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Hematologic Cancer

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1. The role of bone marrow and spleen irradiation in the development of acute hematologic toxicity during chemoradiation for esophageal cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of bone marrow and spleen irradiation in the development of acute hematologic toxicity during chemoradiation for esophageal cancer The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of splenic and thoracic bone marrow irradiation on hematologic toxicity in the setting of chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer.We analyzed 60 patients with carcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction who received concurrent chemoradiation in the preoperative or definitive (...) setting. Dosimetric and volumetric parameters were calculated for the spleen, thoracic spine, and posterior ribs. The primary endpoint was grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity (HT3+). Associations were assessed using logistic and linear regression models.Twenty-one patients (35%) experienced HT3+, including 18 patients with leukopenia and 5 with thrombocytopenia. Higher spleen V5-V20 was correlated with a lower risk of HT3+ on multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 0.83 per 10 cm3 increase in V10; P = .013

2018 Advances in radiation oncology

2. Pretreatment hematological markers predict clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta‐analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pretreatment hematological markers predict clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta‐analysis Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the clinical treatment of multiple cancers. Recent studies revealed the potential prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients receiving ICIs; however, the results were inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify the prognostic (...) 0.86-2.12 for OS).These results indicate that high pretreatment NLR but not PLR level, as a routinely obtained hematological parameter, is a potential prognostic predictor for poor PFS and OS in cancer patients receiving ICIs.© 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

2018 Thoracic cancer

3. The role of specialized hospital units in infection and mortality risk reduction among patients with hematological cancers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of specialized hospital units in infection and mortality risk reduction among patients with hematological cancers. Patients with hematological malignancies are susceptible to life-threatening infections after chemotherapy. The current study aimed to evaluate whether management of such patients in dedicated inpatient and emergency wards could provide superior infection prevention and outcome.We have developed an approach allowing to retrieve infection-related information from (...) unstructured electronic medical records of a tertiary center. Data on 2,330 adults receiving 13,529 chemotherapy treatments for hematological malignancies were identified and assessed. Infection and mortality hazard rates were calculated with multivariate models. Patients were randomly divided into 80:20 training and validation cohorts. To develop patient-tailored risk-prediction models, several machine-learning methods were compared using area under the curve (AUC).Of the tested algorithms, the probit

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Scope This document addresses molecular testing and gene expression profiling of solid and hematologic tumors and malignancies (including cell free tumor DNA/circulating tumor cells/liquid biopsy testing) for the purpose of diagnosis, selecting chemotherapeutic agents and predicting risk, prognosis or recurrence of cancer. All tests listed in these guidelines may not require prior authorization; please refer to the health plan. Appropriate Use (...) , Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. © 2019 Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Background Somatic genetic testing for the purpose of cancer management guidance is a rapidly evolving field of molecular medicine. Genetic testing of a solid or hematologic tumor can provide important information regarding the prognosis, risk for recurrence or help predict tumor response to chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, genetic testing of tissue (e.g. blood) or stool, for evidence of a tumor

2019 AIM Specialty Health

5. Pyronaridine exerts potent cytotoxicity on human breast and hematological cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pyronaridine exerts potent cytotoxicity on human breast and hematological cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. The potent antimalarial drug pyronaridine (PND) was tested for its potential as an anticancer drug. After exposing cancerous (17) and non-cancerous (2) cells to PND for 72 hr, PND was found to exhibit consistent and potent cytotoxic activity at low micromolar (μM) concentrations that ranged from 1.6 μM to 9.4 μM. Moreover, PND exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity index (...) (SCI) on five out of seven breast cancer cell lines tested, with favorable values of 2.5 to 4.4, as compared with the non-cancerous breast MCF-10A cell line. By using the same comparison, PND exhibited a significant SCI on three out of four leukemia/lymphoma cell lines with promising values of 3.3 to 3.5. One breast cancer and one leukemia cell line were tested further in order to determine the likely mode of action of PND. PND was found to consistently elicit phosphatidylserine externalization

2018 PLoS ONE

6. Post-treatment changes in hematological parameters predict response to nivolumab monotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Post-treatment changes in hematological parameters predict response to nivolumab monotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are known markers of inflammation. We evaluated whether ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR, both before and after treatment with nivolumab, are indicative markers of overall survival (OS) and evaluated change in NLR as a predictive marker (...) of response in non -small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab.A total of 109 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab were included. ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR were examined at initiation of nivolumab therapy and after two cycles. The prognostic role of ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR with OS and changes in NLR ratio were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazard model.Post-treatment NLR ≥5 after two cycles of nivolumab was associated with poor OS (median OS in NLR = <5 vs

2018 PLoS ONE

7. Pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among hematologic cancer survivors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among hematologic cancer survivors. The associations of physical activity and television (TV) viewing with mortality risk among individuals with hematologic malignancies remain unclear.We examined the relations of physical activity and TV viewing time before and after diagnosis with mortality among 5182 U.S. adults aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort who survived a first primary hematologic (...) cancer between 1995-1996 and 2011.For the pre- and post-diagnosis analyses, we confirmed 2606 and 613 deaths respectively. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models, comparing high (≥4 hrs/wk) versus low (<1 hr/wk) activity levels, pre-diagnosis physical activity was associated with 18%-22% reduced risks of all-cause mortality among all hematologic cancer survivors, and survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukemia, respectively. Additional control for BMI had

2018 PLoS ONE

8. The safety and efficacy of autologous tumor cell vaccines as a cancer therapeutic to treat solid tumors and hematological malignancies: a meta-analysis protocol for two systematic reviews

The safety and efficacy of autologous tumor cell vaccines as a cancer therapeutic to treat solid tumors and hematological malignancies: a meta-analysis protocol for two systematic reviews Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility

2019 PROSPERO

9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hematologic malignancies: a single cancer center retrospective review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hematologic malignancies: a single cancer center retrospective review Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality. This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of medical records identified by diagnostic coding for PML or John Cunningham virus (JCV) from 2000 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) positive for JCV by polymerase (...) chain reaction or brain biopsy-proven PML in non-HIV patients. There were 16 patients, 12 of whom were men (75%); the median age was 56 years (range, 31-71 years). All had hematologic malignancies (5 [31%] had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 3 [19%] had acute myeloid leukemia, 3 had [19%] mantle cell lymphoma, and 1 patient each had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, or B-cell lymphoma). One patient received no cancer-directed therapy. Of the remaining 15 patients, all received

2017 Blood advances

10. Adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified lymphocytes for lymphoproliferative disorders or hematological malignancies

of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc. Adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified lymphocytes for lymphoproliferative disorders or hematological malignancies. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc. Directory Publication. 2017 Authors' conclusions Rationale: CAR T cells and genetically engineered TCR T cells are targeted, personalized therapies for malignancies and other neoplastic disorders, including hematological cancers (...) efficacy and safety data. Further, for CAR T cells, there are reports of serious complications, including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicities, which can lead to death. Key Questions: Are CAR T cell and genetically engineered TCR T cell therapies effective in treating hematologic cancers and lymphoproliferative disorders? How do CAR T and TCR T cell therapies compare with alternative treatments for hematologic cancers and lymphoproliferative disorders? Are CAR T and TCR T cell

2018 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

11. Managing work and cancer treatment: Experiences among survivors of hematological cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Managing work and cancer treatment: Experiences among survivors of hematological cancer. The current study was performed to characterize the employment status of survivors of hematological cancer who have an informal caregiver from the time of diagnosis through the first 6 months of treatment.Using a mixed methods approach, semistructured interviews with survivors of hematological cancer were conducted within 6 months of the initiation of cancer treatment. Interviews assessed cancer treatment (...) facilitated continued employment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that having a higher household income, a desire to work, nonphysical job tasks, and congruent survivor-caregiver communication were associated with greater odds of remaining employed.Within 6 months of initiating cancer treatment, the majority of survivors of hematological cancer had maintained employment. Because of the limitations imposed by the physical stress of cancer treatments, as well as the need to maintain employment

2018 Cancer

12. Hedgehog signaling inhibitors in solid and hematological cancers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hedgehog signaling inhibitors in solid and hematological cancers. The hedgehog signaling pathway is normally tightly regulated. Mutations in hedgehog pathway components may lead to abnormal activation. Aberrantly activated hedgehog signaling plays a major role in the development of solid and hematological cancer. In recent years, inhibitors have been developed that attenuate hedgehog signaling; 2 have been approved for use in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), while others are under development (...) or in clinical trials. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of known hedgehog inhibitors (HHIs) and their potential for the treatment of hematological cancers and solid tumors beyond BCC.Published literature was searched to identify articles relating to HHIs in noncutaneous cancer. Both preclinical and clinical research articles were included. In addition, relevant clinical trial results were identified from www.clinicaltrials.gov. Information on the pharmacology of HHIs is also included.HHIs

2019 Cancer Treatment Reviews

13. Is BRCA mutational status a predictor of platinum-based chemotherapy related hematologic toxicity in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is BRCA mutational status a predictor of platinum-based chemotherapy related hematologic toxicity in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients? To evaluate hematologic adverse effect profiles associated with frontline platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients according to BRCA 1/2 mutational status.Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer and a known BRCA mutational status who received in frontline 6 cycles of Carboplatin (AUC 5) plus Paclitaxel 175 mg/mq were retrospectively (...) of hematologic adverse events compared between the two groups of patients during the entire treatment period showed a substantial higher rate of hematologic adverse events in BRCA mutated population.Germline BRCA 1/2 mutations are associated with a higher hematologic toxicity in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent platinum-based chemotherapy.Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 Gynecologic Oncology

14. Palbociclib with Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women with ER+/HER2- Advanced Breast Cancer: Hematologic Safety Analysis of the Randomized PALOMA-2 Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Palbociclib with Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women with ER+/HER2- Advanced Breast Cancer: Hematologic Safety Analysis of the Randomized PALOMA-2 Trial. PALOMA-2 confirmed that first-line palbociclib + letrozole improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.72) in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). This analysis evaluated palbociclib-associated (...) with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) receiving first-line palbociclib + letrozole. Although hematologic adverse events (AEs) are typically expected with anticancer therapies and are often clinically significant, palbociclib-related hematologic AEs, particularly neutropenia (most frequent AE), were transient/manageable by dose reduction, interruption, or cycle delay, which is in contrast to the more profound neutropenia

2019 The oncologist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15. Paraneoplastic hyperleukocytosis mimicking hematologic malignancy revealing a localized lung cancer. (Abstract)

Paraneoplastic hyperleukocytosis mimicking hematologic malignancy revealing a localized lung cancer. Paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction is a challenging differential diagnosis when it presents at the time of diagnosis of cancer. Severe hyperleukocytosis with elevation of blood neutrophils and monocytes counts can evoke myeloid hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a patient who presented with blood and bone marrow features highly suggestive of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

2019 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

16. Impact of Chemotherapy Regimens on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy From a Prospective Phase III Clinical Tri Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Chemotherapy Regimens on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy From a Prospective Phase III Clinical Tri Purpose: To determine whether there are differences in bone marrow tolerance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) between two chemotherapy regimens according to FOWARC protocol and how chemotherapy regimens affect radiation dose parameters and normal (...) tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelings that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in rectal cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight rectal cancer patients who received IMRT from a single institution were recruited from Chinese FOWARC multicenter, open-label, randomized phase III trial. We assessed HT in these patients who were separated into two groups: Oxaliplatin (L

2019 Frontiers in oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

17. The Effect of Special Diets on Weight and Nutritional Intake in Hematological Cancer Patients: A Randomized Study. (Abstract)

The Effect of Special Diets on Weight and Nutritional Intake in Hematological Cancer Patients: A Randomized Study. Major weight loss and taste changes are well documented in patients with hematological cancer during chemotherapy. We have previously documented, that such patients have preferences for much umami, a little sweet, sour and salt, and no bitter. We wanted to convert these results into real diets. Patients participated in two sensory pilot studies (n = 10), where dishes were tested

2019 Nutrition and cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Risk of thromboembolic and bleeding outcomes following hematological cancers: a Danish population-based cohort study. (Abstract)

Risk of thromboembolic and bleeding outcomes following hematological cancers: a Danish population-based cohort study. Therapeutic advances have improved survival after hematological cancers. In turn, patients may be at increased risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events.To examine the risks of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and bleeding requiring hospital contact in patients with hematological cancers.We conducted a Danish population-based cohort (...) study (2000─2013). We identified all adult hematological cancer patients and sampled a general population comparison cohort in a 1:5 ratio matched by age, sex, previous thromboembolic events, bleeding, and solid cancer. Ten-year absolute risks of thromboembolism and bleeding were calculated and hazard ratios (HRs) were computed, controlling for matching factors.Among 32,141 hematological cancer patients, the 10-year absolute risk of any thromboembolic or bleeding complication following hematological

2019 Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

19. Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Prior Hematologic Malignant Tumors. (Abstract)

Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Prior Hematologic Malignant Tumors. More than 1.3 million people in the United States have a hematologic malignant tumor currently or in remission. Previous studies have demonstrated an increased risk of secondary neoplasms in patients with hematologic malignant tumors, but research specifically on the risk of head and neck solid tumors in patients with prior hematologic malignant tumors is limited.To examine a possible association between prior (...) hematologic malignant tumors and risk of head and neck cancer and to assess the overall survival (OS) among these patients.This retrospective analysis used the Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) to identify patients with diagnoses of hematologic malignant tumors and head and neck cancers. All patients in the VA CDW with a birthdate between January 1, 1910, and December 31, 1969, were included, for a cohort of 30 939 656 veterans. Data analysis was performed from August 15, 2018

2019 JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery

20. Hematologic Toxicity From Radium-223 Therapy for Bone Metastases in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors and Practical Considerations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hematologic Toxicity From Radium-223 Therapy for Bone Metastases in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors and Practical Considerations. Radium-223 dichloride is an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical that localizes to bone matrix and is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. The cumulative impact of Ra-223 and other therapeutic agents for metastatic CRPC on myelosuppression in bone marrow (...) is unknown. The phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ALSYMPCA trial of Ra-223 in patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival. Of the 571 patients subsequently followed for 3 years, few in either the Ra-223 or placebo arm experienced hematologic adverse events. Little evidence shows secondary malignancies associated with Ra-223 treatment; only 2 cases of secondary leukemia after Ra-223 treatment were found in the literature

2019 Clinical genitourinary cancer

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