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Hyperpigmentation

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2821. Tazarotene cream for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and acne vulgaris in darker skin: a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study. (Abstract)

Tazarotene cream for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and acne vulgaris in darker skin: a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study. Previous investigations have reported the efficacy of tazarotene 0.1% cream for the treatment of dyschromia associated with photoaging and for acne vulgaris. The present investigation assessed tazarotene 0.1% cream for the treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study of 74 patients from (...) darker racial ethnic groups who had acne. Once-daily application of tazarotene cream was shown to be effective against PIH, achieving significantly greater reductions compared with vehicle in overall disease severity and in the intensity and area of hyperpigmentation within 18 weeks (P< or =.05). Mean levels of erythema, burning, and peeling were no more than trace in both groups throughout the study, and mean levels of dryness were no more than mild in both groups. In our study, tazarotene cream

2006 Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2822. Effect of cold air cooling on the incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation after Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment of acquired bilateral nevus of Ota like macules. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of cold air cooling on the incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation after Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment of acquired bilateral nevus of Ota like macules. To investigate the effect of cold air cooling on the incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) after laser treatment in Asian patients.Randomized, controlled, split-face study.Skin laser center of a university hospital.Twenty-three Thai women with acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules.Patients were treated

2007 Archives of Dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2823. Glycolic Acid Peels Versus Salicylic-Mandelic Acid Peels in Active Acne Vulgaris and Post-Acne Scarring and Hyperpigmentation: A Comparative Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glycolic Acid Peels Versus Salicylic-Mandelic Acid Peels in Active Acne Vulgaris and Post-Acne Scarring and Hyperpigmentation: A Comparative Study. Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. Salicylic-mandelic acid combination peels (SMPs) are a newer modality, and there have been no well-controlled studies comparing them with other conventional agents.To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability (...) of 35% GA peels and 20% salicylic-10% mandelic acid peels in active acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation.Forty-four patients with facial acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation were divided into two groups, with one receiving GA peels and the other SMPs at fortnightly intervals for six sessions. The treating physician performed objective evaluation of treatment outcomes. The patients, the treating physician, and an independent observer made subjective assessments. Side effects

2008 Dermatologic Surgery

2824. Photodistribution of blue-gray hyperpigmentation after amiodarone treatment: molecular characterization of amiodarone in the skin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Photodistribution of blue-gray hyperpigmentation after amiodarone treatment: molecular characterization of amiodarone in the skin. For decades, the photodistributed blue-gray skin hyperpigmentation observed after amiodarone therapy was presumably attributed to dermal lipofuscinosis. Using electron microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, we identified amiodarone deposits in the hyperpigmented skin sample from a patient treated with this antiarrhythmic agent. Our findings therefore (...) indicate that the hypothesis relating the blue-gray hyperpigmentation to lipofuscin should be challenged.A 64-year-old man, skin phototype III, presented with asymptomatic skin hyperpigmentation that had been slowly developing on sun-exposed areas since April 2004. He had been taking amiodarone for 4 years (cumulative dose, 277 g). Electron microscopy did not show lipofuscin pigments in his skin. Conversely, abundant electron-dense membrane-bound granule deposits were observed in most of the dermal

2008 Archives of Dermatology

2825. Bimatoprost-induced periocular skin hyperpigmentation: histopathological study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bimatoprost-induced periocular skin hyperpigmentation: histopathological study. To investigate light microscopic and ultrastructural changes in bimatoprost-induced skin hyperpigmentation.Eyelid biopsy specimens from bimatoprost-treated patients and matched controls were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Using an image analyzer, melanin granules were counted on Fontana-Masson-stained sections, and melanosomes were counted on electron micrographs (...) abundant mature melanosomes when compared with controls. Also of note, atypical melanocytes were absent in both specimens. The S100-positive melanocytes were comparable in bimatoprost-treated and control specimens. Few CD3- and CD68-positive cells in the bimatoprost-treated specimens were noted in both groups.Bimatoprost-induced periocular hyperpigmentation is caused by increased melanogenesis. There was no evidence of melanocyte proliferation or prostaglandin-induced inflammation in the specimens

2005 Archives of Ophthalmology

2826. The epidermal stem cell factor is over-expressed in lentigo senilis: implication for the mechanism of hyperpigmentation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The epidermal stem cell factor is over-expressed in lentigo senilis: implication for the mechanism of hyperpigmentation. We previously reported that accentuated expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) cascade is involved in the mechanism of hyperpigmentation in lentigo senilis (LS) lesions. The paracrine mechanism underlying ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation in the skin may involve the stimulation of the ET-1/ET(B)R cascade as well as the stem cell (...) factor (SCF)/SCF receptor cascade. Therefore, we used RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to determine whether accentuated expression of the SCF/SCF receptor cascade is also associated with the mechanism of hyperpigmentation in epidermal LS lesions. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the increased expression of mRNA transcripts for SCF (n=7), but not for SCF receptor (n=6) or growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha) (n=4) in LS lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed markedly stronger staining for SCF

2004 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

2827. Pleomorphic characteristics of a germ-line KIT mutation in a large kindred with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia. (Abstract)

Pleomorphic characteristics of a germ-line KIT mutation in a large kindred with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia. Somatic mutations that result in the activation of the growth factor receptor KIT are commonly found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Six families have been reported in which a germ-line mutation in KIT is associated with an autosomal dominant predisposition to the development of GISTs. Hyperpigmentation, urticaria pigmentosa (...) , and dysphagia have been described in some, but not all, families. Preliminary correlations between the site of mutation and the clinical phenotype have been proposed, but the strength of these associations is not defined.A large kindred with multiple GISTs, hyperpigmentation, and dysphagia was identified after the index case presented with multiple GISTs. A germ-line mutation in KIT (W557R) was identified in an affected cousin, after which a large family meeting was held and testing offered. Clinical data

2004 Clinical Cancer Research

2828. Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis. To improve detection and quantification of peripapillary hyperpigmentation, associated with aging, open-angle glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.A computational approach was implemented with a readily available polarimeter used in glaucoma diagnosis, a nerve fiber analyzer (GDx; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA). Using near-infrared illumination at each of 20 input polarizations, a series (...) of image pairs was digitized. One image is made from the light returning from the eye that is polarized parallel to the input light, and the other image is made from the light that is rotated by 90 degrees from the input polarization. Using raw data from these 40 images, and a simplified model of ocular polarization properties, images were computed based on their polarization content. Regions of hyperpigmentation, selected using stereo color fundus photographs, were quantified in three types

2005 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2829. Tongue and skin hyperpigmentation during PEG-interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy in dark-skinned non-Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C. (Abstract)

Tongue and skin hyperpigmentation during PEG-interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy in dark-skinned non-Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Various skin disorders may occur during antiviral therapy with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) for chronic hepatitis C. This article describes to our knowledge the first report of lingual hyperpigmentation during pegylated (PEG)-IFN/RBV combination therapy in five dark-skinned hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Lingual pigmentation during antiviral

2006 American Journal of Gastroenterology

2830. The Significance of Eccentric and Central Hyperpigmentation, Multifocal Hyper/hypopigmentation, and the Multicomponent Pattern in Melanocytic Lesions Lacking Specific Dermoscopic Features of Melanoma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Significance of Eccentric and Central Hyperpigmentation, Multifocal Hyper/hypopigmentation, and the Multicomponent Pattern in Melanocytic Lesions Lacking Specific Dermoscopic Features of Melanoma. To examine the significance of eccentric hyperpigmentation (EH), central hyperpigmentation (CH), multifocal hyper/hypopigmentation (MH/HP), and the multicomponent pattern (MCP) in melanocytic lesions lacking specific dermoscopic features of melanoma.A total of 3367 benign and malignant melanocytic

2008 Archives of Dermatology

2831. Hyperpigmentation, nail dystrophy and alopecia with generalised intestinal polyposis: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. (Abstract)

Hyperpigmentation, nail dystrophy and alopecia with generalised intestinal polyposis: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. A 62-year-old Malaysian woman presented with a constellation of skin signs including alopecia, hyperpigmentation and nail dystrophy. On questioning, a history of diarrhoea, taste disturbance and weight loss was found. The onset of these changes coincided with the administration of thyroxine prescribed for a benign multinodular goitre. Hormonal investigations showed no abnormality

2008 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

2832. Happle-Tinschert Syndrome. Segmentally Arranged Basaloid Follicular Hamartomas, Linear Atrophoderma with Hypo- and Hyperpigmentation, Enamel Defects, Ipsilateral Hypertrichosis, and Skeletal and Cerebral Anomalies. (Abstract)

Happle-Tinschert Syndrome. Segmentally Arranged Basaloid Follicular Hamartomas, Linear Atrophoderma with Hypo- and Hyperpigmentation, Enamel Defects, Ipsilateral Hypertrichosis, and Skeletal and Cerebral Anomalies. Recently, Happle and Tinschert [Acta Derm Venereol 2008;88:382-387] described the case of a multisystem birth defect with segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with extracutaneous defects in the form of short leg, polydactyly and hypoplastic teeth

2008 Dermatology

2833. Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation: a clinical and histological study of five cases. (Abstract)

Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation: a clinical and histological study of five cases. Palifermin is a human keratinocyte growth factor that is efficacious in reducing duration and severity of oral mucositis during autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for haematological cancer as well as chemotherapy for colorectal cancers. We report the clinical and histological characteristics of a series of five patients who developed flexural hyperpigmentation after treatment (...) with palifermin. All patients showed ill-defined symmetrical hyperpigmented papillomatous plaques with slight erythema in the skin folds, especially affecting axillary and inguinal areas. The most striking histological finding was the thickened granular layer in all patients. We demonstrate that filaggrin, an essential component in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis, was upregulated in these cases. Palifermin-induced flexural hyperpigmentation is a newly defined clinical and histological entity

2008 British Journal of Dermatology

2834. Congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation. (Abstract)

Congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation. We report two cases of congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation on the posterior aspect of bilateral legs in male infants. These lesions appeared shortly after birth and mimicked child abuse with looped cord or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Histopathologic features showed lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia. One of the boys also had severe global developmental delay with abnormal findings from magnetic resonance imaging (...) of the brain. We believe that these lesions represent a new type of congenital hyperpigmentation that we termed "congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation." Although these lesions do not follow the lines of Blaschko, they may also be associated with neurologic and developmental abnormalities.

2005 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

2835. Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus? (Abstract)

Linear hyperpigmentation with extensive epidermal apoptosis: a variant of linear lichen planus pigmentosus? We report 3 female patients who rapidly developed pigmented patches in a linear arrangement. Histologically there was minimum epidermal basal cell damage and bandlike lymphocyte infiltration in the dermis, but focal massive apoptotic materials positively stained with antikeratin antibody were prominently seen in the papillary and subpapillary dermis. We considered these cases as a variant

2004 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

2836. RALGA (Diacneal), a retinaldehyde and glycolic acid association and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in acne--a review. (Abstract)

RALGA (Diacneal), a retinaldehyde and glycolic acid association and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in acne--a review. Acne vulgaris affects 3 out of 4 adolescents and usually vanishes at the end of puberty with either no sequelae or mild to moderate sequelae, such as postinflammatory hyperpigmenation (PIH), which may result in psychological and emotional damages. The poor tolerability of the actual treatments (secondary inflammation) is a hindrance to therapy. Retinaldehyde (RAL

2005 Dermatology

2837. Topical methimazole as a new treatment for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: report of the first case. (Abstract)

Topical methimazole as a new treatment for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: report of the first case. We have previously shown that the peroxidase inhibitor methimazole (1-methyl-2-mercapto imidazole; MMI) is a noncytotoxic inhibitor of melanin production in cultured B16 melanocytes. It was further demonstrated that the topical application of 5% MMI on brown guinea pig skin for 6 weeks causes a significant reduction in the amount of epidermal melanin, resulting in visually recognizable (...) cutaneous depigmentation. Herein, we report a 27-year-old male with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (due to acid burn), successfully treated with topical MMI as a new skin depigmenting agent. Topical 5% MMI caused a moderate to marked improvement of the hyperpigmented lesions within 6 weeks of once-daily application. Topical MMI was well tolerated by the patient and did not affect the level of serum thyroid hormones (free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine and the thyroid-stimulating hormone). Unlike

2005 Dermatology

2838. A new type of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation. (Abstract)

A new type of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation. Pigmentary disorders are recognized adverse effects of the semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative antibiotic, minocycline. Three distinct types of minocycline-induced cutaneous pigmentation have been described. Type I, blue-black pigmentation confined to sites of scarring or inflammation on the face; Type II, blue-grey circumscribed pigmentation of normal skin of the lower legs and forearms; and Type III, diffuse muddy brown (...) to be macrophages. Electron microscopy demonstrated electron-dense granules, free and membrane-bound, within macrophages and fibroblast-like cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of calcium. Iron was absent. This fourth type of cutaneous minocycline hyperpigmentation may be a variant of Type I, but based on clinical, pathological and microanalytical differences, appears to be a new entity. The pigment may be a drug metabolite-protein complex chelated with calcium, or an insoluble

2004 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

2839. Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") can be considered as a melanoma-simulating type of acquired melanocytic nevus. We report on the morphologic changes of this type of melanocytic nevus over a 39-month period of dermoscopic follow-up.A 5-year-old girl had a 4-mm brown papule with a peripheral blue-black area on her right (...) upper arm. The eccentric focus of the hyperpigmentation corresponded dermoscopically to a blue-gray area of pigmentation associated with irregular brown-black globules or dots and partially with a superficial black network. After 39 months, a globular type of acquired melanocytic nevus was detectable, which clinically and dermoscopically appeared to be completely benign. A nearly identical situation was observed in 5 other melanocytic nevi, underlining the involution of the pigmented foci

2006 Archives of Dermatology

2840. Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature. Diltiazem hydrochloride is a commonly prescribed benzothiazepine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recently, 8 cases of diltiazem-induced photodistributed hyperpigmentation occurring predominantly in elderly African American women were reported. Here, we report occurrence for the first time in a light-skinned African (...) spectrum.Photospectrometry analysis revealed diltiazem could demonstrate a photosensitizing effect within the UV-B range. Discontinuation of therapy with diltiazem is the most effective modality in resolving hyperpigmentation. Avoidance of sun exposure and consistent use of sunscreens and sun-protective clothing are indicated for patients undergoing diltiazem therapy.

2006 Archives of Dermatology

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