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Herpes Simplex Keratitis

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161. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of Acanthamoeba. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was tested using different copies of positive DNA. The specificity of the assay was tested using DNA extracted from Acanthamoeba, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus-1 and human corneal epithelial cells. Its effectiveness was evaluated (...) and compared with culture, corneal smear examination and real-time PCR in corneal samples from mice with Acanthamoeba keratitis. We also tested three corneal samples from patients with suspected Acanthamoeba or fungal infection using LAMP. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification was confirmed to be very sensitive, with the lowest detection limit being ten copies/tube of Acanthamoeba DNA. The LAMP primers only amplified Acanthamoeba DNA. During the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis in mice, almost all

2013 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

162. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Predisposes to Antiviral Resistant Recurrent Herpetic Keratitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acyclovir Prophylaxis Predisposes to Antiviral Resistant Recurrent Herpetic Keratitis. Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK).Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were

2013 Journal of Infectious Diseases

163. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression Full Text available with Trip Pro

three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 μg/mL) and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 μg/mL). The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following (...) Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g

2013 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

164. Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice: A Model for Studying Human HSK Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice: A Model for Studying Human HSK Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea leads to a potentially blinding disease, termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) that is characterized by lesions of an immunoinflammatory nature. In spite of the fact that HSK typically presents as a recurrent disease due to reactivation of virus which latently infects the trigeminal ganglia, most murine studies of HSK have employed a primary and not recurrent

2012 Clinical and Developmental Immunology

165. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye Full Text available with Trip Pro

injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed.No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA (...) Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary

2012 Case reports in ophthalmology

166. Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy Ocular gene therapy is rapidly becoming a reality. By November 2012, approximately 28 clinical trials were approved to assess novel gene therapy agents. Viral infections such as herpetic keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can cause serious complications that may lead to blindness. Recurrence of the disease is likely and cornea transplantation, therefore, might not be the ideal therapeutic solution. This paper will focus on the current (...) situation of ocular gene therapy research against herpetic keratitis, including the use of viral and nonviral vectors, routes of delivery of therapeutic genes, new techniques, and key research strategies. Whereas the correction of inherited diseases was the initial goal of the field of gene therapy, here we discuss transgene expression, gene replacement, silencing, or clipping. Gene therapy of herpetic keratitis previously reported in the literature is screened emphasizing candidate gene therapy targets

2012 Journal of ophthalmology

167. Viral Keratitis-Inhibitory Effect of 9-β-d-Arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5′-Monophosphate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Viral Keratitis-Inhibitory Effect of 9-β-d-Arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5′-Monophosphate Topical application of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate (ara-HxMP) significantly inhibited the development of keratitis induced by types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus in the eyes of rabbits. Parameters for evaluation of efficacy were infectivity (corneal opacity, lesion size, and type), Draize (erythema, conjunctival swelling, and discharge), and reduction in titer (...) of recoverable virus from the eye. When the relative efficacy of the related compounds 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A), ara-A 5'-monophosphate (ara-AMP), and ara-Hx was determined against type 1 herpes simplex virus in a parallel experiment, the more water-soluble compounds (ara-HxMP, ara-AMP) were the most effective. The relative efficacy of ara-A was also determined against type 2 herpes and vaccinia virus-induced keratitis. Mortality in rabbits due to central nervous system involvement caused

1975 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

168. Vidarabine therapy of simple and IDU-complicated herpetic keratitis. (Abstract)

, photophobia, sensitivity) and percent of and time for corneal reepithelialization. With vidarabine, significantly more patients had improved distant visual acuity than did with IDU. In the open studies, vidarabine also was effective. Of 116 patients whose ulcers had not responded to IDU, 91 (78%) had reepithelialization within four weeks of treatment with vidarabine. On the basis of results from these studies, vidarabine appears to be a safe and effective drug for treating herpes simplex keratitis. (...) Vidarabine therapy of simple and IDU-complicated herpetic keratitis. Large scale, multiclinic evaluations of vidarabine (Ara-A, Vira A, adenine arabinoside) for treating herpetic keratitis have been conducted as double-blind studies (169 patients) in comparison with IDU and open studies (146 patients). In the open studies, the disease in the majority of patients had been refractory to IDU. The effects of vidarabine and IDU were approximately the same in improvement of symptoms (lacrimination

1977 Transactions. Section on Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Interferon in treatment of dendritic keratitis in humans: a preliminary report. (Abstract)

epithelium or can improve the results when given as additional therapy. Fifty-five patients (75%) yielded herpes simplex virus before treatment, and only the results in these patients with keratitis of proved viral etiology were included in the analysis. These results indicated that mechanical debridement cannot be replaced with local application of human leukocyte interferon (3-4 X 10(4) units per day). When given in addition to thermocautery, human leukocyte interferon may have been of some value (...) Interferon in treatment of dendritic keratitis in humans: a preliminary report. Seventy-three patients with herpetic epithelial keratitis were randomly divided into three groups and were treated by local applications of human leukocyte interferon, thermocautery plus human leukocyte interferon, or thermocautery plus mock human leukocyte interferon to obtain information on whether therapy with human leukocyte interferon can serve as a substitute for mechanical debridement of the involved

1976 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

170. Herpes Zoster (Diagnosis)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Herpes Zoster (Diagnosis)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Herpes Zoster (Diagnosis)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

173. Herpes Zoster (Treatment)

: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) . 1983 Mar. 62(2):81-97. . Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE. Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol . 1999 Dec. 73(12):10514-8. . . Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Neurology . 1995 Dec. 45(12 Suppl 8):S50-1. . Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 2001 Aug (...) necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol . 2001 Sep. 132(3):421-3. . Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Power WJ, Muccioli C, Lane L, Belfort R Jr, et al. Herpes zoster peripheral ulcerative keratitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cornea . 1996 Sep. 15(5):446-50. . Fernandes NF, Malliah R, Stitik TP, Rozdeba P, Lambert WC, Schwartz RA. Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Acta

2014 eMedicine.com

174. Herpes Zoster (Treatment)

: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) . 1983 Mar. 62(2):81-97. . Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE. Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol . 1999 Dec. 73(12):10514-8. . . Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Neurology . 1995 Dec. 45(12 Suppl 8):S50-1. . Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 2001 Aug (...) necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol . 2001 Sep. 132(3):421-3. . Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Power WJ, Muccioli C, Lane L, Belfort R Jr, et al. Herpes zoster peripheral ulcerative keratitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cornea . 1996 Sep. 15(5):446-50. . Fernandes NF, Malliah R, Stitik TP, Rozdeba P, Lambert WC, Schwartz RA. Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Acta

2014 eMedicine.com

175. Herpes Zoster (Treatment)

: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) . 1983 Mar. 62(2):81-97. . Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE. Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol . 1999 Dec. 73(12):10514-8. . . Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Neurology . 1995 Dec. 45(12 Suppl 8):S50-1. . Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 2001 Aug (...) necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol . 2001 Sep. 132(3):421-3. . Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Power WJ, Muccioli C, Lane L, Belfort R Jr, et al. Herpes zoster peripheral ulcerative keratitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cornea . 1996 Sep. 15(5):446-50. . Fernandes NF, Malliah R, Stitik TP, Rozdeba P, Lambert WC, Schwartz RA. Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Acta

2014 eMedicine.com

176. Herpes Zoster (Overview)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

177. Herpes Zoster (Overview)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

178. Herpes Zoster (Overview)

include hyperesthesia or, more rarely, hypoesthesia or anesthesia in the area of involvement Common features of herpes zoster ophthalmicus are as follows: Classic symptoms and lesions of herpes zoster Ophthalmic manifestations including conjunctivitis, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis iridocyclitis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, glaucoma, retinitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis, exophthalmos, lid retraction, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies Other forms include (...) in the same host. Of more than 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight are of particular interest in humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSVs)–1 and 2, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). [ ] Postmortem examination of trigeminal and/or facial ganglia detected these viruses in 30 (63.8%) of 47 subjects, with HHV-6 being the most prevalent, identified in 46.8% of them, followed by HSV-1 in 14.9%, VZV in 8.5%, EBV in 8.5%, HSV-2

2014 eMedicine.com

179. Herpes Zoster (Follow-up)

: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) . 1983 Mar. 62(2):81-97. . Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE. Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol . 1999 Dec. 73(12):10514-8. . . Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Neurology . 1995 Dec. 45(12 Suppl 8):S50-1. . Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 2001 Aug (...) necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol . 2001 Sep. 132(3):421-3. . Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Power WJ, Muccioli C, Lane L, Belfort R Jr, et al. Herpes zoster peripheral ulcerative keratitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cornea . 1996 Sep. 15(5):446-50. . Fernandes NF, Malliah R, Stitik TP, Rozdeba P, Lambert WC, Schwartz RA. Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Acta

2014 eMedicine.com

180. Herpes Zoster (Follow-up)

: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) . 1983 Mar. 62(2):81-97. . Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE. Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol . 1999 Dec. 73(12):10514-8. . . Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Neurology . 1995 Dec. 45(12 Suppl 8):S50-1. . Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 2001 Aug (...) necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol . 2001 Sep. 132(3):421-3. . Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Power WJ, Muccioli C, Lane L, Belfort R Jr, et al. Herpes zoster peripheral ulcerative keratitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cornea . 1996 Sep. 15(5):446-50. . Fernandes NF, Malliah R, Stitik TP, Rozdeba P, Lambert WC, Schwartz RA. Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Acta

2014 eMedicine.com

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