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Human Trafficking

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21. Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim (PubMed)

Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim Any person who has been a victim of human trafficking has a right to compensation. Compensation entails the reimbursement of material and immaterial damages a trafficked person has suffered. In spite of the internationally recognized right to compensation, the number of trafficked persons in Europe having actually received any reimbursement is very low. The present study identifies obstacles

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2018 International review of victimology

22. Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling (PubMed)

Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling The interplay between viruses and host factors regulating inflammatory or cytotoxic responses directed against infected cells is well documented. Viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms that strike a balance between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated tissue injury by antiviral immune responses. The topic of this mini-review is a series of recent studies demonstrating a link between cholesterol trafficking (...) and innate immune responses in cells infected with human adenoviruses that provide the backbone of commonly used vectors in gene medicine. Besides revealing an unexpected role for lipid metabolism in immune evasion, these studies have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of cholesterol trafficking in normal cells and various disease states. They also describe a previously unappreciated host-virus interaction that may be employed by other pathogens to interfere with the host innate

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2018 Journal of immunological sciences

23. Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (PubMed)

Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells TGF-β1, which can cause renal tubular injury through a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase)-mediated pathway, is induced by the glucose degradation product methylglyoxal to yield peritoneal injury and fibrosis. The present study investigated the roles of V-ATPase and its accessory protein, the (pro)renin receptor, in peritoneal fibrosis during (...) peritoneal dialysis. Rats daily administered 20 mM methylglyoxal intraperitoneally developed significant peritoneal fibrosis after 7 days with increased expression of TGF-β and V-ATPase, which was reduced by the inhibition of V-ATPase with co-administration of 100 mM bafilomycin A1. The (pro)renin receptor and V-ATPase were expressed in acidic organelles and cell membranes of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. TGF-β1 upregulated the expression of collagens, α-SMA, and EDA-fibronectin, together with ERK1

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2018 Scientific reports

24. UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum (PubMed)

UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights, with numerous consequences for health and wellbeing. Recent law and policy reforms mean that clinicians now hold a crucial role in national strategies. 2015 research, however, indicates a serious shortfall in knowledge and confidence among healthcare professionals in the UK, leading potentially (...) is variable and often absent. To produce future clinicians who are competent and capable, there is a need for expanded education on trafficking and research into optimal curriculum design. The UK's new Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner should work with medical schools to develop an educational strategy urgently to fulfil the UK Government's plans and commitments. Both in the UK and around the world, human trafficking education presents a critical opportunity to address human rights and safeguarding

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2018 BMC medical education

25. Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract (PubMed)

Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute (...) to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive. There is also the possibility, as has been demonstrated in mouse models, that the vaginal deposition of ZIKV particles present in semen could lead to congenital syndrome. In this paper, we review the current literature to understand ZIKV trafficking from the bloodstream to the human male reproductive tract and viral interactions with host cells in interstitial spaces, tubule

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2018 Pathogens

26. “Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong (PubMed)

“Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore (...) conditions and targeted protections from human trafficking. Survivors of the crime of sea slavery must be provided with the compensation they deserve and the care they need, especially psychological support.

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2018 Globalization and health

27. Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma (PubMed)

Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma Human eosinophils release numerous cytokines that are pre-synthesized and stored within their cytoplasmic-specific (secretory) granules. For example, high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are constitutively expressed in these cells, but the intracellular compartments involved in the transport and release of this cytokine remain to be established (...) significantly higher in the cell periphery compared with the inner cell, thus revealing intracellular IFN-γ mobilization for release. IFN-γ extracellular labeling was found at the cell surface, including on extracellular vesicles. Our results provide direct evidence that human eosinophils compartmentalize IFN-γ within secretory granules and identify, for the first time, a vesicular trafficking of IFN-γ associated with large transport carriers. This is important to understand how IFN-γ is trafficked

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

28. γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation (PubMed)

γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most prevalent as heteropentamers composed of two α, two β, and a γ2 subunit, these ligand-gated ionotropic chloride channels are capable of extensive genetic diversity (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, , , π, ρ1-3). Part of this selective GABAAR assembly arises from the critical role for γ2 in maintaining (...) γ2 subunit human genetic variation and assess disease related phenotypes and the potential role of altered GABAAR trafficking. Finally, we discuss new-age imaging techniques and their potential to provide novel insight into critical regulatory mechanisms of GABAAR function.

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2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

29. Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression (PubMed)

Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is critical in epithelial cancer development. Human rhomboid family-1 (RHBDF1) facilitates the secretion of TGFα, an EGFR ligand, in breast cancer; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the role for RHBDF1 in clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-dependent pro-TGFα (...) membrane trafficking in breast cancer cells upon stimulation by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists.RHBDF1 was silenced in various breast cancer cells using shRNA. TGFα levels, subcellular localization, and secretion were evaluated using ELISA, immunofluorescent staining, and coimmunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation and expression of relevant proteins were measured by western blotting. RHBDF1-dependent cell viability and invasion were measured.RHBDF1 mediates GPCR agonist-induced EGFR

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2018 EBioMedicine

30. Research trends on human trafficking: a bibliometric analysis using Scopus database (PubMed)

Research trends on human trafficking: a bibliometric analysis using Scopus database Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. It is also a serious threat to global health and security. Globalization has made human trafficking an easier task for the criminal organizations. No data are available on the volume, research trends, and key players in this field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the research activity and research trends on human trafficking.A bibliometric method (...) %) of the documents were in health-related fields while 1526 (74.7%) were in social sciences and humanities. The USA ranked first (n = 735; 36.0%) regarding the number of published documents. Geographic distribution of the retrieved document showed that world regions with a high prevalence of human trafficking had the least research contribution. International research collaboration has a limited contribution to the retrieved literature. The Harvard University (USA) was the most active institution (n = 39; 1.9

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2018 Globalization and health

31. Intersection of Human Trafficking and the Emergency Department. (PubMed)

Intersection of Human Trafficking and the Emergency Department. Health care is being challenged both nationally and globally as a result of the significant expansion of human trafficking (HT). Every day, people are being bought, sold, and smuggled like modern-day slaves. Victims are used solely for the purposes of sexual exploitation, labor, and services. HT is a transnational criminal enterprise that recognizes neither boundaries nor borders. The frequency of HT is nondeterminable (...) . There are no absolute documented statistics that show a prevalence of HT, as most of it is covert. Many victims of HT go unnoticed and are captives in plain sight. ED nurses are frequently the front line of defense for those victims who are rarely permitted to interface with the health care system. ED nurses may be the HT victim's only limited contact with the outside world. At the forefront of caring for victims of trafficking, it is integral for ED nurses to be able to recognize the signs of trafficking, have

2018 Journal of Emergency Nursing

32. An ex vivo human tumour assay reveals distinct patterns of EGFR trafficking in squamous cell carcinoma correlating to therapeutic outcomes. (PubMed)

An ex vivo human tumour assay reveals distinct patterns of EGFR trafficking in squamous cell carcinoma correlating to therapeutic outcomes. EGFR overexpression is associated with squamous cell carcinoma development. Altered endocytosis and polarization of receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, affect migration and invasion in three-dimensional culture. These studies have been completed via genetic sequencing, cell line, or three-dimensional in vitro and in vivo murine models. Here, we (...) describe an imaging method that allows ex vivo examination of ligand-induced endocytosis of EGFR in non-dissociated human tumors. We analyzed sets of tumor samples from advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, intraepidermal carcinoma, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. We show that EGFR endocytosis is dysregulated in advanced SCC and correlates with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy outcomes. In actinic keratosis, intraepidermal

2018 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

33. LRRK2 Deficiency Impairs trans-Golgi to Lysosome Trafficking and Endocytic Cargo Degradation in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells. (PubMed)

LRRK2 Deficiency Impairs trans-Golgi to Lysosome Trafficking and Endocytic Cargo Degradation in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells. Defects in vesicular trafficking underlie a wide variety of human diseases. Genetic disruption of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in rodents results in epithelial vesicular trafficking errors that can also be induced by treatment of animals with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Here we demonstrate that defects in human renal cells lacking LRRK2 phenocopy (...) endocytosis nor autophagic flux are impaired when LRRK2 is acutely knocked down in normal immortalized human kidney (HK2) cells. These data collectively suggest that the primary renal defect caused by LRRK2 deficiency is in protein trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and late endosome/lysosome, which leads to progressive impairments in lysosomal function.

2018 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

34. Educating Emergency Department Staff on the Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims. (PubMed)

Educating Emergency Department Staff on the Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims. Hospitalization is one of the few circumstances in which the lives of trafficking victims intersect with the general population. Based on survivor testimonies, the majority of human trafficking victims may receive medical treatment in a hospital's emergency department while in captivity. With evidenced-based training, ED personnel have a better opportunity to screen persons who are being (...) located near a northeast metropolitan city. Seventy-five employees participated in the survey and education. Staff completing the education included nurses, physicians, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, registration, and ED technicians. Results indicated that 89% of participants had not received previous human trafficking training. Less than half of the participants stated that they had a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking before the intervention, with an increase to 93% after

2018 Journal of Emergency Nursing

35. Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence. (PubMed)

Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence. Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative (...) health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, and reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries and illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows

2016 Annals of Internal Medicine

36. A silicon nanomembrane platform for the visualization of immune cell trafficking across the human blood-brain barrier under flow. (PubMed)

A silicon nanomembrane platform for the visualization of immune cell trafficking across the human blood-brain barrier under flow. Here we report on the development of a breakthrough microfluidic human in vitro cerebrovascular barrier (CVB) model featuring stem cell-derived brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs) and nanoporous silicon nitride (NPN) membranes (µSiM-CVB). The nanoscale thinness of NPN membranes combined with their high permeability and optical transparency makes them an ideal (...) imaging. The small volume of <100 µL of the µSiM-CVB will enable in vitro investigations of rare patient-derived immune cells with the human BBB. The µSiM-CVB is a breakthrough in vitro human BBB model to enable live and high-quality imaging of human immune cell interactions with the BBB under physiological flow. We expect it to become a valuable new tool for the study of cerebrovascular pathologies ranging from neuroinflammation to metastatic cancer.

2018 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

37. Site-1 protease deficiency causes human skeletal dysplasia due to defective inter-organelle protein trafficking (PubMed)

Site-1 protease deficiency causes human skeletal dysplasia due to defective inter-organelle protein trafficking Site-1 protease (S1P), encoded by MBTPS1, is a serine protease in the Golgi. S1P regulates lipogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, and lysosome biogenesis in mice and in cultured cells. However, how S1P differentially regulates these diverse functions in humans has been unclear. In addition, no human disease with S1P deficiency has been identified. Here, we report (...) stress transducer BBF2H7, leading to ER retention of collagen in chondrocytes. S1P deficiency also causes abnormal secretion of lysosomal enzymes due to partial impairment of mannose-6-phosphate-dependent delivery to lysosomes. Collectively, these abnormalities lead to apoptosis of chondrocytes and lysosomal enzyme-mediated degradation of the bone matrix. Correction of an MBTPS1 variant or reduction of ER stress mitigated collagen-trafficking defects. These results define a new congenital human

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2018 JCI insight

38. Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking

Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking | unfoundation.org Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking Join the UN to Stop Human Trafficking By Guest Blogger on July 27, 2017 By Amanda Kabonero, UN Foundation Public Affairs Summer 2017 Intern Sunday, July 30, marks the fourth annual World Day Against Trafficking in Persons to “raise awareness of the situation of victims of human trafficking and for the promotion and protection of their rights.” Human trafficking (...) transcends borders; therefore, the international community must act to help the tens of millions of victims of modern slavery, forced labor, trafficking, and sexual exploitation around the world. The United Nations explicitly mentions human trafficking in goals 5, 8, and 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals, and as the world recognizes the global importance of achieving the SDGs, it is imperative that efforts to end human trafficking remain a priority. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is one

2017 United Nations Foundation blog

39. Nurses' Perceptions of Victims of Human Trafficking in an Urban Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study. (PubMed)

Nurses' Perceptions of Victims of Human Trafficking in an Urban Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study. Human trafficking is estimated to surpass the drug trade as the leading illegal industry in the world. According to a recent study, over 87.8% of trafficking survivors came into contact with a healthcare professional while they were enslaved and were not identified as a victim of human trafficking. The aims of this study are to understand the perceptions of emergency nurses about human (...) trafficking, victims of violence, and prostitution.A qualitative, descriptive study using a semi-structured interview approach was done with ten registered nurses in a large, urban Emergency Department in the northeastern U.S. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed.Six themes emerged from the interviews including, "human trafficking exists in the patient population" yet no nurse has screened or treated a victim; human trafficking victims are perceived to be "young

2017 Journal of Emergency Nursing

40. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization. (PubMed)

Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization. Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately (...) victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work.Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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2017 Pediatrics

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