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Hematologic Cancer

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1. Pretreatment hematological markers predict clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta‐analysis (PubMed)

Pretreatment hematological markers predict clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta‐analysis Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the clinical treatment of multiple cancers. Recent studies revealed the potential prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients receiving ICIs; however, the results were inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify the prognostic (...) 0.86-2.12 for OS).These results indicate that high pretreatment NLR but not PLR level, as a routinely obtained hematological parameter, is a potential prognostic predictor for poor PFS and OS in cancer patients receiving ICIs.© 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

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2018 Thoracic cancer

2. The role of bone marrow and spleen irradiation in the development of acute hematologic toxicity during chemoradiation for esophageal cancer (PubMed)

The role of bone marrow and spleen irradiation in the development of acute hematologic toxicity during chemoradiation for esophageal cancer The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of splenic and thoracic bone marrow irradiation on hematologic toxicity in the setting of chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer.We analyzed 60 patients with carcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction who received concurrent chemoradiation in the preoperative or definitive (...) setting. Dosimetric and volumetric parameters were calculated for the spleen, thoracic spine, and posterior ribs. The primary endpoint was grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity (HT3+). Associations were assessed using logistic and linear regression models.Twenty-one patients (35%) experienced HT3+, including 18 patients with leukopenia and 5 with thrombocytopenia. Higher spleen V5-V20 was correlated with a lower risk of HT3+ on multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 0.83 per 10 cm3 increase in V10; P = .013

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2018 Advances in radiation oncology

3. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hematologic malignancies: a single cancer center retrospective review (PubMed)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hematologic malignancies: a single cancer center retrospective review Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality. This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of medical records identified by diagnostic coding for PML or John Cunningham virus (JCV) from 2000 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) positive for JCV by polymerase (...) chain reaction or brain biopsy-proven PML in non-HIV patients. There were 16 patients, 12 of whom were men (75%); the median age was 56 years (range, 31-71 years). All had hematologic malignancies (5 [31%] had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 3 [19%] had acute myeloid leukemia, 3 had [19%] mantle cell lymphoma, and 1 patient each had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, or B-cell lymphoma). One patient received no cancer-directed therapy. Of the remaining 15 patients, all received

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2017 Blood advances

4. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Scope This document addresses molecular testing and gene expression profiling of solid and hematologic tumors and malignancies (including cell free tumor DNA/circulating tumor cells/liquid biopsy testing) for the purpose of diagnosis, selecting chemotherapeutic agents and predicting risk, prognosis or recurrence of cancer. All tests listed in these guidelines may not require prior authorization; please refer to the health plan. Appropriate Use (...) , Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. © 2019 Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Background Somatic genetic testing for the purpose of cancer management guidance is a rapidly evolving field of molecular medicine. Genetic testing of a solid or hematologic tumor can provide important information regarding the prognosis, risk for recurrence or help predict tumor response to chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, genetic testing of tissue (e.g. blood) or stool, for evidence of a tumor

2019 AIM Specialty Health

5. Hematologic markers of distant metastases and poor prognosis in gynecological cancers. (PubMed)

Hematologic markers of distant metastases and poor prognosis in gynecological cancers. Despite the recent progress in the development of anti-cancer drugs, the treatment of metastatic tumors is usually ineffective. The systemic inflammatory response performs key roles in different stages of the carcinogenesis process including metastasis. The high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were found to be associated with poor (...) survival rates in the majority of solid tumors. However, only a few studies were conducted to further investigate this association in patients with advanced gynecological cancers.Clinical data from 264 patients with FIGO stage III and IV gynecological (endometrial, ovarian and cervical) cancers treated at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman-Jordan) from 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. We examined the association between absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), MLR, PLR

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2019 BMC Cancer

6. Age-Associated Hematological Toxicity in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Docetaxel in Clinical Practice. (PubMed)

Age-Associated Hematological Toxicity in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Docetaxel in Clinical Practice. Older patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may be more prone to chemotherapy-induced hematological toxicity, but tailored docetaxel dosing guidelines in older patients are lacking because of conflicting data.This study aims to evaluate the impact of older age on the incidence of hematological toxicity in patients (...) with mCRPC treated with docetaxel in daily clinical practice.This study included patients with mCRPC treated with docetaxel between January 2006 and January 2016 at the Netherlands Cancer Institute and Medical Center Slotervaart for whom dosing and hematological toxicity data were available from electronic patient records. We evaluated the impact of age on the incidence of grade 3 and 4 hematological toxicity.In total, 175 patients treated with docetaxel were included in the analysis, with a median age

2019 Drugs & Aging

7. Hematologic Toxicity From Radium-223 Therapy for Bone Metastases in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors and Practical Considerations. (PubMed)

Hematologic Toxicity From Radium-223 Therapy for Bone Metastases in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors and Practical Considerations. Radium-223 dichloride is an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical that localizes to bone matrix and is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. The cumulative impact of Ra-223 and other therapeutic agents for metastatic CRPC on myelosuppression in bone marrow (...) is unknown. The phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ALSYMPCA trial of Ra-223 in patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival. Of the 571 patients subsequently followed for 3 years, few in either the Ra-223 or placebo arm experienced hematologic adverse events. Little evidence shows secondary malignancies associated with Ra-223 treatment; only 2 cases of secondary leukemia after Ra-223 treatment were found in the literature

2019 Clinical genitourinary cancer

8. Risk of Hematologic Malignancies After Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Risk of Hematologic Malignancies After Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Purpose To investigate the risk and outcomes of second hematologic malignancies (SHMs) in a population-based cohort of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) treated or not with radioactive iodine (RAI). Methods Patients with WDTC were identified from SEER registries. Competing risk regression analysis was performed to calculate the risks of SHMs that occurred after WDTC treatment (...) survival, 1.2 years v 2.9 years; P = .06). Conclusion Patients with WDTC treated with RAI had an increased early risk of developing AML and CML but no other hematologic malignancies. AML that arises after RAI treatment has a poor prognosis. RAI use in patients with WDTC should be limited to patients with high-risk disease features, and patients with WDTC treated with adjuvant RAI should be monitored for myeloid malignancies as part of cancer surveillance.

2017 EvidenceUpdates

9. Pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among hematologic cancer survivors. (PubMed)

Pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among hematologic cancer survivors. The associations of physical activity and television (TV) viewing with mortality risk among individuals with hematologic malignancies remain unclear.We examined the relations of physical activity and TV viewing time before and after diagnosis with mortality among 5182 U.S. adults aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort who survived a first primary hematologic (...) cancer between 1995-1996 and 2011.For the pre- and post-diagnosis analyses, we confirmed 2606 and 613 deaths respectively. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models, comparing high (≥4 hrs/wk) versus low (<1 hr/wk) activity levels, pre-diagnosis physical activity was associated with 18%-22% reduced risks of all-cause mortality among all hematologic cancer survivors, and survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukemia, respectively. Additional control for BMI had

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2018 PLoS ONE

10. Timing of folic acid/vitamin B12 supplementation and hematologic toxicity during first-line treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer using pemetrexed-based chemotherapy: The PEMVITASTART randomized trial. (PubMed)

Timing of folic acid/vitamin B12 supplementation and hematologic toxicity during first-line treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer using pemetrexed-based chemotherapy: The PEMVITASTART randomized trial. Vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) supplementation (B12-FAS) reduces hematologic toxicity with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (PEM). However, the basis for recommending 1 week of B12-FAS before PEM initiation has never been proven in a randomized trial.An open-label (...) , randomized trial (PEMVITASTART; clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02679443) was conducted to compare hematologic toxicity between patients with locally advanced/metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer who initiated PEM after 5 to 7 days of B12-FAS (delayed arm [DA]) versus those who received B12-FAS simultaneously (≤24 hours) with PEM initiation (immediate arm [IA]). Every 3 weeks, all enrolled patients received pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) AND either cisplatin (65 mg/m2 ) OR carboplatin (area under

2019 Cancer

11. Social Cognitive Effects and Mediators of a Pilot Telephone Counseling Intervention to Increase Aerobic Exercise in Hematologic Cancer Survivors. (PubMed)

Social Cognitive Effects and Mediators of a Pilot Telephone Counseling Intervention to Increase Aerobic Exercise in Hematologic Cancer Survivors. Theory-based telephone counseling exercise (TCE) interventions can increase aerobic exercise behavior in cancer survivors. Few studies, however, assess intervention effects on social cognitive variables. Here, the authors examined changes in social cognitive variables from a TCE intervention based on the multi-process action control framework (...) in hematologic cancer survivors.A total of 51 hematologic cancer survivors were randomized to weekly TCE (n = 26) or self-directed exercise (n = 25) for 12 weeks. Participants self-reported on demographic and cancer variables, as well as motivational, regulatory, and reflexive ratings pertaining to aerobic exercise at baseline and post-intervention.Small-to-large between-group differences in all variables favored the TCE group. The most prominent effects were noted for differences in coping planning

2019 Journal of physical activity & health

12. Post-treatment changes in hematological parameters predict response to nivolumab monotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. (PubMed)

Post-treatment changes in hematological parameters predict response to nivolumab monotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are known markers of inflammation. We evaluated whether ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR, both before and after treatment with nivolumab, are indicative markers of overall survival (OS) and evaluated change in NLR as a predictive marker (...) of response in non -small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab.A total of 109 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab were included. ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR were examined at initiation of nivolumab therapy and after two cycles. The prognostic role of ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR with OS and changes in NLR ratio were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazard model.Post-treatment NLR ≥5 after two cycles of nivolumab was associated with poor OS (median OS in NLR = <5 vs

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2018 PLoS ONE

13. Risk of thromboembolic and bleeding outcomes following hematological cancers: a Danish population-based cohort study. (PubMed)

Risk of thromboembolic and bleeding outcomes following hematological cancers: a Danish population-based cohort study. Therapeutic advances have improved survival after hematological cancers. In turn, patients may be at increased risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events.To examine the risks of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and bleeding requiring hospital contact in patients with hematological cancers.We conducted a Danish population-based cohort (...) study (2000─2013). We identified all adult hematological cancer patients and sampled a general population comparison cohort in a 1:5 ratio matched by age, sex, previous thromboembolic events, bleeding, and solid cancer. Ten-year absolute risks of thromboembolism and bleeding were calculated and hazard ratios (HRs) were computed, controlling for matching factors.Among 32,141 hematological cancer patients, the 10-year absolute risk of any thromboembolic or bleeding complication following hematological

2019 Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

14. Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Prior Hematologic Malignant Tumors. (PubMed)

Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Prior Hematologic Malignant Tumors. More than 1.3 million people in the United States have a hematologic malignant tumor currently or in remission. Previous studies have demonstrated an increased risk of secondary neoplasms in patients with hematologic malignant tumors, but research specifically on the risk of head and neck solid tumors in patients with prior hematologic malignant tumors is limited.To examine a possible association between prior (...) hematologic malignant tumors and risk of head and neck cancer and to assess the overall survival (OS) among these patients.This retrospective analysis used the Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) to identify patients with diagnoses of hematologic malignant tumors and head and neck cancers. All patients in the VA CDW with a birthdate between January 1, 1910, and December 31, 1969, were included, for a cohort of 30 939 656 veterans. Data analysis was performed from August 15, 2018

2019 JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery

15. Hedgehog signaling inhibitors in solid and hematological cancers. (PubMed)

Hedgehog signaling inhibitors in solid and hematological cancers. The hedgehog signaling pathway is normally tightly regulated. Mutations in hedgehog pathway components may lead to abnormal activation. Aberrantly activated hedgehog signaling plays a major role in the development of solid and hematological cancer. In recent years, inhibitors have been developed that attenuate hedgehog signaling; 2 have been approved for use in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), while others are under development (...) or in clinical trials. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of known hedgehog inhibitors (HHIs) and their potential for the treatment of hematological cancers and solid tumors beyond BCC.Published literature was searched to identify articles relating to HHIs in noncutaneous cancer. Both preclinical and clinical research articles were included. In addition, relevant clinical trial results were identified from www.clinicaltrials.gov. Information on the pharmacology of HHIs is also included.HHIs

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2019 Cancer Treatment Reviews

16. Managing work and cancer treatment: Experiences among survivors of hematological cancer. (PubMed)

Managing work and cancer treatment: Experiences among survivors of hematological cancer. The current study was performed to characterize the employment status of survivors of hematological cancer who have an informal caregiver from the time of diagnosis through the first 6 months of treatment.Using a mixed methods approach, semistructured interviews with survivors of hematological cancer were conducted within 6 months of the initiation of cancer treatment. Interviews assessed cancer treatment (...) facilitated continued employment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that having a higher household income, a desire to work, nonphysical job tasks, and congruent survivor-caregiver communication were associated with greater odds of remaining employed.Within 6 months of initiating cancer treatment, the majority of survivors of hematological cancer had maintained employment. Because of the limitations imposed by the physical stress of cancer treatments, as well as the need to maintain employment

2018 Cancer

17. Adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified lymphocytes for lymphoproliferative disorders or hematological malignancies

of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc. Adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified lymphocytes for lymphoproliferative disorders or hematological malignancies. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc. Directory Publication. 2017 Authors' conclusions Rationale: CAR T cells and genetically engineered TCR T cells are targeted, personalized therapies for malignancies and other neoplastic disorders, including hematological cancers (...) efficacy and safety data. Further, for CAR T cells, there are reports of serious complications, including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicities, which can lead to death. Key Questions: Are CAR T cell and genetically engineered TCR T cell therapies effective in treating hematologic cancers and lymphoproliferative disorders? How do CAR T and TCR T cell therapies compare with alternative treatments for hematologic cancers and lymphoproliferative disorders? Are CAR T and TCR T cell

2018 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

18. Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for hematological cancers and nonmalignant disorders in children

Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for hematological cancers and nonmalignant disorders in children Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for hematological cancers and nonmalignant disorders in children Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for hematological cancers and nonmalignant disorders in children Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA (...) database. Citation Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for hematological cancers and nonmalignant disorders in children. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Directory Publication. 2013 Authors' conclusions Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for patients with hematological diseases that may be cured by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). While the largest successful experience with UCBT has been in the treatment

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

19. Childhood hematologic cancer and residential proximity to oil and gas development. (PubMed)

Childhood hematologic cancer and residential proximity to oil and gas development. Oil and gas development emits known hematological carcinogens, such as benzene, and increasingly occurs in residential areas. We explored whether residential proximity to oil and gas development was associated with risk for hematologic cancers using a registry-based case-control study design.Participants were 0-24 years old, living in rural Colorado, and diagnosed with cancer between 2001-2013. For each child (...) a large population to known hematologic carcinogens, further study is clearly needed to substantiate both our positive and negative findings. Future studies should incorporate information on oil and gas development activities and production levels, as well as levels of specific pollutants of interest (e.g. benzene) near homes, schools, and day care centers; provide age-specific residential histories; compare cases to controls without cancer; and address other potential confounders, and environmental

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2017 PLoS ONE

20. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce severe hematologic toxicities in lung cancer patients receiving pemetrexed plus carboplatin: A retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce severe hematologic toxicities in lung cancer patients receiving pemetrexed plus carboplatin: A retrospective cohort study. As the major toxicity induced by pemetrexed plus carboplatin is severe hematologic toxicities, the aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe hematologic toxicities in lung cancer patients.We retrospectively investigated data from lung cancer patients who had received pemetrexed plus carboplatin (...) , with or without bevacizumab. This observational study was carried out at Ehime University Hospital using electronic medical records dating from July 2009 to March 2015. Severe hematologic toxicities were defined as grade 3 or 4, according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0.Forty-two patients were included in the study. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities during the first cycle of chemotherapy and during all cycles was 19.0% and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate

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2017 PLoS ONE

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