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Hemoptysis Causes

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1. Antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce haemoptysis from any cause. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce haemoptysis from any cause. Haemoptysis is a common pathology around the world, occurring with more frequency in low-income countries. It has different etiologies, many of which have infectious characteristics. Antifibrinolytic agents are commonly used to manage bleeding from different sources, but their usefulness in pulmonology is unclear.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing the volume and duration of haemoptysis (...) time between patients receiving TXA and patients receiving placebo with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of -19.47 (95% CI -26.90 to -12.03 hours), but with high heterogeneity (I² = 52%). TXA did not affect remission of haemoptysis evaluated at seven days after the start of treatment. Adverse effects caused by the drug's mechanism of action were not reported. There was no significant difference in the incidence of mild side effects between active and placebo groups (OR 3.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 12.24

2016 Cochrane

2. Assessment of haemoptysis

Assessment of haemoptysis Assessment of haemoptysis - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of haemoptysis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Haemoptysis is the coughing of blood from a source below the glottis. Stoller JK. Diagnosis and management of massive hemoptysis: a review. Respir Care. 1992 Jun;37(6):564-81. http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/06.92/06.92.pdf (...) /339/bmj.b3094.long http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19679615?tool=bestpractice.com Massive haemoptysis occurs in around 5% to 15% of patients presenting with haemoptysis as a chief presenting symptom. Sakr L, Dutau H. Massive hemoptysis: an update on the role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management. Respiration. 2010 Jan 8;80(1):38-58. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/274492 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20090288?tool=bestpractice.com The rate of bleeding has been described

2019 BMJ Best Practice

3. Assessment of haemoptysis

Assessment of haemoptysis Assessment of haemoptysis - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of haemoptysis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Haemoptysis is the coughing of blood from a source below the glottis. Stoller JK. Diagnosis and management of massive hemoptysis: a review. Respir Care. 1992 Jun;37(6):564-81. http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/06.92/06.92.pdf (...) /339/bmj.b3094.long http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19679615?tool=bestpractice.com Massive haemoptysis occurs in around 5% to 15% of patients presenting with haemoptysis as a chief presenting symptom. Sakr L, Dutau H. Massive hemoptysis: an update on the role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management. Respiration. 2010 Jan 8;80(1):38-58. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/274492 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20090288?tool=bestpractice.com The rate of bleeding has been described

2018 BMJ Best Practice

4. Bilateral pulmonary vein stenting for treatment of massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bilateral pulmonary vein stenting for treatment of massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition. Massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare. However, bilateral lung hemorrhage following bilateral PVS is extremely rare.We herein describe a 62-year-old man with refractory massive hemoptysis after (...) radiofrequency catheter ablation for AF, which was successfully controlled by surgical lobectomy and endovascular bilateral PV stenting. The hemorrhage was derived from the bilateral lungs following PV obstruction and bilateral PVS, which was definitively diagnosed by bronchoscopic examination. The patient had no recurrence of hemoptysis during a follow-up period of 30 months, and the PV stents had not narrowed as shown by computed tomography 30 months after stent placement.Massive hemoptysis can be caused

2019 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

5. Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm causing massive hemoptysis in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm causing massive hemoptysis in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome: a case report. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder defined by high serum immunoglobulin E titers that is associated with recurrent respiratory infections, formation of pneumoatoceles, recurrent skin abscesses, and characteristic dental and skeletal abnormalities.We report a case of a 56-year-old male with a history of HIES, cavitary mycetomas, and allergic (...) bronchopulmonary aspergillosis who presented with recurrent massive hemoptysis. Bronchial artery angiography and bronchoscopy failed to identify active hemorrhage, and two embolizations of the bronchial artery did not resolve the bleeding. Subsequently, selective pulmonary artery angiography was conducted that demonstrated a subsegmental pulmonary artery branch pseudoaneurysm with extravasation into an adjacent lung cavity. This was treated successfully with transcatheter embolization.To our knowledge

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

6. Hemoptysis

al. Cryptogenic haemoptysis in smokers: angiography and results of embolisation in 35 patients. Eur Respir J. 2009;34(5):1031-1039. 4. Poe RH, Israel RH, Marin MG, et al. Utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with hemoptysis and a nonlocalizing chest roentgenogram. Chest. 1988;93(1):70-75. 5. Revel MP, Fournier LS, Hennebicque AS, et al. Can CT replace bronchoscopy in the detection of the site and cause of bleeding in patients with large or massive hemoptysis? AJR Am J Roentgenol (...) of hemoptysis may be a harbinger of significant underlying tracheopulmonary pathology. Common causes of hemoptysis include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, fungal infections, tuberculosis, and malignancy. Rarely hemoptysis can be caused by pulmonary vasculitis [1]. Various categorizations of hemoptysis severity have been proposed. In general terms, classification systems consider 300-400 cc of expectorated blood in 24 hours as massive hemoptysis [2-5]. The source of bleeding is usually from

2019 American College of Radiology

7. Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Cause of Fatal Massive Hemoptysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Cause of Fatal Massive Hemoptysis Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAPA), an uncommon complication of pyogenic bacterial and fungal infections and related septic emboli, is associated with high mortality. The pulmonary artery (PA) lacks an adventitial wall; therefore, repeated endovascular seeding of the PA with septic emboli creates saccular dilations that are more likely to rupture than systemic arterial aneurysms. The most common clinical presentation (...) of PAPA is massive hemoptysis and resultant worsening hypoxemia. Computed tomography angiography is the preferred diagnostic modality for PAPA; typical imaging patterns include focal outpouchings of contrast adjacent to a branch of the PA following the same contrast density as the PA in all phases of the study. In mycotic PAPAs, multiple synchronous lesions are often seen in segmental and subsegmental PAs due to ongoing embolic phenomena. The recommended approach for a mycotic PAPA is prolonged

2018 Case reports in pulmonology

8. An uncommon cause of hemoptysis: aortobronchial fistula Full Text available with Trip Pro

An uncommon cause of hemoptysis: aortobronchial fistula Hemoptysis is a frequent sign of respiratory and non-respiratory diseases. While in most cases the underlying cause is rapidly identified, sometimes the real etiology might be misdiagnosed with dramatic delay in treatment.A 46-year-old man with hiatal hernia and a history of aortic surgery for aortic coarctation presented with dramatic episodes of hemoptysis and subsequent severe anemia (6,9 g/dl). Digestive and respiratory endoscopy (...) resulted not exhaustive, thus he underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest that showed an aneurysmal dilatation of the descending thoracic aorta with suspected aortobronchial fistula. He underwent cardiac surgery that confirmed the diagnosis and successfully treated the fistula.We briefly review the literature to raise clinical awareness on this uncommon cause of hemoptysis.

2018 Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine

9. Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Causing Life-Threatening Hemoptysis: Two Case Reports Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Causing Life-Threatening Hemoptysis: Two Case Reports To describe two patients presenting life-threatening hemoptysis with saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm penetrating lung parenchyma and its endovascular treatment.We present two cases of 73- and 74-year-old men with massive hemoptysis secondary to saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm ruptured lung parenchyma who were successfully treated with endovascular approach with 3rd month's imaging follow (...) -up.Thoracic aortic aneurysm is one of the rarest causes of hemoptysis and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and can be used for an effective and problem-solving treatment approach.

2018 Case reports in vascular medicine

10. Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease - A rare cause of massive hemoptysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease - A rare cause of massive hemoptysis Severe mitral valve stenosis caused by rheumatic heart disease presenting initially as massive hemoptysis has become a rare occurrence in contemporary western medicine. Massive hemoptysis can be due to multiple disease processes including airway diseases such as bronchiectasis, pulmonary parenchymal disease of infectious or autoimmune etiology, pulmonary AVM's, hematologic disorders, and numerous drugs (...) and iatrogenic injuries. It is less associated with congestion from rheumatic heart disease due to the earlier detection and subsequent management of cardiac valve disease preventing the sequela of more severe disease. We describe a case of a 59 year-old woman with hemoptysis, who was found to have severe mitral stenosis consistent with rheumatic heart disease. We demonstrate the appearance of pulmonary venous congestion can be seen on bronchoscopic examination in severe mitral stenosis and discuss

2018 Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

11. Thoracoscopic lobectomy for massive hemoptysis caused by complete pulmonary vein occlusion after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thoracoscopic lobectomy for massive hemoptysis caused by complete pulmonary vein occlusion after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation Complete pulmonary vein occlusion is a rare complication of transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. We here report a 37-year-old man who presented with massive hemoptysis as a result of left superior pulmonary vein occlusion caused by transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The patient

2018 Journal of thoracic disease

12. Foreign body aspiration as a cause of cryptogenic hemoptysis in a child: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Foreign body aspiration as a cause of cryptogenic hemoptysis in a child: A case report. Hemoptysis is rare but potentially life-threatening condition in children. The most common cause of pediatric hemoptysis is lower respiratory tract infections. Sometimes foreign body aspiration may result in hemoptysis too.A 4-year old girl suffered from recurrent cryptogenic hemoptysis for almost 2 years.The wheatear was finally found to be the underlying cause.The girl received multiple bronchoscopy.The (...) girl's symptoms improved rapidly and remained well without relapse of hemoptysis.This case indicates that foreign body aspiration should be considered in any child with recurrent cryptogenic hemoptysis and persistent focal lung injury. Multiple bronchoscopy is rational in order to find out the underlying reasons.

2018 Medicine

13. Pyogenic granuloma of the larynx: A rare cause of hemoptysis. (Abstract)

Pyogenic granuloma of the larynx: A rare cause of hemoptysis. Pyogenic granuloma (PG) may involve gingival mucosa (granuloma gravidarum) in pregnancy but rarely involves the airway. This case report is perhaps the only reported presentation of PG in the larynx causing hemoptysis at a late stage of pregnancy. On laryngoscopic exam, a vascular, right false vocal fold neoplasm was identified with pathological characteristics consistent with PG. Conclusions: Pyogenic granuloma is a relatively

2018 American Journal of Otolaryngology

14. Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation in the Treatment of Patients With Hemoptysis Caused by Endobronchial Malignancies

Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation in the Treatment of Patients With Hemoptysis Caused by Endobronchial Malignancies Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation in the Treatment of Patients With Hemoptysis Caused by Endobronchial Malignancies - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have (...) reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation in the Treatment of Patients With Hemoptysis Caused by Endobronchial Malignancies The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before

2018 Clinical Trials

15. CRACKCast E024 – Hemoptysis

CRACKCast E024 – Hemoptysis CRACKCast E024 - Hemoptysis - CanadiEM CRACKCast E024 – Hemoptysis In , by Adam Thomas January 26, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 24, Hemoptysis. Hemoptysis has a host of causes ranging from benign to life threatening. This action packed episode covers it all, and will help you manage these potentially intimidating patients on your next shift. Shownotes – Rosen’s in Perspective Expectoration of blood arising from the respiratory tract below (...) the cords Most cases this is a small amount of blood tinged sputum, due to bronchitis 1-5% of patients have massive hemoptysis: >100-600mL of blood in 24 hours (Rosen’s) Can lead to shock, impaired gas exchange, with mortality >80% Uptodate: “In our clinical practice, we define massive hemoptysis as either ≥500 mL of expectorated blood over a 24 hour period or bleeding at a rate ≥100 mL/hour, regardless of whether abnormal gas exchange or hemodynamic instability exists.” Pathophysiology Caused

2017 CandiEM

16. Teratoma as unusual cause of chest pain, hemoptysis and dyspnea in a young patient Full Text available with Trip Pro

Teratoma as unusual cause of chest pain, hemoptysis and dyspnea in a young patient A 16-year-old girl presented with intermittent left chest pain and breathlessness on exertion for last 4 months with one episode of haemoptysis. There has been loss of appetite and weight loss of 4 kg over a period of 1 month. A chest radiograph revealed a large mass like opacity with pleural effusion in the left lung field. Computerized Tomography scanning (CT scanning) and Positron Emission Tomography

2017 Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

17. Unusual Cause of Life-Threatening Hemoptysis During Cardiac Operation: Surgical Management Revisited. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unusual Cause of Life-Threatening Hemoptysis During Cardiac Operation: Surgical Management Revisited. The surgical management of life-threatening perioperative hemoptysis has been vastly replaced by radiologic embolization. In some situations, surgical therapy can prove useful. This case report describes life-threatening hemoptysis of an unusual cause during coronary artery bypass grafting, managed through an original technique of temporary pulmonary vascular exclusion by thoracotomy.Copyright

2017 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

18. Successful Pulmonary Artery Embolization for the Management of Hemoptysis in a Patient with Eisenmenger Syndrome Caused by Patent Ductus Arteriosus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Successful Pulmonary Artery Embolization for the Management of Hemoptysis in a Patient with Eisenmenger Syndrome Caused by Patent Ductus Arteriosus The patient was a 19-year-old woman who was diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus complicating Eisenmenger syndrome at a previous medical institution. She was referred to our hospital and arranged for lung transplantation. She developed hemoptysis after the introduction of i.v. epoprostenol, which was administered as a bridging treatment while (...) the patient awaited lung transplantation. She continued to suffer from recurrent hemoptysis, even after switching from i.v. epoprostenol to i.v. treprostinil. Angiography of the systemic and pulmonary arteries revealed the vessel responsible for the recurrent hemoptysis and pulmonary artery embolization was successfully performed. It is essential to identify the culprit vessel and physicians must not hesitate in performing embolization when patients develop lethal hemoptysis.

2017 Internal Medicine

19. A Rare Cause of Hemoptysis in Childhood: Tracheal Capillary Hemangioma Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Rare Cause of Hemoptysis in Childhood: Tracheal Capillary Hemangioma Hemangiomas are benign tumors most frequently seen in childhood and are mostly associated with cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. Tracheal capillary hemangiomas are extremely rare. The most common presenting symptom is hemoptysis, ranging from minor to major and chronic cough. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with recurrent hemoptysis due to tracheal capillary hemangioma, who was treated with interventional bronchoscopy.

2017 Turkish Thoracic Journal

20. Palliative radiotherapy: superior vena cava obstruction, dyspnea, and hemoptysis

in approximately 20 to 30 percent of patients with lung cancer (6). Cancers which have metastasized to the lung or mediastinum can also cause airway obstruction (7). Hemoptysis, or the expectoration of blood, can range from blood-streaking of sputum to gross blood or clots alone, in the absence of any accompanying sputum. Hemoptysis has a broad differential which includes metastatic cancer to the bronchus or trachea (most commonly from melanoma, breast, colon, or renal cell carcinoma), primary or secondary (...) lung cancer, or terminal hematological malignancy, along with many non-malignant causes. Among patients with cancer, hemoptysis is most common in lung cancer, with approximately 20% of lung cancer patients experiencing hemoptysis during the course of their illness (8). Recognizing that patients with SVCO, dyspnea and hemoptysis may benefit from a multidisciplinary palliative/supportive care team (including physiotherapy therapy/ occupational therapy/ psychosocial support/ speech-language pathology

2016 CPG Infobase

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