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Human Trafficking

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1. Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Human Trafficking - ACOG Menu ▼ Human Trafficking Page Navigation ▼ Number 787 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 507, September 2011) Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women in collaboration with committee members Veronica Gillispie, MD, Jennefer A. Russo, MD, MPH, and Kavita Shah Arora, MD, MBE, MS. Human Trafficking ABSTRACT (...) : Human trafficking, or modern-day slavery, is a global problem with broad reach that is often underrecognized in the United States. Victims of trafficking have been found in a wide range of legal and illegal business settings, and this frequently hidden population is most often exploited in the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotels, restaurants, as domestic workers, and by marriage brokers and some adoption firms. Human trafficking disproportionately affects underserved women

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

2. CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module

CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module - CanadiEM CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module In , by Julianna Deutscher September 21, 2018 Jeremy is a second year resident who is about to see a 25 year old female presenting with abdominal pain. During the history he notices the patient is remarkably quiet and that the patient’s male friend is answering all the questions for her. When Jeremy asks the male (...) friend to leave the room for a moment, both the patient and the friend object. Jeremy starts wondering if this patient might be a victim of human trafficking. He wishes there was a resource he could consult to better learn about identifying patients of human trafficking. This Feature Educational Innovation (FEI), titled, “ Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module for Improved Recognition of Victims in the Emergency Room ” was originally posted by the in 2017 and answers the question: “ How can

2018 CandiEM

3. Sexual violence at each stage of human trafficking cycle and associated factors: a retrospective cohort study on Ethiopian female returnees via three major trafficking corridors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sexual violence at each stage of human trafficking cycle and associated factors: a retrospective cohort study on Ethiopian female returnees via three major trafficking corridors. Evidence showed that the prevalence of sexual violence during the whole human trafficking period was high. However, the distribution of sexual violence along the stages of the trafficking cycle is unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence at each stage of trafficking and factors (...) associated with it among Ethiopian trafficked females.A retrospective cohort study was conducted to study trafficking returnees regarding their previous experiences at each stage of trafficking.Data were collected at immigration offices in three border towns of Ethiopia located bordering Sudan, Kenya and Djibouti.Six hundred and seventy-one women who were trafficked from Ethiopia were recruited into the study consecutively. They were recruited when they came back home via the three border towns either

2019 BMJ open

4. Socio-economic, trafficking exposures and mental health symptoms of human trafficking returnees in Ethiopia: using a generalized structural equation modelling Full Text available with Trip Pro

Socio-economic, trafficking exposures and mental health symptoms of human trafficking returnees in Ethiopia: using a generalized structural equation modelling Mental health problems among trafficked persons could be the result of concomitantly interwoven effects of various factors. Analyzing the networked relationships concurrently could be a more substantive approach to better understand the role of risk factors in this population. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of mental health (...) symptoms as well as the association among socio-demographic, trafficking related exposure variables, and mental health problems of Ethiopian returnees from trafficking.A sample of 1387 returnees who were trafficked via three major human trafficking corridors of Ethiopia were selected consecutively. Data related to socio-economic, trafficking exposure variables, and symptoms of mental illness were collected in personal interviews. Anxiety was measured with a brief measure for generalized anxiety

2018 International journal of mental health systems

5. Human Marfan and Marfan-like Syndrome associated mutations lead to altered trafficking of the Type II TGFβ receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Marfan and Marfan-like Syndrome associated mutations lead to altered trafficking of the Type II TGFβ receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family plays an important role in many developmental processes and when mutated often contributes to various diseases. Marfan syndrome is a genetic disease with an occurrence of approximately 1 in 5,000. The disease is caused by mutations in fibrillin, which lead to an increase in TGFβ ligand activity, resulting (...) previous studies on receptor trafficking in C. elegans, we noticed that many of these receptor mutations that lead to Marfan-like syndromes overlap with mutations that cause mis-trafficking of the receptor, suggesting a link between Marfan-like syndromes and TGFβ receptor trafficking. To test this hypothesis, we introduced three of these key MFS and MFS-like mutations into the C. elegans TGFβ receptor and asked if receptor trafficking is altered. We find that in every case studied, mutated receptors

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. (Abstract)

Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is an egregious human rights violation associated with wide-ranging medical and mental health consequences. Because of the extensive health problems related to trafficking, health care providers play a critical role in identifying survivors and engaging them in ongoing care. Although guidelines for recognizing affected patients and a framework

2018 Annals of Internal Medicine

7. Insulin stimulates GLUT4 trafficking to the syncytiotrophoblast basal plasma membrane in the human placenta. (Abstract)

Insulin stimulates GLUT4 trafficking to the syncytiotrophoblast basal plasma membrane in the human placenta. Placental transport capacity influences fetal glucose supply. The syncytiotrophoblast is the transporting epithelium in the human placenta, expressing glucose transporters (GLUT) and insulin receptors (IR) in its maternal-facing microvillous (MVM) and fetal-facing basal plasma membrane (BM).The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the expression of the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 (...) glucose transporter and IR in the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes across gestation in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and (2) assess the effect of insulin on GLUT4 plasma membrane trafficking in human placental explants.Placental tissue was collected across gestation from women with normal body mass index (BMI) and obese mothers with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and macrosomic infants. MVM and BM were isolated.Protein expression of GLUT4, GLUT1 and IR

2019 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

8. Human Trafficking: ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION SUMMARY, Number 787. (Abstract)

Human Trafficking: ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION SUMMARY, Number 787. Human trafficking, or modern-day slavery, is a global problem with broad reach that is often underrecognized in the United States. Victims of trafficking have been found in a wide range of legal and illegal business settings, and this frequently hidden population is most often exploited in the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotels, restaurants, as domestic workers, and by marriage brokers and some adoption firms (...) . Human trafficking disproportionately affects underserved women and children, with more than 70% of trafficking cases involving women and girls and more than 90% of victims trafficked into the sex industry. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other women's health care providers are well-situated to identify and assist victims of human trafficking. Many trafficked individuals present to outpatient obstetrics and gynecology clinics, community health centers, family planning clinics, urgent care centers

2019 Obstetrics and Gynecology

9. Human Trafficking: ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION, Number 787. (Abstract)

Human Trafficking: ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION, Number 787. Human trafficking, or modern-day slavery, is a global problem with broad reach that is often underrecognized in the United States. Victims of trafficking have been found in a wide range of legal and illegal business settings, and this frequently hidden population is most often exploited in the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotels, restaurants, as domestic workers, and by marriage brokers and some adoption firms. Human (...) trafficking disproportionately affects underserved women and children, with more than 70% of trafficking cases involving women and girls and more than 90% of victims trafficked into the sex industry. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other women's health care providers are well-situated to identify and assist victims of human trafficking. Many trafficked individuals present to outpatient obstetrics and gynecology clinics, community health centers, family planning clinics, urgent care centers, and adolescent

2019 Obstetrics and Gynecology

10. Estimating the Prevalence of Human Trafficking in Ohio, 2014-2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Estimating the Prevalence of Human Trafficking in Ohio, 2014-2016. Objectives. To develop statewide estimates of known victims and individuals at risk of human trafficking in Ohio.Methods. We collected information from 12 state and local sources including child welfare, legal services, and law enforcement data. We collected the data from agency records dating 2013 to 2018. However, the majority of data were from calendar years 2014, 2015, and 2016 (roughly 95% across individual and aggregate (...) sources). We used probabilistic matching to estimate victim and at-risk cases-accounting for duplicates.Results. According to available data, there were 1032 known victims during the study time frame. We identified approximately 4209 at-risk individuals based on youths presenting with common risk factors for trafficking victimization.Conclusions. Estimating the prevalence of human trafficking is an important public health research priority. As the first "cataloging" of existing record systems in Ohio

2019 American Journal of Public Health

11. Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses. In an Editorial, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman discuss the need for research on the prevention of human trafficking and mitigation of its effects.

2019 PLoS medicine

12. Human trafficking among Ethiopian returnees: its magnitude and risk factors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human trafficking among Ethiopian returnees: its magnitude and risk factors. Human trafficking was affecting a number of individuals in Ethiopia that resulted in various health problems and human right violations. Though the pushing and pulling factors of human trafficking were identified qualitatively, their effect on trafficking status were not measured quantitatively; the magnitude of human trafficking among returnees was not also quantified.Primary data were collected from 1342 Ethiopian (...) returning migrants from abroad via Metemma-Yohannes, Moyale, and Galafi border towns from May to October 2016 consecutively. The status of each returnee as trafficked or non-trafficked was determined based on the UN 2000 definition of human trafficking. Factor analyses were conducted on the push and pull factors of migration to identify the underlying constructs. Considering the common underlying concept of items that load on the push and pull factors, the newly emerged construct variables were named

2019 BMC Public Health

13. The healthcare response to human trafficking: A need for globally harmonized ICD codes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The healthcare response to human trafficking: A need for globally harmonized ICD codes. In a Perspective, Jordan Greenbaum and Hanni Stoklosa make the case for inclusion of codes for human trafficking in international diagnosis classification systems.

2019 PLoS medicine

14. Intersection of Human Trafficking and the Emergency Department. (Abstract)

Intersection of Human Trafficking and the Emergency Department. Health care is being challenged both nationally and globally as a result of the significant expansion of human trafficking (HT). Every day, people are being bought, sold, and smuggled like modern-day slaves. Victims are used solely for the purposes of sexual exploitation, labor, and services. HT is a transnational criminal enterprise that recognizes neither boundaries nor borders. The frequency of HT is nondeterminable (...) . There are no absolute documented statistics that show a prevalence of HT, as most of it is covert. Many victims of HT go unnoticed and are captives in plain sight. ED nurses are frequently the front line of defense for those victims who are rarely permitted to interface with the health care system. ED nurses may be the HT victim's only limited contact with the outside world. At the forefront of caring for victims of trafficking, it is integral for ED nurses to be able to recognize the signs of trafficking, have

2018 Journal of Emergency Nursing

15. Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma Human eosinophils release numerous cytokines that are pre-synthesized and stored within their cytoplasmic-specific (secretory) granules. For example, high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are constitutively expressed in these cells, but the intracellular compartments involved in the transport and release of this cytokine remain to be established (...) significantly higher in the cell periphery compared with the inner cell, thus revealing intracellular IFN-γ mobilization for release. IFN-γ extracellular labeling was found at the cell surface, including on extracellular vesicles. Our results provide direct evidence that human eosinophils compartmentalize IFN-γ within secretory granules and identify, for the first time, a vesicular trafficking of IFN-γ associated with large transport carriers. This is important to understand how IFN-γ is trafficked

2018 Frontiers in immunology

16. Site-1 protease deficiency causes human skeletal dysplasia due to defective inter-organelle protein trafficking Full Text available with Trip Pro

Site-1 protease deficiency causes human skeletal dysplasia due to defective inter-organelle protein trafficking Site-1 protease (S1P), encoded by MBTPS1, is a serine protease in the Golgi. S1P regulates lipogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, and lysosome biogenesis in mice and in cultured cells. However, how S1P differentially regulates these diverse functions in humans has been unclear. In addition, no human disease with S1P deficiency has been identified. Here, we report (...) stress transducer BBF2H7, leading to ER retention of collagen in chondrocytes. S1P deficiency also causes abnormal secretion of lysosomal enzymes due to partial impairment of mannose-6-phosphate-dependent delivery to lysosomes. Collectively, these abnormalities lead to apoptosis of chondrocytes and lysosomal enzyme-mediated degradation of the bone matrix. Correction of an MBTPS1 variant or reduction of ER stress mitigated collagen-trafficking defects. These results define a new congenital human

2018 JCI insight

17. γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation Full Text available with Trip Pro

γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most prevalent as heteropentamers composed of two α, two β, and a γ2 subunit, these ligand-gated ionotropic chloride channels are capable of extensive genetic diversity (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, , , π, ρ1-3). Part of this selective GABAAR assembly arises from the critical role for γ2 in maintaining (...) γ2 subunit human genetic variation and assess disease related phenotypes and the potential role of altered GABAAR trafficking. Finally, we discuss new-age imaging techniques and their potential to provide novel insight into critical regulatory mechanisms of GABAAR function.

2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

18. Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human rhomboid family-1 modulates clathrin coated vesicle-dependent pro-transforming growth factor α membrane trafficking to promote breast cancer progression Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is critical in epithelial cancer development. Human rhomboid family-1 (RHBDF1) facilitates the secretion of TGFα, an EGFR ligand, in breast cancer; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the role for RHBDF1 in clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-dependent pro-TGFα (...) membrane trafficking in breast cancer cells upon stimulation by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists.RHBDF1 was silenced in various breast cancer cells using shRNA. TGFα levels, subcellular localization, and secretion were evaluated using ELISA, immunofluorescent staining, and coimmunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation and expression of relevant proteins were measured by western blotting. RHBDF1-dependent cell viability and invasion were measured.RHBDF1 mediates GPCR agonist-induced EGFR

2018 EBioMedicine

19. Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry into epithelial cells is independent of canonical endocytic pathways. Upon interaction with host cells, HPV establishes infection by traversing through an endocytic pathway that is clathrin- and caveolin-independent, but dependent on the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). We examined (...) the contribution of monomeric annexin A2 (AnxA2) vs. A2t in HPV infection and endocytosis, and further characterized the role of these molecules in protein trafficking. We specifically show that cell surface A2t is not required for HPV attachment, and in the absence of A2t virion internalization remains clathrin-independent. Without A2t, viral progression from early endosomes to multivesicular endosomes is significantly inhibited, capsid uncoating is dramatically reduced, and lysosomal degradation of HPV

2018 Scientific reports

20. UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum Full Text available with Trip Pro

UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights, with numerous consequences for health and wellbeing. Recent law and policy reforms mean that clinicians now hold a crucial role in national strategies. 2015 research, however, indicates a serious shortfall in knowledge and confidence among healthcare professionals in the UK, leading potentially (...) is variable and often absent. To produce future clinicians who are competent and capable, there is a need for expanded education on trafficking and research into optimal curriculum design. The UK's new Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner should work with medical schools to develop an educational strategy urgently to fulfil the UK Government's plans and commitments. Both in the UK and around the world, human trafficking education presents a critical opportunity to address human rights and safeguarding

2018 BMC medical education

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