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Human Trafficking

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1. CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module

CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module - CanadiEM CAEP FEI | Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module In , by Julianna Deutscher September 21, 2018 Jeremy is a second year resident who is about to see a 25 year old female presenting with abdominal pain. During the history he notices the patient is remarkably quiet and that the patient’s male friend is answering all the questions for her. When Jeremy asks the male (...) friend to leave the room for a moment, both the patient and the friend object. Jeremy starts wondering if this patient might be a victim of human trafficking. He wishes there was a resource he could consult to better learn about identifying patients of human trafficking. This Feature Educational Innovation (FEI), titled, “ Human Trafficking Awareness: A Learning Module for Improved Recognition of Victims in the Emergency Room ” was originally posted by the in 2017 and answers the question: “ How can

2018 CandiEM

2. Socio-economic, trafficking exposures and mental health symptoms of human trafficking returnees in Ethiopia: using a generalized structural equation modelling (PubMed)

Socio-economic, trafficking exposures and mental health symptoms of human trafficking returnees in Ethiopia: using a generalized structural equation modelling Mental health problems among trafficked persons could be the result of concomitantly interwoven effects of various factors. Analyzing the networked relationships concurrently could be a more substantive approach to better understand the role of risk factors in this population. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of mental health (...) symptoms as well as the association among socio-demographic, trafficking related exposure variables, and mental health problems of Ethiopian returnees from trafficking.A sample of 1387 returnees who were trafficked via three major human trafficking corridors of Ethiopia were selected consecutively. Data related to socio-economic, trafficking exposure variables, and symptoms of mental illness were collected in personal interviews. Anxiety was measured with a brief measure for generalized anxiety

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2018 International journal of mental health systems

3. Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. (PubMed)

Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is an egregious human rights violation associated with wide-ranging medical and mental health consequences. Because of the extensive health problems related to trafficking, health care providers play a critical role in identifying survivors and engaging them in ongoing care. Although guidelines for recognizing affected patients and a framework

2018 Annals of Internal Medicine

4. Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses. (PubMed)

Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses. In an Editorial, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman discuss the need for research on the prevention of human trafficking and mitigation of its effects.

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2019 PLoS medicine

5. Human trafficking among Ethiopian returnees: its magnitude and risk factors. (PubMed)

Human trafficking among Ethiopian returnees: its magnitude and risk factors. Human trafficking was affecting a number of individuals in Ethiopia that resulted in various health problems and human right violations. Though the pushing and pulling factors of human trafficking were identified qualitatively, their effect on trafficking status were not measured quantitatively; the magnitude of human trafficking among returnees was not also quantified.Primary data were collected from 1342 Ethiopian (...) returning migrants from abroad via Metemma-Yohannes, Moyale, and Galafi border towns from May to October 2016 consecutively. The status of each returnee as trafficked or non-trafficked was determined based on the UN 2000 definition of human trafficking. Factor analyses were conducted on the push and pull factors of migration to identify the underlying constructs. Considering the common underlying concept of items that load on the push and pull factors, the newly emerged construct variables were named

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2019 BMC Public Health

6. The healthcare response to human trafficking: A need for globally harmonized ICD codes. (PubMed)

The healthcare response to human trafficking: A need for globally harmonized ICD codes. In a Perspective, Jordan Greenbaum and Hanni Stoklosa make the case for inclusion of codes for human trafficking in international diagnosis classification systems.

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2019 PLoS medicine

7. Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical role in trafficking. (PubMed)

Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical role in trafficking. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of bronchopneumonia in infants and the elderly. To date, knowledge of viral and host protein interactions within HRSV is limited and are critical areas of research. Here, we show that HRSV Matrix (M) protein interacts with the cellular adaptor protein complex 3 specifically via its medium (...) indicated that AP-3Mu3A- mediated trafficking is contingent on the presence of the tyrosine residue within the YXXL sorting sequence at amino acids 197-200 of the M protein. AP-3Mu3A is up regulated at 24 hours post-infection in infected cells versus mock-infected HEp2 cells. Together, our data suggests that the AP-3 complex plays a critical role in the trafficking of HRSV proteins specifically matrix in epithelial cells. The results of this study add new insights and targets that may lead

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2017 PLoS ONE

8. Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation (PubMed)

Heterotetrameric annexin A2/S100A10 (A2t) is essential for oncogenic human papillomavirus trafficking and capsid disassembly, and protects virions from lysosomal degradation Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry into epithelial cells is independent of canonical endocytic pathways. Upon interaction with host cells, HPV establishes infection by traversing through an endocytic pathway that is clathrin- and caveolin-independent, but dependent on the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). We examined (...) the contribution of monomeric annexin A2 (AnxA2) vs. A2t in HPV infection and endocytosis, and further characterized the role of these molecules in protein trafficking. We specifically show that cell surface A2t is not required for HPV attachment, and in the absence of A2t virion internalization remains clathrin-independent. Without A2t, viral progression from early endosomes to multivesicular endosomes is significantly inhibited, capsid uncoating is dramatically reduced, and lysosomal degradation of HPV

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2018 Scientific reports

9. Multi-level prevention of human trafficking: The role of health care professionals. (PubMed)

Multi-level prevention of human trafficking: The role of health care professionals. As a major public health issue, human trafficking (HT) affects individuals, families, communities, and societies around the world. A public health approach to combating HT has been advocated. Such an approach seeks to prevent HT by engaging diverse stakeholder groups in addressing risk factors at multiple levels. As a key stakeholder group, health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in HT prevention

2018 Preventive Medicine

10. Would you know human trafficking if you saw it?

Would you know human trafficking if you saw it? Would you know human trafficking if you saw it? Would you know human trafficking if you saw it? | | May 30, 2018 8 Shares He looked tired and worn down, more so than many of the other patients I had seen that day. He didn’t speak English and I did not speak his language, but I could feel his anxiety as it filled the exam room. One of my employees translated, in fact, what his “boss” was telling us. The boss was worried that he was more tired than (...) was too tired after his long day of work and his family was depending on him. He didn’t want to disappoint them. At the time, I didn’t realize it but he met the criteria for being considered a human trafficking victim. He had been brought from his country with the promise of a good job but rather found himself trapped in a situation that he could not walk away from. He was not paid what had been promised and the job he was given was far away from anything that had lured him to the US. From the time he

2018 KevinMD blog

11. Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer. (PubMed)

Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers.Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse (...) transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing.CRC

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2018 Gut

12. Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions.

Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions. Human trafficking is a global problem and results in deleterious psychological, social, and physical effects on the lives of those who are trafficked; however, it is not clear how to best intervene with survivors. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the evidence of exit and postexit intervention programs for survivors of human trafficking to inform practice and research.Systematic review (...) methods were used to search, select, and extract data from published and unpublished experimental, quasi-experimental, and preexperimental studies that assessed the effects of any exit or postexit interventions for victims of human trafficking. The authors searched eight databases, reviewed bibliographies, and conducted forward citation searches from relevant reports and prior reviews to find studies authored between 2005 and 2015.The search yielded six eligible studies that included 155 female and 6

2018 Trauma, violence & abuse

13. Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim (PubMed)

Fair compensation for victims of human trafficking? A case study of the Dutch injured party claim Any person who has been a victim of human trafficking has a right to compensation. Compensation entails the reimbursement of material and immaterial damages a trafficked person has suffered. In spite of the internationally recognized right to compensation, the number of trafficked persons in Europe having actually received any reimbursement is very low. The present study identifies obstacles

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2018 International review of victimology

14. Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling (PubMed)

Human Adenoviruses, Cholesterol Trafficking, and NF-κB Signaling The interplay between viruses and host factors regulating inflammatory or cytotoxic responses directed against infected cells is well documented. Viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms that strike a balance between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated tissue injury by antiviral immune responses. The topic of this mini-review is a series of recent studies demonstrating a link between cholesterol trafficking (...) and innate immune responses in cells infected with human adenoviruses that provide the backbone of commonly used vectors in gene medicine. Besides revealing an unexpected role for lipid metabolism in immune evasion, these studies have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of cholesterol trafficking in normal cells and various disease states. They also describe a previously unappreciated host-virus interaction that may be employed by other pathogens to interfere with the host innate

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2018 Journal of immunological sciences

15. Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (PubMed)

Acidic organelles mediate TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis via (pro)renin receptor and vacuolar ATPase trafficking in human peritoneal mesothelial cells TGF-β1, which can cause renal tubular injury through a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase)-mediated pathway, is induced by the glucose degradation product methylglyoxal to yield peritoneal injury and fibrosis. The present study investigated the roles of V-ATPase and its accessory protein, the (pro)renin receptor, in peritoneal fibrosis during (...) peritoneal dialysis. Rats daily administered 20 mM methylglyoxal intraperitoneally developed significant peritoneal fibrosis after 7 days with increased expression of TGF-β and V-ATPase, which was reduced by the inhibition of V-ATPase with co-administration of 100 mM bafilomycin A1. The (pro)renin receptor and V-ATPase were expressed in acidic organelles and cell membranes of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. TGF-β1 upregulated the expression of collagens, α-SMA, and EDA-fibronectin, together with ERK1

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2018 Scientific reports

16. UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum (PubMed)

UK medical education on human trafficking: assessing uptake of the opportunity to shape awareness, safeguarding and referral in the curriculum Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights, with numerous consequences for health and wellbeing. Recent law and policy reforms mean that clinicians now hold a crucial role in national strategies. 2015 research, however, indicates a serious shortfall in knowledge and confidence among healthcare professionals in the UK, leading potentially (...) is variable and often absent. To produce future clinicians who are competent and capable, there is a need for expanded education on trafficking and research into optimal curriculum design. The UK's new Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner should work with medical schools to develop an educational strategy urgently to fulfil the UK Government's plans and commitments. Both in the UK and around the world, human trafficking education presents a critical opportunity to address human rights and safeguarding

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2018 BMC medical education

17. Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract (PubMed)

Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute (...) to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive. There is also the possibility, as has been demonstrated in mouse models, that the vaginal deposition of ZIKV particles present in semen could lead to congenital syndrome. In this paper, we review the current literature to understand ZIKV trafficking from the bloodstream to the human male reproductive tract and viral interactions with host cells in interstitial spaces, tubule

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2018 Pathogens

18. “Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong (PubMed)

“Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore (...) conditions and targeted protections from human trafficking. Survivors of the crime of sea slavery must be provided with the compensation they deserve and the care they need, especially psychological support.

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2018 Globalization and health

19. Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma (PubMed)

Single-Cell Analyses of Human Eosinophils at High Resolution to Understand Compartmentalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Interferon-Gamma Human eosinophils release numerous cytokines that are pre-synthesized and stored within their cytoplasmic-specific (secretory) granules. For example, high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are constitutively expressed in these cells, but the intracellular compartments involved in the transport and release of this cytokine remain to be established (...) significantly higher in the cell periphery compared with the inner cell, thus revealing intracellular IFN-γ mobilization for release. IFN-γ extracellular labeling was found at the cell surface, including on extracellular vesicles. Our results provide direct evidence that human eosinophils compartmentalize IFN-γ within secretory granules and identify, for the first time, a vesicular trafficking of IFN-γ associated with large transport carriers. This is important to understand how IFN-γ is trafficked

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

20. γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation (PubMed)

γ2 GABAAR Trafficking and the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most prevalent as heteropentamers composed of two α, two β, and a γ2 subunit, these ligand-gated ionotropic chloride channels are capable of extensive genetic diversity (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, , , π, ρ1-3). Part of this selective GABAAR assembly arises from the critical role for γ2 in maintaining (...) γ2 subunit human genetic variation and assess disease related phenotypes and the potential role of altered GABAAR trafficking. Finally, we discuss new-age imaging techniques and their potential to provide novel insight into critical regulatory mechanisms of GABAAR function.

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2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

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