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Hepatotoxic Medication

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61. Co-culture of Hepatocytes and Kupffer Cells as an In Vitro Model of Inflammation and Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Co-culture of Hepatocytes and Kupffer Cells as an In Vitro Model of Inflammation and Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity Immune-mediated drug-induced hepatotoxicity is often unrecognized as a potential mode of action due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. We have established an in vitro rat donor-matched hepatocyte and Kupffer cell co-culture (HKCC) model to study immune-related responses to drug exposure. Optimal cell culture conditions were identified for the maintenance of co-cultures based (...) on cell longevity, monolayer integrity, and cytokine response after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Hepatocyte monocultures and HKCCs were then used to test a subset of compounds associated with hepatotoxic effects with or without LPS. Cytokine levels and metabolic activity (cytochrome P450 3A [Cyp3A]) were measured after a 48-h exposure to monitor endotoxin-induced changes in acute phase and functional end points. LPS-activated HKCCs, but not hepatocyte monocultures, treated with trovafloxacin

2016 Journal of pharmaceutical sciences

62. Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an underreported and underestimated adverse drug reaction. Information on the documented hepatotoxicity of drugs has recently been made available by a website that can be accessed in the public domain: LiverTox (http://livertox.nlm.nih.gov). According to critical analysis of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in LiverTox, 53% of drugs had at least one case report of convincing reports of liver (...) injury. Only 48 drugs had more than 50 case reports of DILI. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most commonly implicated agent leading to DILI in the prospective series. In a recent prospective study, liver injury due to amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to occur in approximately one out of 2300 users. Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab.

2016 International journal of molecular sciences

63. A Long-term Co-perfused Disseminated Tuberculosis-3D Liver Hollow Fiber Model for Both Drug Efficacy and Hepatotoxicity in Babies Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Long-term Co-perfused Disseminated Tuberculosis-3D Liver Hollow Fiber Model for Both Drug Efficacy and Hepatotoxicity in Babies Treatment of disseminated tuberculosis in children≤6years has not been optimized. The pyrazinamide-containing combination regimen used to treat disseminated tuberculosis in babies and toddlers was extrapolated from adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to hepatotoxicity worries, there are no dose-response studies in children. We designed a hollow fiber system model (...) tuberculosis up to fourfold the standard dose as monotherapy or as combination therapy, despite achieving high intracellular concentrations. Host-pathogen RNA-sequencing revealed lack of a pyrazinamide exposure transcript signature in intracellular bacteria or of phagolysosome acidification on pH imaging. Artificial intelligence algorithms confirmed that pyrazinamide was not predictive of good clinical outcomes in children≤6years who had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, adding a drug that works inside

2016 EBioMedicine

64. Establishment of a Predictive In Vitro Assay for Assessment of the Hepatotoxic Potential of Oligonucleotide Drugs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Establishment of a Predictive In Vitro Assay for Assessment of the Hepatotoxic Potential of Oligonucleotide Drugs Single stranded oligonucleotides (SSO) represent a novel therapeutic modality that opens new space to address previously undruggable targets. In spite of their proven efficacy, the development of promising SSO drug candidates has been limited by reported cases of SSO-associated hepatotoxicity. The mechanisms of SSO induced liver toxicity are poorly understood, and up to now (...) no preclinical in vitro model has been established that allows prediction of the hepatotoxicity risk of a given SSO. Therefore, preclinical assessment of hepatic liability currently relies on rodent studies that require large cohorts of animals and lengthy protocols. Here, we describe the establishment and validation of an in vitro assay using primary hepatocytes that recapitulates the hepatotoxic profile of SSOs previously observed in rodents. In vitro cytotoxicity upon unassisted delivery was measured

2016 PloS one

65. Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione S-Transferase P1 (GSTP1) and the Incidence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione S-Transferase P1 (GSTP1) and the Incidence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) is one of the most common adverse effects associated with tuberculosis (TB) therapy. Animal studies have demonstrated important roles of glutathione S-transferases in the prevention of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (...) (SNPs) of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and ATDH in TB patients.We used two independent samples for this genetic association study. In the initial prospective study, 322 newly diagnosed TB patients were followed up for three months after initiating anti-TB therapy. In an independent retrospective study, 115 ATDH patients and 116 patients without ATDH were selected to verify the results of the prospective study. Tag-SNPs of GSTP1 were genotyped either with the MassARRAY platform

2016 PloS one

66. Hepatotoxicity and Potential Drug Interaction with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir In HIV/HCV Infected Patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatotoxicity and Potential Drug Interaction with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir In HIV/HCV Infected Patients. 27210428 2018 09 10 2018 12 02 1600-0641 65 3 2016 09 Journal of hepatology J. Hepatol. Hepatotoxicity and potential drug interaction with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in HIV/HCV infected patients. 651-3 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.05.015 S0168-8278(16)30201-X Tseng Alice A Immunodeficiency Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: alice.tseng@uhn.ca. Wong David K DK (...) Immunodeficiency Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. eng Letter 2016 05 20 Netherlands J Hepatol 8503886 0168-8278 0 Antiviral Agents 0 Benzimidazoles 0 Fluorenes 013TE6E4WV ledipasvir WJ6CA3ZU8B Sofosbuvir IM Antiviral Agents adverse effects Benzimidazoles adverse effects Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury Drug Interactions Drug Therapy, Combination Fluorenes adverse effects HIV Infections drug therapy Hepatitis C drug therapy Humans Sofosbuvir adverse effects DILI Drug interaction HIV

2016 Journal of Hepatology

67. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly (...) systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

2013 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

68. Empagliflozin (Jardiance) in type 2 diabetes: no rush to use this drug

(Jardiance°) in type 2 diabetes: no rush to use this drug FEATURED REVIEW There is no evidence that empagliflozin has a favourable harm-benefit balance when used for prevention of the cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes. More trial data are needed on the harm-benefit balance of empagliflozin compared to other cardiovascular therapies. Full review (3 pages) available for download by subscribers. Abstract In early 2016, metformin monotherapy r emains the treatment of choice for most patients (...) HbA1c of about 8%, the HbA1c fell by about 0.5% more with empagliflozin than with placebo. An even smaller effect was reported in patients with renal impairment. Empagliflozin shares the adverse effects of other gliflozins , including genital infections, kidney failure, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Empagliflozin may also be hepatotoxic. A risk of cancer (especially bladder cancer) cannot be ruled out. Empagliflozin interacts with nephrotoxic drugs , which aggravate its adverse effects and decrease its

2016 Prescrire

69. Model-based identification of TNFα-induced IKKβ-mediated and IκBα-mediated regulation of NFκB signal transduction as a tool to quantify the impact of drug-induced liver injury compounds Full Text available with Trip Pro

Model-based identification of TNFα-induced IKKβ-mediated and IκBα-mediated regulation of NFκB signal transduction as a tool to quantify the impact of drug-induced liver injury compounds Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a major problem for patients and for clinicians, academics and the pharmaceutical industry. To date, existing hepatotoxicity test systems are only poorly predictive and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. One of the factors known to amplify hepatotoxicity (...) is the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), especially due to its synergy with commonly used drugs such as diclofenac. However, the exact mechanism of how diclofenac in combination with TNFα induces liver injury remains elusive. Here, we combined time-resolved immunoblotting and live-cell imaging data of HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with dynamic pathway modeling using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the complex structure of TNFα-induced NFκB signal transduction

2018 NPJ systems biology and applications

70. Early monitoring for detection of antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early monitoring for detection of antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity We investigated the time of onset of antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ADIH) and related characteristics.Adult patients (n = 1,031) treated with first-line antituberculous drugs between February 2009 and January 2013 were enrolled.Of the 1,031 patients, 108 patients (10.5%) developed ADIH a mean of 39.6 ± 43.7 days after treatment initiation. Twenty-eight patients (25.9%) developed ADIH within 7 days, 73 (...) (67.6%) within 30 days, and the rest after 30 days. The ≤ 30-day group was characterized by higher peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and a high proportion of patients with maintenance of first-line antituberculous drugs compared to the > 30-day group. In subgroup analysis, the ≤ 7-day group was characterized by higher baseline aspartate aminotransferase and ALT, high proportion of patients with maintenance of first-line antituberculous drugs, and high proportion of patients

2015 The Korean journal of internal medicine

71. Cells of Monocytic Origin as Surrogate Markers for Individual Drug Effects and Hepatotoxicity

Observational Model: Cohort Time Perspective: Prospective Official Title: Cells of Monocytic Origin as Surrogate Markers for Individual Drug Effects and Hepatotoxicity Study Start Date : March 2013 Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 2020 Estimated Study Completion Date : August 2022 Groups and Cohorts Go to Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment healthy donors/patients without liver disease, with and without ongoing drug therapy including buffy coat samples of healthy blood / thrombocyte donors. After (...) Cells of Monocytic Origin as Surrogate Markers for Individual Drug Effects and Hepatotoxicity Cells of Monocytic Origin as Surrogate Markers for Individual Drug Effects and Hepatotoxicity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one

2015 Clinical Trials

73. Anti-TB drug concentrations and drug-associated toxicities among TB/HIV-coinfected patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anti-TB drug concentrations and drug-associated toxicities among TB/HIV-coinfected patients. Toxicities due to anti-TB treatment frequently occur among TB/HIV-coinfected patients.To determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and the occurrence of hepatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy among TB/HIV-coinfected patients.TB/HIV-coinfected patients were started on standard dose anti-TB treatment according to WHO guidelines. Anti-TB drug concentrations were measured using HPLC 1 (...) , 2 and 4 h after drug intake at 2, 8 and 24 weeks following initiation of TB treatment. Participants were assessed for hepatotoxicity using Division of AIDS toxicity tables and for peripheral neuropathy using clinical assessment of tendon reflexes, vibration sensation or symptoms. Cox regression was used to determine the association between toxicities and drug concentrations.Of the 268 patients enrolled, 58% were male with a median age of 34 years. Participants with no hepatotoxicity or mild

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

74. Drug and Drug Abuse Associated Hyperbilirubinemia: Experience with Atazanavir Full Text available with Trip Pro

associated with hyperbilirubinemia in as many as one-third of individuals for whom it has been prescribed, evoking concerns of hepatotoxicity. The studies in this report were designed to determine mechanisms by which this occurs. The data show that this drug inhibits the enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase-1A1, responsible for conjugating bilirubin with glucuronic acid. This conjugation step is required for bilirubin excretion into bile, and when it is inhibited, bilirubin refluxes from the liver (...) Drug and Drug Abuse Associated Hyperbilirubinemia: Experience with Atazanavir Hyperbilirubinemia is a common finding in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Although this may indicate a serious disorder of liver function, this is not always the case. An understanding of bilirubin formation, metabolism, and transport can provide a helpful approach to dealing with these patients. This is typified by studies of patients treated with the antiretroviral drug atazanavir. Atazanavir has been

2017 Clinical pharmacology in drug development

75. Associations of Drug Lipophilicity and Extent of Metabolism with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations of Drug Lipophilicity and Extent of Metabolism with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although rare, is a frequent cause of adverse drug reactions resulting in warnings and withdrawals of numerous medications. Despite the research community's best efforts, current testing strategies aimed at identifying hepatotoxic drugs prior to human trials are not sufficiently powered to predict the complex mechanisms leading to DILI. In our previous studies, we (...) demonstrated lipophilicity and dose to be associated with increased DILI risk and, and in our latest work, we factored reactive metabolites into the algorithm to predict DILI. Given the inconsistency in determining the potential for drugs to cause DILI, the present study comprehensively assesses the relationship between DILI risk and lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism using a large published dataset of 1036 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs by considering five independent DILI

2017 International journal of molecular sciences

76. Drug Metabolism in Preclinical Drug Development: A Survey of the Discovery Process, Toxicology, and Computational Tools Full Text available with Trip Pro

to aid in modular toxicological assessment, such as hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. While these methods have provided tremendous insight into human toxicity by investigational new drugs, they are expensive, require substantial resources, and do not account for pharmacogenomics as well as critical ADME properties. Computational tools can fill this niche in toxicology if in silico models are accurate in relating drug molecular properties to toxicological endpoints as well as reliable in predicting (...) Drug Metabolism in Preclinical Drug Development: A Survey of the Discovery Process, Toxicology, and Computational Tools While establishing efficacy in translational models and humans through clinically-relevant endpoints for disease is of great interest, assessing the potential toxicity of a putative therapeutic drug is critical. Toxicological assessments in the pre-clinical discovery phase help to avoid future failure in the clinical phases of drug development. Many in vitro assays exist

2017 Current drug metabolism

77. Association of polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1) and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Chinese cohort. (Abstract)

Association of polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1) and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Chinese cohort. This study investigated the association between genetic variants in two hepatic uptake transporter genes (SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1) and the risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) in a Chinese cohort. The frequencies and distributions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of these genes were compared among 89

2014 Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)

78. Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

and electrolyte balance, minimizing insensible water losses, and preventing infection. Given the immune mechanism of action of these medicines, use of immune suppression, such as with systemic corticosteroids, is warranted and should be offered, though the use of systemic corticosteroids has been more controversial for the treatment of SJS/TEN, in general. For DRESS/DIHS, high-dose and usually prolonged courses of systemic corticosteroids is first-line therapy following cessation of the offending drug (...) of Washington, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; and Tanyanika Phillips, CHRISTUS St Frances Cabrini Cancer Center, Alexandria, LA. Abstract Section: Purpose To increase awareness, outline strategies, and offer guidance on the recommended management of immune-related adverse events in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) therapy. Methods A multidisciplinary, multi-organizational panel of experts in medical oncology, dermatology, gastroenterology, rheumatology

2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

79. MASAC Document Regarding Risks of Gene Therapy Trials for Hemophilia Full Text available with Trip Pro

). While the mechanisms are not all understood, these adverse events support the need to counsel patients receiving gene therapy to avoid potentially hepatotoxic therapies such as within HAART, and support the need for more studies to determine the mechanisms of liver toxicity complicating gene therapy. The Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MASAC) of NHF continues to emphasize the careful consideration of advances in gene therapy to quantify and mitigate the risks to patients and others (...) , in at least a subset of clinical trial participants. The mechanisms behind this toxicity are not fully understood, but include an immune response to vector capsid; possible direct cellular toxicity due to stress from catabolizing the AAV capsid; a cellular stress response due to high transgene protein synthesis burden; and/or hepatotoxicity resulting from interaction of vector and co-administered potentially hepatotoxic medications, e.g. efavirenz a component of a HAART regimen for HIV infection(11, 12

2018 National Hemophilia Foundation

80. Comprehensive Systematic Review Summary: Disease-modifying Therapies for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

Academy of Neurology AEs: adverse effects ALT: alanine aminotransferase ARRs: annualized relapse rates AST: aspartate aminotransferase CIS: clinically isolated syndrome CMSC: Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers” COI: conflict of interest CV: curriculum vitae DMTs: disease-modifying therapies EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale FDA: US Food and Drug Administration GDDI: Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee IOM: Institute of Medicine mIUs: milli-international (...) by the GDDI before and after the public comment period. Panel members developed the clinical questions and the data extraction template. The guideline panel defined DMTs as medications that aim to affect the clinical course of MS by decreasing relapses or slowing disease progression or both. The guideline panelists limited the search for relevant literature to medications that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Canada, or the European Medicines Agency

2018 American Academy of Neurology

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