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Human Trafficking

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161. Identifying and Assisting Sexually Exploited and Trafficked Patients Seeking Women's Health Care Services. (PubMed)

Identifying and Assisting Sexually Exploited and Trafficked Patients Seeking Women's Health Care Services. It is estimated that 21 million people are trafficked worldwide, including 11.4 million women and girls. Approximately 4.5 million are forced to do sexual labor. The exact prevalence of human trafficking is difficult to ascertain, however, given the limitations of data collection in an illegal industry. Obstetrician-gynecologists should not only be aware of the widespread nature of human (...) trafficking, but also have the tools to assess patients for trafficking and respond to victim identifications. Patients may present with signs of physical abuse, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and nonspecific somatic complaints. As with intimate partner violence, clinicians should be suspicious if the patient is accompanied by an individual who refuses to leave her side. Other potential red flags include patients with wounds

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

162. Semaphorin4D drives CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell lesional trafficking in oral lichen planus via CXCL9/CXCL10 upregulations in oral keratinocytes. (PubMed)

. In this study, we sought to explicate the effect of Sema4D on human oral keratinocytes and its capacity to drive CD8+ T-cell lesional trafficking via chemokine modulation. We found that upregulations of sSema4D in OLP tissues and blood were positively correlated with disease severity and activity. In vitro observation revealed that Sema4D induced C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 production by binding to plexin-B1 via protein kinase B-NF-κB cascade in human oral keratinocytes (...) Semaphorin4D drives CD8+ T cell lesional trafficking in oral lichen planus via CXCL9/CXCL10 upregulations in oral keratinocytes. Chemokine-mediated CD8+ T-cell recruitment is an essential but not well-established event for the persistence of oral lichen planus (OLP). Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/CD100 is implicated in immune dysfunction, chemokine modulation, and cell migration, which are critical aspects for OLP progression, but its implication in OLP pathogenesis has not been determined

2017 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

163. The KCNH2-IVS9-28A/G mutation causes aberrant isoform expression and hERG trafficking defect in cardiomyocytes derived from patients affected by Long QT Syndrome type 2. (PubMed)

The KCNH2-IVS9-28A/G mutation causes aberrant isoform expression and hERG trafficking defect in cardiomyocytes derived from patients affected by Long QT Syndrome type 2. Long QT Syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the KCNH2 gene that encodes for the α-subunit (hERG) of the ion channel conducting the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). We have previously identified a disease causing mutation (IVS9-28A/G) in the branch point of the splicing of KCNH2 intron 9. However (...) , the mechanism through which this mutation causes the disease is unknown.We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from fibroblasts of two IVS9-28A/G mutation carriers. IVS9-28A/G iPSC-CMs showed prolonged repolarization time, mimicking what observed at the ECG level in the same patients. The expression of the full-length ERG1a isoform resulted reduced, whereas the C-terminally truncated ERG1aUSO isoform was upregulated in mutant iPSC-CMs, with consequent alteration

2017 International journal of cardiology

164. β<sub>2</sub> Integrins Rather than β<sub>1</sub> Integrins Mediate Alternaria-induced ILC2 Trafficking to the Lung. (PubMed)

β2 Integrins Rather than β1 Integrins Mediate Alternaria-induced ILC2 Trafficking to the Lung. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expand in the lungs of mice during type 2 inflammation induced by the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata. The increase in ILC2 numbers in the lung has been largely attributed to local proliferation and whether ILC2s migrate from the circulation to the lung after Alternaria exposure is unknown.We examined whether human (lung, lymph node (...) , and blood) and mouse lung ILC2s express β1 and β2 integrin adhesion molecules and whether these integrins are required for trafficking of ILC2s into the lungs of mice.Human and mouse ILC2s were assessed for surface expression of β1 and β2 integrin adhesion molecules by using flow cytometry. The role of β1 and β2 integrins in ILC2 trafficking to the lungs was assessed by in vivo blocking of these integrins before airway exposure to Alternaria in mice.Both human and mouse lung ILC2s express high levels

2017 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

165. C9orf72 and RAB7L1 regulate vesicle trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. (PubMed)

to the interaction of C9ORF72 with the RAB7L1 GTPase to regulate vesicle trafficking. Endogenous interaction between C9ORF72 and RAB7L1 was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion led to haploinsufficiency resulting in severely defective intracellular and extracellular vesicle trafficking and a dysfunctional trans-Golgi network phenotype in patient-derived fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons. Genetic ablation of RAB7L1or C9orf72 (...) C9orf72 and RAB7L1 regulate vesicle trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. A non-coding hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), however, the precise molecular mechanism by which the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion directs C9ALS/FTD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel disease mechanism arising due

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2017 Brain

166. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries. (PubMed)

Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries. Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys.We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample (...) of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.Data are presented on 446 males aged 10-58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average

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2016 PLoS ONE

167. Antagonistic regulation of trafficking to Caenorhabditis elegans sensory cilia by a Retinal Degeneration 3 homolog and retromer (PubMed)

Antagonistic regulation of trafficking to Caenorhabditis elegans sensory cilia by a Retinal Degeneration 3 homolog and retromer Sensory neurons often possess cilia with elaborate membrane structures that are adapted to the sensory modality of the host cell. Mechanisms that target sensory transduction proteins to these specialized membrane domains remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a homolog of the human retinal dystrophy gene Retinal Degeneration 3 (RD3) is a Golgi-associated protein (...) required for efficient trafficking of a sensory receptor, the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9, to cilia in chemosensory neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans The trafficking defect caused by mutation of the nematode RD3 homolog is suppressed in vivo by mutation of key components of the retromer complex, which mediates recycling of cargo from endosomes to the Golgi. Our data show that there exists a critical balance in sensory neurons between the rates of anterograde and retrograde

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2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

168. Loss-of-function of the ciliopathy protein Cc2d2a disorganizes the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane and indirectly affects Rab8-trafficking in zebrafish photoreceptors (PubMed)

Loss-of-function of the ciliopathy protein Cc2d2a disorganizes the vesicle fusion machinery at the periciliary membrane and indirectly affects Rab8-trafficking in zebrafish photoreceptors Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated (...) polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors. The link between the TZ and upstream vesicle trafficking has been little explored to date. Moreover, the role of the small GTPase Rab8 in opsin-carrier vesicle (OCV) trafficking has been recently questioned in a mouse

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2017 PLoS genetics

169. The Arf GEF GBF1 and Arf4 synergize with the sensory receptor cargo, rhodopsin, to regulate ciliary membrane trafficking (PubMed)

The Arf GEF GBF1 and Arf4 synergize with the sensory receptor cargo, rhodopsin, to regulate ciliary membrane trafficking The small GTPase Arf4 and the Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ASAP1 cooperatively sequester sensory receptor cargo into transport carriers targeted to primary cilia, but the input that drives Arf4 activation in this process remains unknown. Here, we show, by using frog retinas and recombinant human proteins, that during the carrier biogenesis from the photoreceptor Golgi (...) of newly synthesized rhodopsin in the endomembrane system is essential for GBF1-Arf4 complex formation in vivo Notably, GBF1 interacts with the Arf GAP ASAP1 in a GCA-resistant manner. Our findings indicate that converging signals on GBF1 from the influx of cargo into the Golgi/TGN and the feedback from Arf4, combined with input from ASAP1, control Arf4 activation during sensory membrane trafficking to primary cilia.© 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

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2017 Journal of cell science

170. Vacuolar Trafficking Protein VPS38 Is Dispensable for Autophagy (PubMed)

. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of yeast Vps38p and human UV radiation resistance-associated gene protein. Arabidopsis VPS38 interacts with VPS30/ATG6 both in yeast and in planta. Although the level of PI3P in Arabidopsis vps38 mutants is similar to that in wild type, vps38 cells contain enlarged multivesicular endosomes and fewer organelles enriched in PI3P than the wild type. The vps38 mutants are defective in the trafficking of vacuolar cargo and its receptor (...) Vacuolar Trafficking Protein VPS38 Is Dispensable for Autophagy Phosphatidylinositol 3-P (PI3P) is a signaling molecule that controls a variety of processes in endosomal, autophagic, and vacuolar/lysosomal trafficking in yeasts and mammals. Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) is a conserved PI3K present in multiple complexes with specific functions and regulation. In yeast, the PI3K complex II consists of Vps34p, Vps15p, Vps30p/Atg6p, and Vps38p, and is essential for vacuolar protein sorting

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2017 Plant physiology

171. Kinesin KIF4A is associated with chemotherapeutic drug resistance by regulating intracellular trafficking of lung resistance-related protein (PubMed)

Kinesin KIF4A is associated with chemotherapeutic drug resistance by regulating intracellular trafficking of lung resistance-related protein Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major impediment to cancer chemotherapy. The expression of lung resistance-related protein (LRP), a non-ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is high in tumor cells, resulting in their resistance to a variety of cytotoxic drugs. However, the function of LRP in tumor drug resistance is not yet explicit. Our previous (...) studies had shown that Kinesin KIF4A was overexpressed in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549/DDP cells) compared with A549 cells. The expression of KIF4A in A549 or A549/DDP cells significantly affects cisplatin resistance but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments to show that the tail domain of KIF4A interacted with the N-terminal of LRP. Immunofluorescence images showed that both the ability of binding to LRP

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2017 Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B

172. Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women’s health (PubMed)

and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways.Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing (...) Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women’s health Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings

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2017 The Linacre Quarterly

173. Altered synaptobrevin-II trafficking in neurons expressing a synaptophysin mutation associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder (PubMed)

Altered synaptobrevin-II trafficking in neurons expressing a synaptophysin mutation associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder Following exocytosis, synaptic vesicles (SVs) have to be reformed with the correct complement of proteins in the correct stoichiometry to ensure continued neurotransmission. Synaptophysin is a highly abundant, integral SV protein necessary for the efficient retrieval of the SV SNARE protein, synaptobrevin II (sybII). However the molecular mechanism (...) . This suggested the mutant has no global effect on SV endocytosis, which was confirmed when retrieval of a different SV cargo (the glutamate transporter vGLUT1) was examined. However neurons expressing this T198I mutant did display impaired activity-dependent sybII retrieval, similar to that observed in synaptophysin knockout neurons. Interestingly this impairment did not result in an increased stranding of sybII at the plasma membrane. Screening of known human synaptophysin mutations revealed a similar

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2017 Neurobiology of disease

174. TC-PTP nuclear trafficking in keratinocytes (PubMed)

TC-PTP nuclear trafficking in keratinocytes 29232657 2019 03 07 2019 03 07 1945-4589 9 12 2017 Dec 12 Aging Aging (Albany NY) TC-PTP nuclear trafficking in keratinocytes. 2459-2460 10.18632/aging.101345 Kim Mihwa M Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78541, USA. Morales Liza D LD Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78541, USA. Kim Dae Joon DJ Department (...) of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78541, USA. eng R01 ES022250 ES NIEHS NIH HHS United States Editorial United States Aging (Albany NY) 101508617 1945-4589 EC 3.1.3.48 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2 IM Animals Cell Nucleus metabolism Cell Proliferation physiology Cell Survival physiology Humans Keratinocytes metabolism radiation effects Protein Transport physiology radiation effects Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor

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2017 Aging (Albany NY)

175. Subcellular Trafficking of the Papillomavirus Genome during Initial Infection: The Remarkable Abilities of Minor Capsid Protein L2 (PubMed)

Subcellular Trafficking of the Papillomavirus Genome during Initial Infection: The Remarkable Abilities of Minor Capsid Protein L2 Since 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on myriad host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent (...) endeavors has been the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.

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2017 Viruses

176. cTAGE5 deletion in pancreatic β cells impairs proinsulin trafficking and insulin biogenesis in mice (PubMed)

expression of human cTAGE5/MEA6 in β cells can rescue not only the defect in islet structure, but also dysfunctional insulin biogenesis and glucose intolerance on cTAGE5/Mea6 conditional knockout background. Together our data provide more insight into the underlying mechanism of the proinsulin trafficking pathway.© 2017 Fan et al. (...) cTAGE5 deletion in pancreatic β cells impairs proinsulin trafficking and insulin biogenesis in mice Proinsulin is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pancreatic β cells and transported to the Golgi apparatus for proper processing and secretion into plasma. Defects in insulin biogenesis may cause diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for proinsulin transport are still not fully understood. We show that β cell-specific deletion of cTAGE5, also known as Mea6, leads

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2017 The Journal of cell biology

177. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 peptide inhibits pathogenic leukocyte trafficking and inflammatory demyelination in experimental models of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (PubMed)

intraperitoneal injection with appropriate controls. Neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, motor nerve electrophysiology assessments and histopathological quantification of inflammation and morphometric assessment of demyelination were performed to determine in vivo efficacy. The biological relevance of FNCS1 and CD49d in CIDP was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection in affected patient sural nerve biopsies. 25μM FNCS1 peptide maximally inhibited CIDP leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB (...) Fibronectin connecting segment-1 peptide inhibits pathogenic leukocyte trafficking and inflammatory demyelination in experimental models of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy The molecular determinants of pathogenic leukocyte migration across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are unknown. Specific disease modifying therapies for CIDP are also lacking. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 (FNCS1), an alternatively

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2017 Experimental neurology

178. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury (PubMed)

Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal (...) laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157 OMVs carry a cocktail of key virulence factors of EHEC O157 including Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a), cytolethal distending toxin V (CdtV), EHEC hemolysin, and flagellin. The toxins are internalized by cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs

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2017 PLoS pathogens

179. Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential for Endoplasmic Reticulum to Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport (PubMed)

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential for Endoplasmic Reticulum to Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known (...) as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), we find these conventional pathways for ER to the mitochondria trafficking are dispensable for vMIA

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2017 Scientific reports

180. Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface (PubMed)

Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface During pregnancy, placental trophoblasts at the feto-maternal interface produce a broad repertoire of microRNA (miRNA) species. These species include miRNA from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC), which is expressed nearly exclusively in the placenta. Trafficking of these miRNAs among the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments is unknown. To determine miRNA expression and trafficking (...) patterns during pregnancy, we sequenced miRNAs in triads of human placenta and of maternal and fetal blood and found large subject-to-subject variability, with C19MC exhibiting compartment-specific expression. We therefore created humanized mice that transgenically express the entire 160-kb human C19MC locus or lentivirally express C19MC miRNA members selectively in the placenta. C19MC transgenic mice expressed a low level of C19MC miRNAs in diverse organs. When pregnant, female C19MC mice exhibited

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2017 The FASEB Journal

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