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Human Trafficking

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81. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. (PubMed)

Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. Human trafficking is a significant human rights problem that is often associated with psychological and physical violence. There is no demographic that is spared from human trafficking. Traffickers maintain control of victims through physical, sexual, and emotional violence and manipulation. Because victims of trafficking seek medical attention for the medical and psychological consequences of assault (...) and neglected health conditions, emergency clinicians are in a unique position to recognize victims and intervene. Evaluation of possible trafficking victims is challenging because patients who have been exploited rarely self-identify. This article outlines the clinical approach to the identification and treatment of a potential victim of human trafficking in the emergency department. Emergency practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients who appear to be at risk

2016 Annals of Emergency Medicine

82. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam. (PubMed)

"Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam. Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic (...) analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural

2016 Qualitative Health Research

83. Doctors need to recognize the signs of human trafficking. Here’s how.

Doctors need to recognize the signs of human trafficking. Here’s how. Doctors need to recognize the signs of human trafficking. Here's how. Doctors need to recognize the signs of human trafficking. Here’s how. | | May 15, 2016 469 Shares It was 2 a.m. on a typically hectic Friday overnight shift in the emergency department. A young woman, Kelly, checked into triage, accompanied by her older boyfriend Jim, who explained that Kelly had abdominal pain and some vaginal bleeding. Jim wanted her (...) is in control of the situation. Kelly is young, maybe very young. As a clinician I must consider Kelly’s living situation, and her relationship with Jim. As emergency care providers, it is standard practice for us to separate patients from their visitors long enough to at least ask about domestic violence. And for most of us, that would likely be the first concern in this case. But Kelly is actually a victim of human trafficking. By definition, human trafficking, sometimes referred to as modern day slavery

2016 KevinMD blog

84. Human cytomegalovirus gH stability and trafficking are regulated by ER-associated degradation and transmembrane architecture (PubMed)

Human cytomegalovirus gH stability and trafficking are regulated by ER-associated degradation and transmembrane architecture The prototypic betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (CMV) establishes life-long persistence within its human host. While benign in healthy individuals, CMV poses a significant threat to the immune compromised, including transplant recipients and neonates. The CMV glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gO mediates infection of fibroblasts, and together with the gH/gL/UL128/130/131 (...) a pentameric complex permits infection of epithelial, endothethial, and myeloid cells. Given the central role of the gH/gL complex during infection, we were interested in studying cellular trafficking of the gH/gL complex through generation of human cells that stably express gH and gL. When expressed alone, CMV gH and gL were degraded through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. However, co-expression of these proteins stabilized the polypeptides and enhanced their cell-surface expression

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2016 Scientific reports

85. HIV-tat alters Connexin43 expression and trafficking in human astrocytes: role in NeuroAIDS (PubMed)

HIV-tat alters Connexin43 expression and trafficking in human astrocytes: role in NeuroAIDS HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a major complication in at least half of the infected population despite effective antiretroviral treatment and immune reconstitution. HIV-associated CNS damage is not correlated with active viral replication but instead is associated with mechanisms that regulate inflammation and neuronal compromise. Our data indicate that one of these mechanisms (...) is mediated by gap junction channels and/or hemichannels. Normally, gap junction channels shutdown under inflammatory conditions, including viral diseases. However, HIV infection upregulates Connexin43 (Cx43) expression and maintains gap junctional communication by unknown mechanism(s).Human primary astrocytes were exposed to several HIV proteins as well as to HIV, and expression and function of Connexin43- and Connexin30-containing channels were determined by western blot, immunofluorescence

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2016 Journal of neuroinflammation

86. Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Human Trafficking Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Human Trafficking Human Trafficking Aka: Human (...) Trafficking , Human Sex Trafficking , Sex Trafficking , Forced Labor , Sexual Slavery , Slavery , Organ Trafficking From Related Chapters II. Definition Human Trafficking Persons forced or coerced into exploitation (e.g. Forced Labor, Sexual Slavery, Organ Trafficking) III. Epidemiology Affects more than 27 Million persons annually worldwide ($10-30 Billion global industry) U.N. estimates up to 20% of donors were coerced into organ donation via black market Affects at least 17,000 s brought to the United

2018 FP Notebook

87. Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report. (PubMed)

Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report. Human trafficking victims experience extreme exploitation and have unique health needs, yet too often go undetected by physicians and providers in the Emergency Department (ED). We report a clinical case of human trafficking of a white, English-speaking United States citizen and discuss the features of presentation and treatment options for human trafficking victims upon presentation (...) to the ED.A 29-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for intravenous drug abuse and recent relapse presented to the ED after a reported sexual assault. The patient was discharged that evening and returned to the ED the following day acutely suicidal. The patient divulged that she had been kidnapped and raped at gunpoint by numerous individuals as a result of a debt owed to her drug dealers. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Many human trafficking victims present

2016 Journal of Emergency Medicine

88. Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: a systematic review. Despite the multiple physical and psychological health consequences associated with human trafficking, there is little evidence-based guidance available for health providers on assessing and meeting the health needs of trafficked people. We aimed to review literature that provided guidance or research on care provision for people who had been trafficked.We conducted a systematic review and qualitative (...) analysis of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Data sources included electronic databases, reference list screening, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. Documents were included if they reported on: 1) male or females (adults or children) who were currently or had previously been trafficked; 2) health interventions or service provision; 3) primary, secondary, tertiary or specialist post-trafficking services; and 4) World Bank high income countries. Two reviewers independently screened

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2016 BMC health services research

89. Human trafficking and severe mental illness: an economic analysis of survivors' use of psychiatric services. (PubMed)

Human trafficking and severe mental illness: an economic analysis of survivors' use of psychiatric services. Previous studies have found a high prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of human trafficking. European countries are required to assist trafficked people in their psychological recovery, but there are no rigorous data on the costs of doing so. The objectives of this study were to quantify the use of secondary mental health services (...) by survivors of human trafficking; to estimate the cost of survivors' use of secondary mental health services provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS); and to identify factors that predict higher costs of mental health service provision.Historical cohort study of psychiatric patients who had experienced human trafficking. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS) database was used to identify anonymised full patient records

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2016 BMC health services research

90. Analysis of SCAP N-glycosylation and Trafficking in Human Cells (PubMed)

Analysis of SCAP N-glycosylation and Trafficking in Human Cells Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays (...) a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation. Recently, we uncovered that glucose-mediated N-glycosylation of SCAP is a prerequisite condition for the exit of SCAP/SREBP from the ER and movement to the Golgi. N-glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and directs SCAP/SREBP trafficking. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of membrane fractions in human cells and for the preparation of the samples for the detection

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2016 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

91. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study (PubMed)

Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking (...) regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated

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2016 Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

92. Trafficking of AAV vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells (PubMed)

Trafficking of AAV vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following (...) intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown. Furthermore, possibilities that AAV9 may transduce brain endothelial cells or affect BBB integrity still require investigation. Using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells as a model of the human BBB, we performed transduction and transendothelial trafficking

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2016 Journal of neurochemistry

93. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular therapies for peripheral neuroinflammation (PubMed)

Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular therapies for peripheral neuroinflammation Peripheral neuroinflammation is characterized by hematogenous mononuclear leukocyte infiltration into peripheral nerves. Despite significant clinical knowledge, advancements in molecular biology and progress in developing specific drugs for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple (...) sclerosis, there are currently no specific therapies that modulate pathogenic peripheral nerve inflammation. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the blood-nerve barrier using a reliable human in vitro model and potential intravital microscopy techniques in representative animal models guided by human observational data should facilitate the targeted modulation of the complex inflammatory cascade needed to develop safe and efficacious therapeutics for immune-mediated neuropathies and chronic neuropathic

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2016 Journal of neuroinflammation

94. α-Synuclein–induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models (PubMed)

α-Synuclein–induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn). A major barrier in treatment discovery for PD is the lack of identifiable therapeutic pathways capable of reducing aggregates in human neuronal model systems. Mutations in key components of protein (...) trafficking and cellular degradation machinery represent important risk factors for PD; however, their precise role in disease progression and interaction with α-syn remains unclear. Here, we find that α-syn accumulation reduced lysosomal degradation capacity in human midbrain dopamine models of synucleinopathies through disrupting hydrolase trafficking. Accumulation of α-syn at the cell body resulted in aberrant association with cis-Golgi-tethering factor GM130 and disrupted the endoplasmic reticulum

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2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

95. Human Trafficking Identification and Service Provision in the Medical and Social Service Sectors (PubMed)

Human Trafficking Identification and Service Provision in the Medical and Social Service Sectors The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked (...) by rights-based approaches to anti-trafficking efforts that addresses the practical challenges of human trafficking victim identification while simultaneously working to provide resources and disseminate services to those victims.

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2016 Health and human rights

96. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain (PubMed)

Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein (...) , we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans

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2016 PloS one

97. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies (PubMed)

A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins (...) to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

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2016 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

98. The immune receptor Tim-3 acts as a trafficker in a Tim-3/galectin-9 autocrine loop in human myeloid leukemia cells (PubMed)

The immune receptor Tim-3 acts as a trafficker in a Tim-3/galectin-9 autocrine loop in human myeloid leukemia cells The immune receptor Tim-3 is often highly expressed in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells where it acts as a growth factor and inflammatory receptor. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Tim-3 forms an autocrine loop with its natural ligand galectin-9 in human AML cells. However, the pathophysiological functions of Tim-3 in human AML cells remain unclear. Here, we report (...) for the first time that Tim-3 is required for galectin-9 secretion in human AML cells. However, this effect is cell-type specific and was found so far to be applicable only to myeloid (and not, for example, lymphoid) leukemia cells. We concluded that AML cells might use Tim-3 as a trafficker for the secretion of galectin-9 which can then be possibly used to impair the anticancer activities of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells.

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2016 Oncoimmunology

99. Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England. (PubMed)

Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England. To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country.Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014.Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29 (...) %), domestic servitude (29.3%), and labor exploitation (40.4%). Sixty-six percent of women reported forced sex during trafficking, including 95% of those trafficked for sexual exploitation and 54% of those trafficked for domestic servitude. Twenty-one percent of men and 24% of women reported ongoing injuries, and 8% of men and 23% of women reported diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. Finally, 78% of women and 40% of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder

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2016 American Journal of Public Health

100. Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review. (PubMed)

Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review. To update and expand on a 2012 systematic review of the prevalence and risk of violence and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental and sexual health problems among trafficked people.Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of 15 electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and doctoral theses were supplemented by reference screening (...) -traumatic stress disorder. Although serological data on sexually transmitted infections are limited, women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation self-report symptoms suggestive of a high prevalence of infections. Limitations of the review include methodological weaknesses of primary studies and some differences in definition and operationalisation of trafficking, which hinder comparability and generalisability of the results.There is increasing evidence human trafficking is associated with high

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2016 Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences

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