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Hyperpigmentation

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2861. The epidermal stem cell factor is over-expressed in lentigo senilis: implication for the mechanism of hyperpigmentation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The epidermal stem cell factor is over-expressed in lentigo senilis: implication for the mechanism of hyperpigmentation. We previously reported that accentuated expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) cascade is involved in the mechanism of hyperpigmentation in lentigo senilis (LS) lesions. The paracrine mechanism underlying ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation in the skin may involve the stimulation of the ET-1/ET(B)R cascade as well as the stem cell (...) factor (SCF)/SCF receptor cascade. Therefore, we used RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to determine whether accentuated expression of the SCF/SCF receptor cascade is also associated with the mechanism of hyperpigmentation in epidermal LS lesions. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the increased expression of mRNA transcripts for SCF (n=7), but not for SCF receptor (n=6) or growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha) (n=4) in LS lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed markedly stronger staining for SCF

2004 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

2862. Pleomorphic characteristics of a germ-line KIT mutation in a large kindred with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia. (Abstract)

Pleomorphic characteristics of a germ-line KIT mutation in a large kindred with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia. Somatic mutations that result in the activation of the growth factor receptor KIT are commonly found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Six families have been reported in which a germ-line mutation in KIT is associated with an autosomal dominant predisposition to the development of GISTs. Hyperpigmentation, urticaria pigmentosa (...) , and dysphagia have been described in some, but not all, families. Preliminary correlations between the site of mutation and the clinical phenotype have been proposed, but the strength of these associations is not defined.A large kindred with multiple GISTs, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia was identified after the index case presented with multiple GISTs. A germ-line mutation in KIT (W557R) was identified in an affected cousin, after which a large family meeting was held and testing offered. Clinical data

2004 Clinical Cancer Research

2863. Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis. To improve detection and quantification of peripapillary hyperpigmentation, associated with aging, open-angle glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.A computational approach was implemented with a readily available polarimeter used in glaucoma diagnosis, a nerve fiber analyzer (GDx; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA). Using near-infrared illumination at each of 20 input polarizations, a series (...) of image pairs was digitized. One image is made from the light returning from the eye that is polarized parallel to the input light, and the other image is made from the light that is rotated by 90 degrees from the input polarization. Using raw data from these 40 images, and a simplified model of ocular polarization properties, images were computed based on their polarization content. Regions of hyperpigmentation, selected using stereo color fundus photographs, were quantified in three types

2005 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2864. Tongue and skin hyperpigmentation during PEG-interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy in dark-skinned non-Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C. (Abstract)

Tongue and skin hyperpigmentation during PEG-interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy in dark-skinned non-Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Various skin disorders may occur during antiviral therapy with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) for chronic hepatitis C. This article describes to our knowledge the first report of lingual hyperpigmentation during pegylated (PEG)-IFN/RBV combination therapy in five dark-skinned hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Lingual pigmentation during antiviral

2006 American Journal of Gastroenterology

2865. The Significance of Eccentric and Central Hyperpigmentation, Multifocal Hyper/hypopigmentation, and the Multicomponent Pattern in Melanocytic Lesions Lacking Specific Dermoscopic Features of Melanoma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Significance of Eccentric and Central Hyperpigmentation, Multifocal Hyper/hypopigmentation, and the Multicomponent Pattern in Melanocytic Lesions Lacking Specific Dermoscopic Features of Melanoma. To examine the significance of eccentric hyperpigmentation (EH), central hyperpigmentation (CH), multifocal hyper/hypopigmentation (MH/HP), and the multicomponent pattern (MCP) in melanocytic lesions lacking specific dermoscopic features of melanoma.A total of 3367 benign and malignant melanocytic

2008 Archives of Dermatology

2866. Hyperpigmentation, nail dystrophy and alopecia with generalised intestinal polyposis: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. (Abstract)

Hyperpigmentation, nail dystrophy and alopecia with generalised intestinal polyposis: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. A 62-year-old Malaysian woman presented with a constellation of skin signs including alopecia, hyperpigmentation and nail dystrophy. On questioning, a history of diarrhoea, taste disturbance and weight loss was found. The onset of these changes coincided with the administration of thyroxine prescribed for a benign multinodular goitre. Hormonal investigations showed no abnormality

2008 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

2867. Happle-Tinschert Syndrome. Segmentally Arranged Basaloid Follicular Hamartomas, Linear Atrophoderma with Hypo- and Hyperpigmentation, Enamel Defects, Ipsilateral Hypertrichosis, and Skeletal and Cerebral Anomalies. (Abstract)

Happle-Tinschert Syndrome. Segmentally Arranged Basaloid Follicular Hamartomas, Linear Atrophoderma with Hypo- and Hyperpigmentation, Enamel Defects, Ipsilateral Hypertrichosis, and Skeletal and Cerebral Anomalies. Recently, Happle and Tinschert [Acta Derm Venereol 2008;88:382-387] described the case of a multisystem birth defect with segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with extracutaneous defects in the form of short leg, polydactyly and hypoplastic teeth

2008 Dermatology

2868. Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation: a clinical and histological study of five cases. (Abstract)

Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation: a clinical and histological study of five cases. Palifermin is a human keratinocyte growth factor that is efficacious in reducing duration and severity of oral mucositis during autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for haematological cancer as well as chemotherapy for colorectal cancers. We report the clinical and histological characteristics of a series of five patients who developed flexural hyperpigmentation after treatment (...) with palifermin. All patients showed ill-defined symmetrical hyperpigmented papillomatous plaques with slight erythema in the skin folds, especially affecting axillary and inguinal areas. The most striking histological finding was the thickened granular layer in all patients. We demonstrate that filaggrin, an essential component in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis, was upregulated in these cases. Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation is a newly defined clinical and histological entity

2008 British Journal of Dermatology

2869. Congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation. (Abstract)

Congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation. We report two cases of congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation on the posterior aspect of bilateral legs in male infants. These lesions appeared shortly after birth and mimicked child abuse with looped cord or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Histopathologic features showed lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia. One of the boys also had severe global developmental delay with abnormal findings from magnetic resonance imaging (...) of the brain. We believe that these lesions represent a new type of congenital hyperpigmentation that we termed "congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation." Although these lesions do not follow the lines of Blaschko, they may also be associated with neurologic and developmental abnormalities.

2005 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

2870. Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus? (Abstract)

Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus? We report 3 female patients who rapidly developed pigmented patches in a linear arrangement. Histologically there was minimum epidermal basal cell damage and bandlike lymphocyte infiltration in the dermis, but focal massive apoptotic materials positively stained with antikeratin antibody were prominently seen in the papillary and subpapillary dermis. We considered these cases as a variant

2004 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

2871. RALGA (Diacneal), a retinaldehyde and glycolic acid association and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in acne--a review. (Abstract)

RALGA (Diacneal), a retinaldehyde and glycolic acid association and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in acne--a review. Acne vulgaris affects 3 out of 4 adolescents and usually vanishes at the end of puberty with either no sequelae or mild to moderate sequelae, such as postinflammatory hyperpigmenation (PIH), which may result in psychological and emotional damages. The poor tolerability of the actual treatments (secondary inflammation) is a hindrance to therapy. Retinaldehyde (RAL

2005 Dermatology

2872. Topical methimazole as a new treatment for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: report of the first case. (Abstract)

Topical methimazole as a new treatment for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: report of the first case. We have previously shown that the peroxidase inhibitor methimazole (1-methyl-2-mercapto imidazole; MMI) is a noncytotoxic inhibitor of melanin production in cultured B16 melanocytes. It was further demonstrated that the topical application of 5% MMI on brown guinea pig skin for 6 weeks causes a significant reduction in the amount of epidermal melanin, resulting in visually recognizable (...) cutaneous depigmentation. Herein, we report a 27-year-old male with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (due to acid burn), successfully treated with topical MMI as a new skin depigmenting agent. Topical 5% MMI caused a moderate to marked improvement of the hyperpigmented lesions within 6 weeks of once-daily application. Topical MMI was well tolerated by the patient and did not affect the level of serum thyroid hormones (free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine and the thyroid-stimulating hormone). Unlike

2005 Dermatology

2873. A new type of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation. (Abstract)

A new type of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation. Pigmentary disorders are recognized adverse effects of the semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative antibiotic, minocycline. Three distinct types of minocycline-induced cutaneous pigmentation have been described. Type I, blue-black pigmentation confined to sites of scarring or inflammation on the face; Type II, blue-grey circumscribed pigmentation of normal skin of the lower legs and forearms; and Type III, diffuse muddy brown (...) to be macrophages. Electron microscopy demonstrated electron-dense granules, free and membrane-bound, within macrophages and fibroblast-like cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of calcium. Iron was absent. This fourth type of cutaneous minocycline hyperpigmentation may be a variant of Type I, but based on clinical, pathological and microanalytical differences, appears to be a new entity. The pigment may be a drug metabolite-protein complex chelated with calcium, or an insoluble

2004 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

2874. Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") can be considered as a melanoma-simulating type of acquired melanocytic nevus. We report on the morphologic changes of this type of melanocytic nevus over a 39-month period of dermoscopic follow-up.A 5-year-old girl had a 4-mm brown papule with a peripheral blue-black area on her right (...) upper arm. The eccentric focus of the hyperpigmentation corresponded dermoscopically to a blue-gray area of pigmentation associated with irregular brown-black globules or dots and partially with a superficial black network. After 39 months, a globular type of acquired melanocytic nevus was detectable, which clinically and dermoscopically appeared to be completely benign. A nearly identical situation was observed in 5 other melanocytic nevi, underlining the involution of the pigmented foci

2006 Archives of Dermatology

2875. Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature. Diltiazem hydrochloride is a commonly prescribed benzothiazepine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recently, 8 cases of diltiazem-induced photodistributed hyperpigmentation occurring predominantly in elderly African American women were reported. Here, we report occurrence for the first time in a light-skinned African (...) spectrum.Photospectrometry analysis revealed diltiazem could demonstrate a photosensitizing effect within the UV-B range. Discontinuation of therapy with diltiazem is the most effective modality in resolving hyperpigmentation. Avoidance of sun exposure and consistent use of sunscreens and sun-protective clothing are indicated for patients undergoing diltiazem therapy.

2006 Archives of Dermatology

2876. Progressive hyperpigmentation and generalized lentiginosis without associated systemic symptoms: a rare hereditary pigmentation disorder in south-east Germany. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive hyperpigmentation and generalized lentiginosis without associated systemic symptoms: a rare hereditary pigmentation disorder in south-east Germany. Familial progressive hyperpigmentation is rarely described in the literature. We report on five patients from three different families presenting with a peculiar progressive pigmentary disorder. The patients show a progressive diffuse, partly blotchy, hyperpigmentation, intermixed with scattered small hypopigmented macules, a few large (...) hypopigmented areas, occasional café-au-lait spots and, most remarkably, a generalized lentiginosis. Histology revealed different degrees of basal layer hyperpigmentation and pigment incontinence, also in the spots appearing hypopigmented. Ultrastructural analysis showed a normal mode of Caucasian-like melanogenesis with varying content of regular melanosome complexes within the keratinocytes. All families are clustered in a small area around the town of Teublitz in south-east Germany with about 20,000

2004 Acta Dermato-Venereologica

2877. Ethnic considerations in the treatment of Hispanic and Latin-American patients with hyperpigmentation. (Abstract)

Ethnic considerations in the treatment of Hispanic and Latin-American patients with hyperpigmentation. Latin-Americans have a heterogeneous ancestry that is defined by their place of domicile, while Hispanics are defined as those persons of Spanish descent. These two groups have a diverse range of skin phototypes and pigmentation and are prone to an increased incidence of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the frequency, course (...) -inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) following treatment should be considered.

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

2878. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation treated with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation treated with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser. Cutaneous pigmentation associated with minocycline therapy is an unusual adverse effect for which few successful treatments have been described. The pigment changes may persist for years, despite cessation of therapy, and is often cosmetically disfiguring, causing significant embarrassment and psychological depression in those affected. Few safe and effective treatments have been described in the past (...) ; however, recent pigment-specific laser technology has shown promise in the treatment of this condition.The objective was to describe a series of patients with minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation who were successfully treated with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.Six patients with minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation on the face or legs were treated with a Q-switched alexandrite laser on a bimonthly basis until pigmentation was eradicated.Cutaneous pigmentation resolved completely in all

2004 Dermatologic Surgery

2879. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation masquerading as alkaptonuria in individuals with joint pain. (Abstract)

Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation masquerading as alkaptonuria in individuals with joint pain. Alkaptonuria, a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HGD gene and a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, is characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA), ochronosis, and destruction of connective tissue resulting in joint disease. Certain medications have been reported to cause cutaneous hyperpigmentation resembling that of alkaptonuria. We present 5 (...) based on normal urine HGA levels. All 5 patients were women who had taken minocycline for dermatologic or rheumatologic disorders for extended periods. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ochronosis. This could be of increased significance now that minocycline and other tetracyclines have been proposed as therapeutic options for rheumatoid arthritis, bringing a new population of patients with ochronosis and arthritis to medical attention

2004 Arthritis and Rheumatism

2880. The frequency and distribution of minocycline induced hyperpigmentation in a rheumatoid arthritis population. (Abstract)

The frequency and distribution of minocycline induced hyperpigmentation in a rheumatoid arthritis population. Minocycline is particularly useful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with previous major sepsis, where anti-tumor necrosis factor is relatively contraindicated. Pigmentation is a documented side effect, but predisposing factors in an RA population have not been established. We investigated minocycline induced pigmentation in a population with RA to determine whether skin type

2006 Journal of Rheumatology

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