jc.2011-3009 10.1210/jc.2011-3009

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2012 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

20. Association between endometriosis and hyperprolactinemia in infertile women (PubMed)

. The presence of endometriosis was evaluated. To investigate the association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia, the patients whose infertility was not caused by endometriosis were included as control group. Serum prolactin (PRL) level was measured in both groups. The comparison of basal serum PRL levels between the two groups was performed, using independent t-test. One way ANOVA was used to determine PRL association with endometriosis stages.The frequency of endometriosis was found to be 29%. PRL (...) Association between endometriosis and hyperprolactinemia in infertile women The association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia is controversial.The present study aimed to determine the frequency of endometriosis and association of prolactin with endometriosis in infertile women.256 infertile women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for the evaluation of infertility, referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center were included in a cross-sectional study

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2015 Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine

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