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Human Trafficking

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81. Antibody-mediated inhibition of syndecan-4 dimerisation reduces interleukin (IL)-1 receptor trafficking and signalling. (Full text)

caveolin vesicle-mediated trafficking of the IL1R1, which in turn determines the responsiveness to IL-1. Administration of antibodies (Ab) against the dimerisation domain of sdc4, thus, strongly reduces the expression IL1R1 on arthritic fibroblasts both in vitro and an animal model of human RA.Collectively, our data suggest that Ab that specifically inhibit sdc4 dimerisation may support anti-IL-1 strategies in diseases such as inflammatory arthritis.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020 (...) Antibody-mediated inhibition of syndecan-4 dimerisation reduces interleukin (IL)-1 receptor trafficking and signalling. Syndecan-4 (sdc4) is a cell-anchored proteoglycan that consists of a transmembrane core protein and glucosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. Binding of soluble factors to the GAG chains of sdc4 may result in the dimerisation of sdc4 and the initiation of downstream signalling cascades. However, the question of how sdc4 dimerisation and signalling affects the response of cells

2020 Annals of the rheumatic diseases PubMed abstract

82. Review of Published Curriculum on Sex Trafficking for Undergraduate Medical Trainees. (Abstract)

of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, MedEdPORTAL, Google Scholar, and Google was conducted in December 2018 to January 2019 using the search terms: human trafficking OR sex traffic OR sex violence OR sex work OR sex exploitation OR child prostitution AND education, medical, undergraduate OR students, medical OR medical student or medical education OR education, medical. The inclusion criteria included informational educational materials for medical students on sex trafficking. Studies were excluded for: non (...) Review of Published Curriculum on Sex Trafficking for Undergraduate Medical Trainees. Educational councils and medical societies recommend that medical students learn to recognize and care for victims of sex trafficking. Previous research has found that healthcare providers are one of the few professionals to interact with sex trafficking victims during exploitation. This review evaluates currently published curricular and extracurricular U.S. medical education resources. A literature review

2020 American journal of preventive medicine

83. Cell-Free versus Cell-to-Cell Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: Exploring the Link among Viral Source, Viral Trafficking, and Viral Replication (Full text)

Cell-Free versus Cell-to-Cell Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: Exploring the Link among Viral Source, Viral Trafficking, and Viral Replication Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are complex retroviruses mainly infecting CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In addition, antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are targeted in vivo by both viruses, although to a lesser extent. Interaction (...) of HIV-1 with DCs plays a key role in viral dissemination from the mucosa to CD4(+) T lymphocytes present in lymphoid organs. While similar mechanisms may occur for HTLV-1 as well, most HTLV-1 data were obtained from T-cell studies, and little is known regarding the trafficking of this virus in DCs. We first compared the efficiency of cell-free versus cell-associated viral sources of both retroviruses at infecting DCs. We showed that both HIV-1 and HTLV-1 cell-free particles are poorly efficient

2016 Journal of virology PubMed abstract

84. Disrupted ER‐to‐Golgi trafficking underlies anti‐HIV drugs and alcohol‐induced cellular stress and hepatic injury (Full text)

Disrupted ER‐to‐Golgi trafficking underlies anti‐HIV drugs and alcohol‐induced cellular stress and hepatic injury Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs and alcohol-induced liver disease in a significant number of patients infected with HIV. However, the precise mechanism by which the drugs and alcohol cause ER stress remains elusive. We found that ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (RL) activated two (...) dislocation and ER stress. Moreover, the coat protein complex II (COPII) complexes that mediate ER-to-Golgi trafficking accumulated in the RL-treated liver cells; this was not due to interference of RL with the initial assembly of the COPII complexes. RL also inhibited Golgi fragmentation and reassembly induced by short treatment and removal of brefeldin A.Our study indicates that ER-to-Golgi trafficking is disrupted by anti-HIV drugs and/or alcohol, and this contributes to subsequent ER stress

2017 Hepatology communications PubMed abstract

85. Trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for marriage in China (Full text)

of individuals from five services in Vietnam were invited to be interviewed within the first 2 weeks of admission. It is part of a wider dataset for research on the health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the largest study to date on human trafficking and health. We calculated proportions for all variables and conducted bivariate analyses using Fisher Exact Tests for their associations with mental health disorders symptoms.Before leaving home, 31 (...) Trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for marriage in China Bride-trafficking has been a growing phenomenon in Southeast Asia, particularly in China, where one-child policies have resulted in demographic imbalances favoring males. Yet, empirical evidence about women and girls sold into marriage in China remains sparse.This study describes the experiences of 51 Vietnamese women and girls as young as 14 in post-trafficking services who were sold into marriage in China. A consecutive sample

2017 Global health research and policy PubMed abstract

86. A specialized pathway for erythroid iron delivery through lysosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor 2 (Full text)

A specialized pathway for erythroid iron delivery through lysosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor 2 Erythroid progenitors are the largest consumers of iron in the human body. In these cells, a high flux of iron must reach the mitochondrial matrix to form sufficient heme to support hemoglobinization. Canonical erythroid iron trafficking occurs via the first transferrin receptor (TfR1)-mediated endocytosis of diferric-transferrin into recycling endosomes, where ferric iron is released (...) in mitochondrial maintenance. Human TFR2 shares a lineage- and stage-specific expression pattern with MCOLN1, encoding a lysosomal iron channel, and MFN2, encoding a protein mediating organelle contacts. Functional studies reveal these latter factors to be involved in mitochondrial regulation and erythroid differentiation, with Mfn2 required for mitochondrial-lysosomal contacts. These findings identify a new pathway for erythroid iron trafficking involving TfR2-mediated lysosomal delivery followed

2017 Blood advances PubMed abstract

87. TBC1D8B Loss-of-Function Mutations Lead to X-Linked Nephrotic Syndrome via Defective Trafficking Pathways. (Full text)

TBC1D8B Loss-of-Function Mutations Lead to X-Linked Nephrotic Syndrome via Defective Trafficking Pathways. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is characterized by high-range proteinuria and most often focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Identification of mutations in genes causing SRNS has improved our understanding of disease mechanisms and highlighted defects in the podocyte, a highly specialized glomerular epithelial cell, as major factors in disease pathogenesis. By exome (...) sequencing, we identified missense mutations in TBC1D8B in two families with an X-linked early-onset SRNS with FSGS. TBC1D8B is an uncharacterized Rab-GTPase-activating protein likely involved in endocytic and recycling pathways. Immunofluorescence studies revealed TBC1D8B presence in human glomeruli, and affected individual podocytes displayed architectural changes associated with migration defects commonly found in FSGS. In zebrafish we demonstrated that both knockdown and knockout of the unique

2019 American Journal of Human Genetics PubMed abstract

88. Butyrate ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by limiting eosinophil trafficking and survival. (Full text)

Butyrate ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by limiting eosinophil trafficking and survival. Lung eosinophilia is a hallmark of asthma, and eosinophils are believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced in high amounts in the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria and can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Although there is recent evidence that SCFAs (...) are beneficial in allergic asthma models, the effect on eosinophils has remained elusive.The role of SCFAs was investigated in human eosinophil function and a mouse model of allergic asthma.Eosinophils were purified from self-reported allergic or healthy donors. Migration, adhesion to the endothelium, and eosinophil survival were studied in vitro. Ca2+ flux, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of surface markers were determined by using flow cytometry and in part by using real-time

2019 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology PubMed abstract

89. Preservation of Acyl-CoA Attenuates Pathological and Metabolic Cardiac Remodeling Through Selective Lipid Trafficking. (Full text)

accelerated LCFA uptake, preventing C16 acyl CoA loss post-TAC. Long-chain acyl CoA was similarly reduced in human failing myocardium and restored to control levels by mechanical unloading. ACSL1 trafficked LCFA into ceramides without normalizing the reduced triglyceride storage in TAC. ACSL1 prevented de novo synthesis of cardiotoxic C16- and C24-, and C24:1 ceramides and increased potentially cardioprotective C20- and C22-ceramides post-TAC. ACLS1 overexpression activated AMPK at baseline, but during (...) TAC, prevented the reduced LCFA oxidation in hypertrophic hearts and normalized energy state (phosphocreatine:ATP) and consequently, AMPK activation.This is the first demonstration of reduced acyl CoA in failing hearts of humans and mice, and suggests possible mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism by restoring long-chain acyl CoA through ASCL1 activation and mechanical unloading. By mitigating cardiac lipotoxicity, via redirected LCFA trafficking to ceramide

2019 Circulation PubMed abstract

90. Immune Cell Trafficking to the Liver. (Abstract)

Immune Cell Trafficking to the Liver. The human liver is an organ with a diverse array of immunologic functions. Its unique anatomic position that leads to it receiving all the mesenteric venous blood, combined with its unique micro anatomy, allows it to serve as a sentinel for the body's immune system. Hepatocytes, biliary epithelial cells, Kupffer cells, stellate cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells express key molecules that recruit and activate innate and adaptive immunity (...) . Additionally, a diverse array of lymphoid and myeloid immune cells resides within and traffics to the liver in specific circumstances. Derangement of these trafficking mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of autoimmune liver diseases, NASH, and liver transplantation. Here, we review these pathways and interactions along with potential targets that have been identified to be exploited for therapeutic purposes.

2019 Transplantation

91. Antipsychotics Promote Metabolic Disorders Disrupting Cellular Lipid Metabolism and Trafficking. (Abstract)

Antipsychotics Promote Metabolic Disorders Disrupting Cellular Lipid Metabolism and Trafficking. Antipsychotics frequently cause obesity and related metabolic disorders that current psychopharmacological/endocrinological theories do not explain consistently. An integrative/alternative theory implies metabolic alterations happening at the cellular level. Many observations in vitro and in vivo, and pivotal observations in humans, point towards chemical properties of antipsychotics, independent (...) of receptor binding characteristics. Being amphiphilic weak bases, antipsychotics can disrupt lysosomal function, affecting cholesterol trafficking; moreover, by chemical mimicry, antipsychotics can inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. These two molecular adverse effects may trigger a cascade of transcriptional and biochemical events, ultimately reducing available cholesterol while increasing cholesterol precursors and fatty acids. The macroscopic manifestation of these molecular alterations includes

2019 Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism

92. How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking

How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking | unfoundation.org How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking By Guest Blogger on December 12, 2017 By Jessica Lee Murison, UNA-Denver Chapter Secretary In honor of UN Day this year, the and its national network of Chapters hosted events across the U.S. honoring local champions of the Sustainable Development Goals (...) . As part of this initiative, my local Chapter in Denver (UNA-Denver) held a special event focused on the work of advocates in Colorado addressing the terrors of human trafficking. There are many horrific facts on the realities of human trafficking, but this one sticks out most to me: The of human trafficking victims (71%) are women and girls, and one third are children. As Secretary-General António Guterres has said, “Human trafficking is all around us, in all regions of the world,” and this includes

2017 United Nations Foundation blog

93. Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking

Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking | unfoundation.org Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking By Guest Blogger on July 27, 2017 By Amanda Kabonero, UN Foundation Public Affairs Summer 2017 Intern Sunday, July 30, marks the fourth annual World Day Against Trafficking in Persons to “raise awareness of the situation of victims of human trafficking and for the promotion and protection of their rights.” Human trafficking (...) transcends borders; therefore, the international community must act to help the tens of millions of victims of modern slavery, forced labor, trafficking, and sexual exploitation around the world. The United Nations explicitly mentions human trafficking in goals 5, 8, and 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals, and as the world recognizes the global importance of achieving the SDGs, it is imperative that efforts to end human trafficking remain a priority. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is one

2017 United Nations Foundation blog

94. Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking

Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking - Students 4 Best Evidence A network for students interested in evidence-based health care Menu Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking Posted on March 10, 2017 by Evidence Reviews This is a summary of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of mental health professionals who provide care to victims of human trafficking. Introduction Human trafficking is a crime which involves (...) the recruitment of people for exploitation through coercion, threat, or deception. Hundreds of thousands of people fall victim to this crime, and every year, thousands are being forced into labor, sex work, criminality, and domestic servitude. Among survivors of human trafficking, the research shows a high prevalence of PTSD, depression, and anxiety (e.g. Oram, 2012). Therefore, it is necessary to provide access to mental heath services and support systems for these victims. Research shows that health

2017 Students 4 Best Evidence

95. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. (Full text)

Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. Human trafficking is a significant human rights problem that is often associated with psychological and physical violence. There is no demographic that is spared from human trafficking. Traffickers maintain control of victims through physical, sexual, and emotional violence and manipulation. Because victims of trafficking seek medical attention for the medical and psychological consequences of assault (...) and neglected health conditions, emergency clinicians are in a unique position to recognize victims and intervene. Evaluation of possible trafficking victims is challenging because patients who have been exploited rarely self-identify. This article outlines the clinical approach to the identification and treatment of a potential victim of human trafficking in the emergency department. Emergency practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients who appear to be at risk

2016 Annals of Emergency Medicine PubMed abstract

96. Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England. (Full text)

Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England. To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country.Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014.Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29 (...) %), domestic servitude (29.3%), and labor exploitation (40.4%). Sixty-six percent of women reported forced sex during trafficking, including 95% of those trafficked for sexual exploitation and 54% of those trafficked for domestic servitude. Twenty-one percent of men and 24% of women reported ongoing injuries, and 8% of men and 23% of women reported diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. Finally, 78% of women and 40% of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder

2016 American Journal of Public Health PubMed abstract

97. Human trafficking and severe mental illness: an economic analysis of survivors' use of psychiatric services. (Full text)

Human trafficking and severe mental illness: an economic analysis of survivors' use of psychiatric services. Previous studies have found a high prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of human trafficking. European countries are required to assist trafficked people in their psychological recovery, but there are no rigorous data on the costs of doing so. The objectives of this study were to quantify the use of secondary mental health services (...) by survivors of human trafficking; to estimate the cost of survivors' use of secondary mental health services provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS); and to identify factors that predict higher costs of mental health service provision.Historical cohort study of psychiatric patients who had experienced human trafficking. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS) database was used to identify anonymised full patient records

2016 BMC health services research PubMed abstract

98. Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report. (Abstract)

Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report. Human trafficking victims experience extreme exploitation and have unique health needs, yet too often go undetected by physicians and providers in the Emergency Department (ED). We report a clinical case of human trafficking of a white, English-speaking United States citizen and discuss the features of presentation and treatment options for human trafficking victims upon presentation (...) to the ED.A 29-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for intravenous drug abuse and recent relapse presented to the ED after a reported sexual assault. The patient was discharged that evening and returned to the ED the following day acutely suicidal. The patient divulged that she had been kidnapped and raped at gunpoint by numerous individuals as a result of a debt owed to her drug dealers. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Many human trafficking victims present

2016 Journal of Emergency Medicine

99. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies (Full text)

A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins (...) to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

2016 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences PubMed abstract

100. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy (Full text)

Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils (...) enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles - EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators

2016 Experimental cell research PubMed abstract

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