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Human Trafficking

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41. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern. (PubMed)

Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern. In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

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2017 PLoS medicine

42. How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking

How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking | unfoundation.org How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking How Colorado is Taking Action Against Human Trafficking By Guest Blogger on December 12, 2017 By Jessica Lee Murison, UNA-Denver Chapter Secretary In honor of UN Day this year, the and its national network of Chapters hosted events across the U.S. honoring local champions of the Sustainable Development Goals (...) . As part of this initiative, my local Chapter in Denver (UNA-Denver) held a special event focused on the work of advocates in Colorado addressing the terrors of human trafficking. There are many horrific facts on the realities of human trafficking, but this one sticks out most to me: The of human trafficking victims (71%) are women and girls, and one third are children. As Secretary-General António Guterres has said, “Human trafficking is all around us, in all regions of the world,” and this includes

2017 United Nations Foundation blog

43. Implementation of Human Trafficking Education and Treatment Algorithm in the Emergency Department. (PubMed)

Implementation of Human Trafficking Education and Treatment Algorithm in the Emergency Department. Health care professionals have not been successful in recognizing or rescuing victims of human trafficking. The purpose of this project was to implement a screening system and treatment algorithm in the emergency department to improve the identification and rescue of victims of human trafficking. The lack of recognition by health care professionals is related to inadequate education and training (...) tools and confusion with other forms of violence such as trauma and sexual assault.A multidisciplinary team was formed to assess the evidence related to human trafficking and make recommendations for practice. After receiving education, staff completed a survey about knowledge gained from the training. An algorithm for identification and treatment of sex trafficking victims was implemented and included a 2-pronged identification approach: (1) medical red flags created by a risk-assessment tool

2017 Journal of Emergency Nursing

44. Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking

Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking - Students 4 Best Evidence A network for students interested in evidence-based health care Menu Providing Care to Victims of Human Trafficking Posted on March 10, 2017 by Evidence Reviews This is a summary of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of mental health professionals who provide care to victims of human trafficking. Introduction Human trafficking is a crime which involves (...) the recruitment of people for exploitation through coercion, threat, or deception. Hundreds of thousands of people fall victim to this crime, and every year, thousands are being forced into labor, sex work, criminality, and domestic servitude. Among survivors of human trafficking, the research shows a high prevalence of PTSD, depression, and anxiety (e.g. Oram, 2012). Therefore, it is necessary to provide access to mental heath services and support systems for these victims. Research shows that health

2017 Students 4 Best Evidence

45. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation (PubMed)

Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical (...) : Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

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2017 Medical education online

46. A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment (PubMed)

A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi compartment-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 proteins fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) identified amino acids 23 to 34 as important determinants for its (...) Golgi complex localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YXXΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YXXΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection. Mutation of both the tyrosine residue and the entire YXXΦ motif resulted in an altered distribution of mutant pUL71 at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm during infection. Both YXXΦ mutant viruses exhibited similarly decreased focal

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2017 Journal of virology

47. GADD34 function in protein trafficking promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress in human corneal cells (PubMed)

GADD34 function in protein trafficking promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress in human corneal cells GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation (...) includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake. Here, we show that GADD34 promotes the processing of proteins synthesized on the ER during hyperosmotic stress independent of its action in the ISR. We show that GADD34/PP1 phosphatase activity reverses hyperosmotic-stress-induced Golgi fragmentation and is important for cis- to trans-Golgi trafficking

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2017 Cell reports

48. Live Cell Imaging and 3D Analysis of Angiotensin Receptor Type 1a Trafficking in Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney Cells Using Confocal Microscopy (PubMed)

Live Cell Imaging and 3D Analysis of Angiotensin Receptor Type 1a Trafficking in Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney Cells Using Confocal Microscopy Live-cell imaging is used to simultaneously capture time-lapse images of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR) and intracellular compartments in transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK) cells following stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II). HEK cells are transiently transfected with plasmid DNA containing AT1aR tagged with enhanced green (...) fluorescent protein (EGFP). Lysosomes are identified with a red fluorescent dye. Live-cell images are captured on a laser scanning confocal microscope after Ang II stimulation and analyzed by software in three dimensions (3D, voxels) over time. Live-cell imaging enables investigations into receptor trafficking and avoids confounds associated with fixation, and in particular, the loss or artefactual displacement of EGFP-tagged membrane receptors. Thus, as individual cells are tracked through time

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2017 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

49. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells (PubMed)

An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several (...) novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

50. Human and mouse microarrays-guided expression analysis of membrane protein trafficking-related genes in MDCK cells, a canine epithelial model for apical and basolateral differential protein targeting (PubMed)

Human and mouse microarrays-guided expression analysis of membrane protein trafficking-related genes in MDCK cells, a canine epithelial model for apical and basolateral differential protein targeting MDCK cells are widely used to study the differential targeting of membrane transporters to apical and basolateral membrane but its canine origin limited the commercial tools available for the analysis of protein trafficking machinery. Because apical and basolateral membranes are only found (...) in differentiated epithelial cells, genes critical for differential targeting may be specifically up-regulated upon MDCK cell differentiation. To search for these genes, a cross-species screening strategy was used. We first analyzed the human microarray data for protein trafficking-related genes that were up-regulated in colon carcinoma Caco2 cells upon differentiation. The results of mouse 44K gene expression microarray analysis were then used to extract additional candidate genes that showed higher expression

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2017 Biochimie Open

51. Early Intracellular Trafficking of Granulibacter bethesdensis in Human Macrophages (PubMed)

Early Intracellular Trafficking of Granulibacter bethesdensis in Human Macrophages Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency marked by a defect in NOX2, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Previous studies have shown that NOX2 is essential for killing of G. bethesdensis by neutrophils and monocytes and that the bacteriostatic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) requires NOX2 and gamma (...) interferon (IFN-γ) pretreatment. To determine whether G. bethesdensis evades phagolysosomal killing, a host defense pathway intact in both normal and CGD MDM, or whether it occupies a distinct intracellular niche in CGD MDM, we assessed the trafficking patterns of this organism. We observed colocalization of G. bethesdensis with an early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive compartment, followed by colocalization with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-positive and LysoTracker-positive late

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2017 Infection and immunity

52. Imipramine Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication in Human Skin Fibroblasts through Interference with Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking (PubMed)

Imipramine Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication in Human Skin Fibroblasts through Interference with Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Togaviridae family that poses a present worldwide threat to human in the absence of any licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment to control viral infection. Here, we show that compounds interfering with intracellular cholesterol transport have the capacity to inhibit CHIKV replication in human skin (...) fibroblasts, a major viral entry site in the human host. Pretreatment of these cells with the class II cationic amphiphilic compound U18666A, or treatment with the FDA-approved antidepressant drug imipramine resulted in a near total inhibition of viral replication and production at the highest concentration used without any cytotoxic effects. Imipramine was found to affect both the fusion and replication steps of the viral life cycle. The key contribution of cholesterol availability to the CHIKV life

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2017 Scientific reports

53. Training US health care professionals on human trafficking: where do we go from here? (PubMed)

Training US health care professionals on human trafficking: where do we go from here? Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered (...) training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education on trafficking vary widely, and there is little evaluation of the impact of the training. The goal of this study was to assess the gaps and strengths in HT education of HCPs in the US. This mixed-method study had two components. The first component consisted of structured interviews with experts in human trafficking HCP education. The second portion of the study involved an analysis of data from HCP calls

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2017 Medical education online

54. Mental health and human trafficking: responding to survivors’ needs (PubMed)

Mental health and human trafficking: responding to survivors’ needs Mental health professionals have opportunities to intervene and provide care for trafficked people. Research shows that mental health problems - including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder - are prevalent among trafficked people, and that at least some trafficked people come into contact with secondary mental health services in England.

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2017 BJPsych International

55. Learning from returnee Ethiopian migrant domestic workers: a qualitative assessment to reduce the risk of human trafficking (PubMed)

Learning from returnee Ethiopian migrant domestic workers: a qualitative assessment to reduce the risk of human trafficking International migration has become a global political priority, with growing concern about the scale of human trafficking, hazardous work conditions, and resulting psychological and physical morbidity among migrants. Ethiopia remains a significant "source" country for female domestic workers to the Middle East and Gulf States, despite widespread reports of exploitation (...) to support resilience among the next wave of migrants.There is little evidence on practices that foster safer migration, yet attention to human trafficking has led to an increase in pre-migration interventions. These require robust evidence about local risk and protective factors. Our findings identify knowledge, skills, attributes and resources found useful by returnee domestic workers in Amhara region, and have been used to inform a community-based programme aiming to foster better decision-making

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2017 Globalization and health

56. A new role for human dyskerin in vesicular trafficking (PubMed)

A new role for human dyskerin in vesicular trafficking Dyskerin is an essential, conserved, multifunctional protein found in the nucleolus, whose loss of function causes the rare genetic diseases X-linked dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. To further investigate the wide range of dyskerin's biological roles, we set up stable cell lines able to trigger inducible protein knockdown and allow a detailed analysis of the cascade of events occurring within a short time frame. We (...) report that dyskerin depletion quickly induces cytoskeleton remodeling and significant alterations in endocytic Ras-related protein Rab-5A/Rab11 trafficking. These effects arise in different cell lines well before the onset of telomere shortening, which is widely considered the main cause of dyskerin-related diseases. Given that vesicular trafficking affects many homeostatic and differentiative processes, these findings add novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlining the pleiotropic

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2017 FEBS open bio

57. Recycling endosomes in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes constitute an auxiliary intracellular trafficking pathway for newly synthesized perforin (PubMed)

Recycling endosomes in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes constitute an auxiliary intracellular trafficking pathway for newly synthesized perforin Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) store perforin within cytoplasmic secretory granules for immediate use, perforin is synthesized anew within hours of TCR stimulation. Previously, we observed new perforin protein at an immunologic synapse independent of secretory lysosomes; herein, we aimed to determine how new perforin transits to the synapse (...) if not via lytic granules. We analyzed antigen-specific human CTLs via imaging flow cytometry and high-resolution confocal microscopy, with attention to intracellular trafficking components and new perforin. The recycling endosome compartments identified by rab8, rab11a, rab4, and rab37 co-localized with new perforin, as well as the SNAREs vti1b and VAMP4. After ablating the function of the recycling endosome pathway, we observed a relative accumulation of new perforin in rab8 vesicles. The recycling

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2017 Immunologic research

58. M. tuberculosis-initiated human mannose receptor signaling temporally regulates macrophage recognition and vesicle trafficking by FcRγ-chain, Grb2 and SHP-1 (PubMed)

M. tuberculosis-initiated human mannose receptor signaling temporally regulates macrophage recognition and vesicle trafficking by FcRγ-chain, Grb2 and SHP-1 Despite its prominent role as a C-type lectin (CTL) pattern recognition receptor, mannose receptor (MR, CD206)-specific signaling molecules and pathways are unknown. The MR is highly expressed on human macrophages, regulating endocytosis, phagocytosis, and immune responses and mediating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) phagocytosis (...) by human macrophages, thereby limiting phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. We identified human MR-associated proteins using phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated MR cytoplasmic tail peptides. We found that MR binds FcRγ-chain, which is required for MR plasma membrane localization and M.tb cell association. Additionally, we discovered that MR-mediated M.tb association triggers immediate MR tyrosine residue phosphorylation and Grb2 recruitment, activating the Rac/Pak/Cdc-42 signaling cascade important

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2017 Cell reports

59. BAD-LAMP controls TLR9 trafficking and signalling in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PubMed)

BAD-LAMP controls TLR9 trafficking and signalling in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential components of the innate immune system. Several accessory proteins, such as UNC93B1, are required for transport and activation of nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors in endosomes. Here, we show that BAD-LAMP (LAMP5) controls TLR9 trafficking to LAMP1+ late endosomes in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), leading to NF-κB activation and TNF production upon (...) DNA detection. An inducible VAMP3+/LAMP2+/LAMP1- endolysosome compartment exists in pDCs from which TLR9 activation triggers type I interferon expression. BAD-LAMP-silencing enhances TLR9 retention in this compartment and consequent downstream signalling events. Conversely, sustained BAD-LAMP expression in pDCs contributes to their lack of type I interferon production after exposure to a TGF-β-positive microenvironment or isolation from human breast tumours. Hence, BAD-LAMP limits interferon

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2017 Nature communications

60. Primary Cilium Formation and Ciliary Protein Trafficking Is Regulated by the Atypical MAP Kinase MAPK15 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Human Cells (PubMed)

Primary Cilium Formation and Ciliary Protein Trafficking Is Regulated by the Atypical MAP Kinase MAPK15 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Human Cells Motile and immotile (or primary) cilia are microtubule-based structures that mediate multiple cellular functions, including the transduction of environmental cues, developmental signaling, cellular motility, and modulation of fluid flow. Although their core architectures are similar, motile and primary cilia exhibit marked structural differences (...) that underlie distinct functional properties. However, the extent to which ciliogenesis mechanisms are shared between these different cilia types is not fully described. Here, we report that the atypical MAP kinase MAPK15 (ERK7/8), implicated in the formation of vertebrate motile cilia, also regulates the formation of primary cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons and human cells. We find that MAPK15 localizes to a basal body subdomain with the ciliopathy protein BBS7 and to cell-cell junctions

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2017 Genetics

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