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Human Trafficking

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21. Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression (Full text)

Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is critical in epithelial cancer development. Human rhomboid family-1 (RHBDF1) facilitates the secretion of TGFα, an EGFR ligand, in breast cancer; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the role for RHBDF1 in clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-dependent pro-TGFα (...) membrane trafficking in breast cancer cells upon stimulation by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists.RHBDF1 was silenced in various breast cancer cells using shRNA. TGFα levels, subcellular localization, and secretion were evaluated using ELISA, immunofluorescent staining, and coimmunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation and expression of relevant proteins were measured by western blotting. RHBDF1-dependent cell viability and invasion were measured.RHBDF1 mediates GPCR agonist-induced EGFR

2018 EBioMedicine PubMed abstract

22. Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation (Full text)

Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry into epithelial cells is independent of canonical endocytic pathways. Upon interaction with host cells, HPV establishes infection by traversing through an endocytic pathway that is clathrin- and caveolin-independent, but dependent on the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). We examined (...) the contribution of monomeric annexin A2 (AnxA2) vs. A2t in HPV infection and endocytosis, and further characterized the role of these molecules in protein trafficking. We specifically show that cell surface A2t is not required for HPV attachment, and in the absence of A2t virion internalization remains clathrin-independent. Without A2t, viral progression from early endosomes to multivesicular endosomes is significantly inhibited, capsid uncoating is dramatically reduced, and lysosomal degradation of HPV

2018 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

23. UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum (Full text)

UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights, with numerous consequences for health and wellbeing. Recent law and policy reforms mean that clinicians now hold a crucial role in national strategies. 2015 research, however, indicates a serious shortfall in knowledge and confidence among healthcare professionals in the UK, leading potentially (...) is variable and often absent. To produce future clinicians who are competent and capable, there is a need for expanded education on trafficking and research into optimal curriculum design. The UK's new Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner should work with medical schools to develop an educational strategy urgently to fulfil the UK Government's plans and commitments. Both in the UK and around the world, human trafficking education presents a critical opportunity to address human rights and safeguarding

2018 BMC medical education PubMed abstract

24. “Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong (Full text)

“Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore (...) conditions and targeted protections from human trafficking. Survivors of the crime of sea slavery must be provided with the compensation they deserve and the care they need, especially psychological support.

2018 Globalization and health PubMed abstract

25. Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract (Full text)

Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute (...) to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive. There is also the possibility, as has been demonstrated in mouse models, that the vaginal deposition of ZIKV particles present in semen could lead to congenital syndrome. In this paper, we review the current literature to understand ZIKV trafficking from the bloodstream to the human male reproductive tract and viral interactions with host cells in interstitial spaces, tubule

2018 Pathogens PubMed abstract

26. Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical role in trafficking. (Full text)

Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical role in trafficking. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of bronchopneumonia in infants and the elderly. To date, knowledge of viral and host protein interactions within HRSV is limited and are critical areas of research. Here, we show that HRSV Matrix (M) protein interacts with the cellular adaptor protein complex 3 specifically via its medium (...) indicated that AP-3Mu3A- mediated trafficking is contingent on the presence of the tyrosine residue within the YXXL sorting sequence at amino acids 197-200 of the M protein. AP-3Mu3A is up regulated at 24 hours post-infection in infected cells versus mock-infected HEp2 cells. Together, our data suggests that the AP-3 complex plays a critical role in the trafficking of HRSV proteins specifically matrix in epithelial cells. The results of this study add new insights and targets that may lead

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

27. LRRK2 Deficiency Impairs trans-Golgi to Lysosome Trafficking and Endocytic Cargo Degradation in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells. (Full text)

LRRK2 Deficiency Impairs trans-Golgi to Lysosome Trafficking and Endocytic Cargo Degradation in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells. Defects in vesicular trafficking underlie a wide variety of human diseases. Genetic disruption of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in rodents results in epithelial vesicular trafficking errors that can also be induced by treatment of animals with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Here we demonstrate that defects in human renal cells lacking LRRK2 phenocopy (...) endocytosis nor autophagic flux are impaired when LRRK2 is acutely knocked down in normal immortalized human kidney (HK2) cells. These data collectively suggest that the primary renal defect caused by LRRK2 deficiency is in protein trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and late endosome/lysosome, which leads to progressive impairments in lysosomal function.

2018 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology PubMed abstract

28. An ex vivo human tumour assay reveals distinct patterns of EGFR trafficking in squamous cell carcinoma correlating to therapeutic outcomes. (Full text)

An ex vivo human tumour assay reveals distinct patterns of EGFR trafficking in squamous cell carcinoma correlating to therapeutic outcomes. EGFR overexpression is associated with squamous cell carcinoma development. Altered endocytosis and polarization of receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR, affect migration and invasion in three-dimensional culture. These studies have been completed via genetic sequencing, cell line, or three-dimensional in vitro and in vivo murine models. Here, we (...) describe an imaging method that allows ex vivo examination of ligand-induced endocytosis of EGFR in non-dissociated human tumors. We analyzed sets of tumor samples from advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, intraepidermal carcinoma, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. We show that EGFR endocytosis is dysregulated in advanced SCC and correlates with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy outcomes. In actinic keratosis, intraepidermal

2018 Journal of Investigative Dermatology PubMed abstract

29. Multi-level prevention of human trafficking: The role of health care professionals. (Abstract)

Multi-level prevention of human trafficking: The role of health care professionals. As a major public health issue, human trafficking (HT) affects individuals, families, communities, and societies around the world. A public health approach to combating HT has been advocated. Such an approach seeks to prevent HT by engaging diverse stakeholder groups in addressing risk factors at multiple levels. As a key stakeholder group, health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in HT prevention

2018 Preventive Medicine

30. Educating Emergency Department Staff on the Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims. (Abstract)

Educating Emergency Department Staff on the Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims. Hospitalization is one of the few circumstances in which the lives of trafficking victims intersect with the general population. Based on survivor testimonies, the majority of human trafficking victims may receive medical treatment in a hospital's emergency department while in captivity. With evidenced-based training, ED personnel have a better opportunity to screen persons who are being (...) located near a northeast metropolitan city. Seventy-five employees participated in the survey and education. Staff completing the education included nurses, physicians, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, registration, and ED technicians. Results indicated that 89% of participants had not received previous human trafficking training. Less than half of the participants stated that they had a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking before the intervention, with an increase to 93% after

2018 Journal of Emergency Nursing

31. Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer. (Full text)

Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers.Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse (...) transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing.CRC

2018 Gut PubMed abstract

32. Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling (Full text)

Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling The interplay between viruses and host factors regulating inflammatory or cytotoxic responses directed against infected cells is well documented. Viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms that strike a balance between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated tissue injury by antiviral immune responses. The topic of this mini-review is a series of recent studies demonstrating a link between cholesterol trafficking (...) and innate immune responses in cells infected with human adenoviruses that provide the backbone of commonly used vectors in gene medicine. Besides revealing an unexpected role for lipid metabolism in immune evasion, these studies have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of cholesterol trafficking in normal cells and various disease states. They also describe a previously unappreciated host-virus interaction that may be employed by other pathogens to interfere with the host innate

2018 Journal of immunological sciences PubMed abstract

33. Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (Full text)

Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells TGF-β1, which can cause renal tubular injury through a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase)-mediated pathway, is induced by the glucose degradation product methylglyoxal to yield peritoneal injury and fibrosis. The present study investigated the roles of V-ATPase and its accessory protein, the (pro)renin receptor, in peritoneal fibrosis during (...) peritoneal dialysis. Rats daily administered 20 mM methylglyoxal intraperitoneally developed significant peritoneal fibrosis after 7 days with increased expression of TGF-β and V-ATPase, which was reduced by the inhibition of V-ATPase with co-administration of 100 mM bafilomycin A1. The (pro)renin receptor and V-ATPase were expressed in acidic organelles and cell membranes of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. TGF-β1 upregulated the expression of collagens, α-SMA, and EDA-fibronectin, together with ERK1

2018 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

34. Research trends on human trafficking: a bibliometric analysis using Scopus database (Full text)

Research trends on human trafficking: a bibliometric analysis using Scopus database Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. It is also a serious threat to global health and security. Globalization has made human trafficking an easier task for the criminal organizations. No data are available on the volume, research trends, and key players in this field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the research activity and research trends on human trafficking.A bibliometric method (...) %) of the documents were in health-related fields while 1526 (74.7%) were in social sciences and humanities. The USA ranked first (n = 735; 36.0%) regarding the number of published documents. Geographic distribution of the retrieved document showed that world regions with a high prevalence of human trafficking had the least research contribution. International research collaboration has a limited contribution to the retrieved literature. The Harvard University (USA) was the most active institution (n = 39; 1.9

2018 Globalization and health PubMed abstract

35. A silicon nanomembrane platform for the visualization of immune cell trafficking across the human blood-brain barrier under flow. (Full text)

A silicon nanomembrane platform for the visualization of immune cell trafficking across the human blood-brain barrier under flow. Here we report on the development of a breakthrough microfluidic human in vitro cerebrovascular barrier (CVB) model featuring stem cell-derived brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs) and nanoporous silicon nitride (NPN) membranes (µSiM-CVB). The nanoscale thinness of NPN membranes combined with their high permeability and optical transparency makes them an ideal (...) imaging. The small volume of <100 µL of the µSiM-CVB will enable in vitro investigations of rare patient-derived immune cells with the human BBB. The µSiM-CVB is a breakthrough in vitro human BBB model to enable live and high-quality imaging of human immune cell interactions with the BBB under physiological flow. We expect it to become a valuable new tool for the study of cerebrovascular pathologies ranging from neuroinflammation to metastatic cancer.

2018 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism PubMed abstract

36. Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim (Full text)

Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim Any person who has been a victim of human trafficking has a right to compensation. Compensation entails the reimbursement of material and immaterial damages a trafficked person has suffered. In spite of the internationally recognized right to compensation, the number of trafficked persons in Europe having actually received any reimbursement is very low. The present study identifies obstacles

2018 International review of victimology PubMed abstract

37. Visualization of early influenza A virus trafficking in human dendritic cells using STED microscopy. (Full text)

Visualization of early influenza A virus trafficking in human dendritic cells using STED microscopy. Influenza A viruses (IAV) primarily target respiratory epithelial cells, but can also replicate in immune cells, including human dendritic cells (DCs). Super-resolution microscopy provides a novel method of visualizing viral trafficking by overcoming the resolution limit imposed by conventional light microscopy, without the laborious sample preparation of electron microscopy. Using three-color (...) of infection, the majority of NP signals were in the nucleus. Our findings illustrate that early IAV trafficking in human DCs proceeds via the classical endocytic pathway.

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

38. Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions. (Abstract)

Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions. Human trafficking is a global problem and results in deleterious psychological, social, and physical effects on the lives of those who are trafficked; however, it is not clear how to best intervene with survivors. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the evidence of exit and postexit intervention programs for survivors of human trafficking to inform practice and research.Systematic review (...) methods were used to search, select, and extract data from published and unpublished experimental, quasi-experimental, and preexperimental studies that assessed the effects of any exit or postexit interventions for victims of human trafficking. The authors searched eight databases, reviewed bibliographies, and conducted forward citation searches from relevant reports and prior reviews to find studies authored between 2005 and 2015.The search yielded six eligible studies that included 155 female and 6

2018 Trauma, violence & abuse

39. GADD34 function in protein trafficking promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress in human corneal cells (Full text)

GADD34 function in protein trafficking promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress in human corneal cells GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation (...) includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake. Here, we show that GADD34 promotes the processing of proteins synthesized on the ER during hyperosmotic stress independent of its action in the ISR. We show that GADD34/PP1 phosphatase activity reverses hyperosmotic-stress-induced Golgi fragmentation and is important for cis- to trans-Golgi trafficking

2017 Cell reports PubMed abstract

40. A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment (Full text)

A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi compartment-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 proteins fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) identified amino acids 23 to 34 as important determinants for its (...) Golgi complex localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YXXΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YXXΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection. Mutation of both the tyrosine residue and the entire YXXΦ motif resulted in an altered distribution of mutant pUL71 at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm during infection. Both YXXΦ mutant viruses exhibited similarly decreased focal

2017 Journal of virology PubMed abstract

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