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Herpes Simplex Keratitis

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161. Therapeutic and Optical Keratoplasty in the Management of Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Risk Factors, Outcomes, and Summary of the Literature. (Abstract)

rehabilitation. Thirty-seven (80.4%) patients in the keratoplasty group initially were misdiagnosed as having herpes simplex keratitis versus 59 (41.8%) patients who did not require a keratoplasty (P < 0.001). Final visual outcomes were significantly better in the optical group compared with the therapeutic group, with 13 (54.2%) achieving visual acuity of 20/30 or better versus 7 (26.9%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, beginning therapy at a hospital other than Moorfields and undergoing (...) Therapeutic and Optical Keratoplasty in the Management of Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Risk Factors, Outcomes, and Summary of the Literature. To report the risk factors for and outcomes of therapeutic and optical keratoplasty in the management of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).Retrospective case series.A total of 50 eyes of 196 patients with retrievable medical records, diagnosed with AK at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, underwent keratoplasty between January 1991 and April 2012.Patient demographics

2014 Ophthalmology

162. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of fungal keratitis using direct PCR without template DNA extraction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of fungal keratitis using direct PCR without template DNA extraction. This study was aimed at developing a direct PCR assay without template DNA extraction for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of infectious keratitis. Eighty corneal scrapings from 67 consecutive patients with clinically suspected infectious keratitis were analysed prospectively. Direct PCR was performed with all scrapings, with specific primers for fungi, bacteria, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 (...) ) and Acanthamoeba simultaneously. The results were compared with those obtained from culture, smear, and confocal microscopy. Discrepant results were resolved according to the therapeutic effects of the corresponding antimicrobial drugs. The lowest detection limit of direct PCR was ten copies of each pathogen. Sixty-six scrapings yielded positive results with direct PCR, giving a total positive detection rate of 82.5% (66/80). For 34 patients with high suspicion of fungal keratitis, the positive detection rate

2014 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

163. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections

. Herpes simplex keratitis (HSV infection of the corneal epithelium) causes pain, tearing, photophobia, and corneal ulcers that often have a branching pattern. Herpetic whitlow Herpetic Whitlow DR P. MARAZZI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY , a swollen, painful, erythematous lesion of the distal phalanx, results from inoculation of HSV through the skin and is most common among health care practitioners. Neonatal herpes simplex develops in neonates, including those whose mothers have no suggestion of current (...) simplex keratitis involves topical antivirals, such as trifluridine , and should be supervised by an ophthalmologist. Neonatal herpes simplex Acyclovir 20 mg/kg IV q 8 h for 14 to 21 days should be used if renal function is normal. A dose of 20 mg/kg IV q 8 h for at least 21 days is indicated for CNS and disseminated HSV disease. CNS infection Encephalitis is treated with acyclovir 10 mg/kg IV q 8 h for 14 to 21 days if renal function is normal. Treatment for 14 to 21 days is preferred to prevent

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

164. Keratitis, Interstitial (Overview)

. Unilateral Posterior Interstitial Keratitis as a Clinical Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Disease. Cornea . 2018 Mar. 37 (3):375-378. . Media Gallery This photograph depicts a child with a bilateral eye condition known as interstitial keratitis (IK), a stigma related to congenital syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Syphilis chorioretinitis in a 30-year-old patient who is mentally retarded. A 73-year-old woman (...) and collagen remodeling occur. The superficial vessels resorb, and the deeper vessels may constrict, resulting in the ghost vessels that are seen as a late finding of syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Previous Next: Epidemiology Interstitial keratitis is generally seen in the context of syphilis and, less commonly, in the context of herpes and Cogan syndrome. In various countries in which mycobacterial diseases (eg, , ) are endemic, these and other parasitic causes of interstitial keratitis may be seen

2014 eMedicine.com

165. Keratitis, Interstitial (Treatment)

. Unilateral Posterior Interstitial Keratitis as a Clinical Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Disease. Cornea . 2018 Mar. 37 (3):375-378. . Media Gallery This photograph depicts a child with a bilateral eye condition known as interstitial keratitis (IK), a stigma related to congenital syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Syphilis chorioretinitis in a 30-year-old patient who is mentally retarded. A 73-year-old woman (...) and collagen remodeling occur. The superficial vessels resorb, and the deeper vessels may constrict, resulting in the ghost vessels that are seen as a late finding of syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Previous Next: Epidemiology Interstitial keratitis is generally seen in the context of syphilis and, less commonly, in the context of herpes and Cogan syndrome. In various countries in which mycobacterial diseases (eg, , ) are endemic, these and other parasitic causes of interstitial keratitis may be seen

2014 eMedicine.com

166. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (Overview)

, herpes simplex keratitis, fungal keratitis), and noninfectious local disorders (eg, Mooren ulcer, marginal keratitis) may also cause PUK. In summary, the major pathophysiologic mechanism of PUK is a result of degradation and tissue necrosis of corneal stroma produced by degradative enzymes, which are released primarily by neutrophils attracted into the area by diverse stimuli. Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency United States Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is uncommon. RA has been reported (...) Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (Overview) Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE5NTk4MC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Peripheral

2014 eMedicine.com

167. Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Follow-up)

, Van Looveren J, et al. Clinical, epidemiological and cost aspects of contact lens related infectious keratitis in Belgium: results of a seven-year retrospective study. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol . 2005. 7-15. . Zaher SS, Sandinha T, Roberts F, et al. Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Cornea . 2005 Nov. 24(8):1015-7. . Media Gallery Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Glue has (...) . Previous References Jeng BH, Gritz DC, Kumar AB, et al. Epidemiology of ulcerative keratitis in Northern California. Arch Ophthalmol . 2010 Aug. 128(8):1022-8. . Kosker M, Duman F, Suri K, Hammersmith KM, Nagra PK, Rapuano CJ. Long-term Results of Keratoplasty in Patients With Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Cornea . 2013 Mar 27. . French DD, Margo CE. Demographic patterns of ED patients diagnosed as having corneal ulcer. Am J Emerg Med . 2013 May 17. . Morgan PB, Efron N, Brennan NA, et al. Risk factors

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

168. Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Treatment)

, Van Looveren J, et al. Clinical, epidemiological and cost aspects of contact lens related infectious keratitis in Belgium: results of a seven-year retrospective study. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol . 2005. 7-15. . Zaher SS, Sandinha T, Roberts F, et al. Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Cornea . 2005 Nov. 24(8):1015-7. . Media Gallery Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Glue has (...) . Previous References Jeng BH, Gritz DC, Kumar AB, et al. Epidemiology of ulcerative keratitis in Northern California. Arch Ophthalmol . 2010 Aug. 128(8):1022-8. . Kosker M, Duman F, Suri K, Hammersmith KM, Nagra PK, Rapuano CJ. Long-term Results of Keratoplasty in Patients With Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Cornea . 2013 Mar 27. . French DD, Margo CE. Demographic patterns of ED patients diagnosed as having corneal ulcer. Am J Emerg Med . 2013 May 17. . Morgan PB, Efron N, Brennan NA, et al. Risk factors

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

169. Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Overview)

Ophtalmol . 2005. 7-15. . Zaher SS, Sandinha T, Roberts F, et al. Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Cornea . 2005 Nov. 24(8):1015-7. . Media Gallery Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Glue has been placed. of 1 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Associate Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Los Alamitos Medical Center (...) Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Overview) Corneal Ulcer and Ulcerative Keratitis in Emergency Medicine: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

170. Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Diagnosis)

Ophtalmol . 2005. 7-15. . Zaher SS, Sandinha T, Roberts F, et al. Herpes simplex keratitis misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-related peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Cornea . 2005 Nov. 24(8):1015-7. . Media Gallery Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Glue has been placed. of 1 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Associate Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Los Alamitos Medical Center (...) Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis (Diagnosis) Corneal Ulcer and Ulcerative Keratitis in Emergency Medicine: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

171. Keratitis, Interstitial (Follow-up)

. Unilateral Posterior Interstitial Keratitis as a Clinical Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Disease. Cornea . 2018 Mar. 37 (3):375-378. . Media Gallery This photograph depicts a child with a bilateral eye condition known as interstitial keratitis (IK), a stigma related to congenital syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Syphilis chorioretinitis in a 30-year-old patient who is mentally retarded. A 73-year-old woman (...) and collagen remodeling occur. The superficial vessels resorb, and the deeper vessels may constrict, resulting in the ghost vessels that are seen as a late finding of syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Previous Next: Epidemiology Interstitial keratitis is generally seen in the context of syphilis and, less commonly, in the context of herpes and Cogan syndrome. In various countries in which mycobacterial diseases (eg, , ) are endemic, these and other parasitic causes of interstitial keratitis may be seen

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (Diagnosis)

) or local (eg, herpes simplex keratitis, fungal keratitis), and noninfectious local disorders (eg, Mooren ulcer, marginal keratitis) may also cause PUK. In summary, the major pathophysiologic mechanism of PUK is a result of degradation and tissue necrosis of corneal stroma produced by degradative enzymes, which are released primarily by neutrophils attracted into the area by diverse stimuli. Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency United States Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is uncommon. RA has (...) Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (Diagnosis) Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE5NTk4MC1vdmVydmlldw== processing

2014 eMedicine.com

173. Keratitis, Interstitial (Diagnosis)

. Unilateral Posterior Interstitial Keratitis as a Clinical Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Disease. Cornea . 2018 Mar. 37 (3):375-378. . Media Gallery This photograph depicts a child with a bilateral eye condition known as interstitial keratitis (IK), a stigma related to congenital syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Interstitial keratitis in a patient with ocular syphilis. Syphilis chorioretinitis in a 30-year-old patient who is mentally retarded. A 73-year-old woman (...) and collagen remodeling occur. The superficial vessels resorb, and the deeper vessels may constrict, resulting in the ghost vessels that are seen as a late finding of syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Previous Next: Epidemiology Interstitial keratitis is generally seen in the context of syphilis and, less commonly, in the context of herpes and Cogan syndrome. In various countries in which mycobacterial diseases (eg, , ) are endemic, these and other parasitic causes of interstitial keratitis may be seen

2014 eMedicine.com

174. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of Acanthamoeba. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was tested using different copies of positive DNA. The specificity of the assay was tested using DNA extracted from Acanthamoeba, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus-1 and human corneal epithelial cells. Its effectiveness was evaluated (...) and compared with culture, corneal smear examination and real-time PCR in corneal samples from mice with Acanthamoeba keratitis. We also tested three corneal samples from patients with suspected Acanthamoeba or fungal infection using LAMP. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification was confirmed to be very sensitive, with the lowest detection limit being ten copies/tube of Acanthamoeba DNA. The LAMP primers only amplified Acanthamoeba DNA. During the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis in mice, almost all

2013 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

175. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Predisposes to Antiviral Resistant Recurrent Herpetic Keratitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acyclovir Prophylaxis Predisposes to Antiviral Resistant Recurrent Herpetic Keratitis. Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK).Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were

2013 Journal of Infectious Diseases

176. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression Full Text available with Trip Pro

three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 μg/mL) and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 μg/mL). The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following (...) Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g

2013 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

177. Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice: A Model for Studying Human HSK Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice: A Model for Studying Human HSK Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea leads to a potentially blinding disease, termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) that is characterized by lesions of an immunoinflammatory nature. In spite of the fact that HSK typically presents as a recurrent disease due to reactivation of virus which latently infects the trigeminal ganglia, most murine studies of HSK have employed a primary and not recurrent

2012 Clinical and Developmental Immunology

178. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye Full Text available with Trip Pro

injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed.No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA (...) Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary

2012 Case reports in ophthalmology

179. Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy Ocular gene therapy is rapidly becoming a reality. By November 2012, approximately 28 clinical trials were approved to assess novel gene therapy agents. Viral infections such as herpetic keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can cause serious complications that may lead to blindness. Recurrence of the disease is likely and cornea transplantation, therefore, might not be the ideal therapeutic solution. This paper will focus on the current (...) situation of ocular gene therapy research against herpetic keratitis, including the use of viral and nonviral vectors, routes of delivery of therapeutic genes, new techniques, and key research strategies. Whereas the correction of inherited diseases was the initial goal of the field of gene therapy, here we discuss transgene expression, gene replacement, silencing, or clipping. Gene therapy of herpetic keratitis previously reported in the literature is screened emphasizing candidate gene therapy targets

2012 Journal of ophthalmology

180. Vidarabine therapy of simple and IDU-complicated herpetic keratitis. (Abstract)

, photophobia, sensitivity) and percent of and time for corneal reepithelialization. With vidarabine, significantly more patients had improved distant visual acuity than did with IDU. In the open studies, vidarabine also was effective. Of 116 patients whose ulcers had not responded to IDU, 91 (78%) had reepithelialization within four weeks of treatment with vidarabine. On the basis of results from these studies, vidarabine appears to be a safe and effective drug for treating herpes simplex keratitis. (...) Vidarabine therapy of simple and IDU-complicated herpetic keratitis. Large scale, multiclinic evaluations of vidarabine (Ara-A, Vira A, adenine arabinoside) for treating herpetic keratitis have been conducted as double-blind studies (169 patients) in comparison with IDU and open studies (146 patients). In the open studies, the disease in the majority of patients had been refractory to IDU. The effects of vidarabine and IDU were approximately the same in improvement of symptoms (lacrimination

1977 Transactions. Section on Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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