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Helicobacter pylori Noninvasive Testing

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101. Genetic and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Stroke (Follow-up)

. Antimycobacterial HSP65 has been associated with atherosclerosis. [ , ] Atherosclerotic disease occurs as a consequence of antibody-mediated vascular endothelial cytotoxicity. [ ] Several chronic or persistent latent infections have been variably associated with atherogenesis and stroke. These agents include Chlamydia pneumoniae , Helicobacter pylori, HIV, herpes viruses, Treponema pallidum , Rickettsia rickettsiae , and Trypanosoma cruzi , among others. At present, no single organism has been consistently (...) of infections, including C pneumoniae , H pylori , Haemophilus influenzae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, were more likely to be associated with progression of atherosclerosis. [ ] In the NOMAS prospective cohort, a higher burden of antibodies to different agents, including C pneumoniae , H pylori , CMV, HSV-1, or HSV-2, was associated with maximum carotid plaque thickness and an approximate 40% increased risk of incident stroke

2014 eMedicine.com

102. Gastritis, Atrophic (Follow-up)

measures to prevent infection are not established. Previous Next: Long-Term Monitoring Guidelines for follow-up care for cases of atrophic gastritis are not established. If the patient was treated for H pylori infection, confirm eradication. Perform evaluation of eradication at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. Eradication may be assessed by noninvasive methods, such as the urea breath test. Follow-up care may be individualized depending on the findings during endoscopy. For example (...) gastric cancer. Am J Pathol . 2000 Feb. 156(2):537-43. . Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O'Morain C, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report. Aliment Pharmacol Ther . 2002 Feb. 16(2):167-80. . Rugge M, Genta RM. Staging and grading of chronic gastritis. Hum Pathol . 2005 Mar. 36(3):228-33. . Shin CM, Kim N, Lee HS, et al. Validation of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori with regard to grade of atrophic gastritis

2014 eMedicine.com

103. Gastritis, Chronic (Follow-up)

If a patient was treated for H pylori infection, confirm that the organism has been eradicated. Evaluate eradication at least 4 weeks after the beginning of treatment. Eradication may be assessed by means of noninvasive methods such as the urea breath test or the stool antigen test. Follow-up may be individualized, depending on the findings during endoscopy. For example, if dysplasia is found at endoscopy, increased surveillance is necessary. For patients with atrophic gastritis or dysplasia, follow-up (...) for H pylori eradication were limited to peptic ulcer disease. However, the 1997 Digestive Health Initiative (DHI) International Update Conference on H pylori broadened the recommendations for H pylori testing and treatment. H pylori testing and eradication were also recommended after resection of early gastric cancer and for low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Furthermore, it is now widely accepted that if H pylori is identified as the underlying cause of gastritis

2014 eMedicine.com

104. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Diagnosis)

patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum gastrin (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

105. Peptic Ulcer: Surgical Perspective (Diagnosis)

.) In most patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

106. Peptic Ulcer: Surgical Perspective (Follow-up)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

107. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Follow-up)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

108. Peptic Ulcer: Surgical Perspective (Overview)

.) In most patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

109. Perioperative Management of the Patient With Liver Disease

capacity (metabolic equivalent [MET] or exercise duration). Additional noninvasive testing such as stress testing might be considered if it will change perioperative management. Cardiac surgery performed in patients with cirrhosis is associated with a high surgical mortality rate and will be discussed separately. [ ] In 1997, the American College of Physicians (ACP) published guidelines in the form of algorithms for assessing and managing perioperative risks based on the results of the tests mentioned (...) the treatment of choice for managing cases of refractory variceal bleeding, and surgical shunts are created only in special circumstances. Percutaneous stenting or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is now commonly used for biliary strictures and choledocholithiasis. Coronary angioplasty and percutaneous coronary interventions have decreased the need for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) along with antibiotic treatment of Helicobacter pylori

2014 eMedicine.com

110. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Overview)

patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum gastrin (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

111. Peptic Ulcer: Surgical Perspective (Treatment)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

112. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Treatment)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

113. Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease (Follow-up)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

114. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Diagnosis)

patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum gastrin (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine.com

115. Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease (Treatment)

testing for active H pylori infection may be used. Endoscopy is required to document healing of gastric ulcers and to rule out gastric cancer. This usually is performed 6-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Documentation of H pylori cure with a noninvasive test, such as the urea breath test or fecal antigen test, is appropriate in patients with complicated ulcers. Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most patients with PUD are treated successfully (...) % of cases. [ ] Ulcers can recur in the absence of successful H pylori eradication. Dual therapies, which are alternative regimens for treating H pylori infection, are usually not recommended as first-line therapy, because of a variable cure rate that is significantly less than the cure rate achieved with triple therapy. Spouses and H pylori –positive family members of H pylori –positive persons should be considered for testing and treatment of H pylori infection, [ ] since mother-to-child transmission

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

116. Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease (Diagnosis)

.) In most patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

117. Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease (Overview)

.) In most patients with uncomplicated PUD, routine laboratory tests usually are not helpful; instead, documentation of PUD depends on radiographic and endoscopic confirmation. Testing for H pylori infection is essential in all patients with peptic ulcers. Rapid urease tests are considered the endoscopic diagnostic test of choice. Of the noninvasive tests, fecal antigen testing is more accurate than antibody testing and is less expensive than urea breath tests but either is reasonable. A fasting serum (...) in individual cases but is not needed routinely. For patient education resources, see as well as , , and . Previous References [Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol . 2007 Aug. 102(8):1808-25. . Javid G, Zargar SA, U-Saif R, et al. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2009 Jul. 24(7):1236-43. . Lai KC, Lam SK

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

118. Expression of AID, P53, and Mlh1 proteins in endoscopically resected differentiated-type early gastric cancer (PubMed)

to the Vienna classification system, and 11 samples were submucosal invasive carcinomas. All of the EGCs were histologically differentiated carcinomas. All patients were classified as having Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections by endoscopic atrophic changes or by testing seropositive for H. pylori IgG. All of the samples were histopathologically classified as either tubular or papillary adenocarcinoma according to their structure. The immunohistochemical staining was performed in a blinded manner (...) Expression of AID, P53, and Mlh1 proteins in endoscopically resected differentiated-type early gastric cancer To analyze the expression of the tumor-related proteins in differentiated-type early gastric carcinoma (DEGC) samples.Tumor specimens were obtained from 102 patients (75 males and 27 females) who had received an endoscopic tumor resection at Tottori University Hospital between 2007 and 2009. Ninety-one cancer samples corresponded to noninvasive or intramucosal carcinoma according

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2012 World journal of gastrointestinal oncology

119. Atherosclerosis

in atherogenesis. C. pneumoniae infection or other infections (eg, viral, Helicobacter pylori ) may cause endothelial dysfunction through direct infection, exposure to endotoxin, or stimulation of systemic or subendothelial inflammation. promotes development of atherosclerosis via several pathways, including worsening hypertension and insulin resistance; decreased apolipoprotein A-I levels; and increased lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein levels. is often followed by accelerated (...) manifest as pain, a pulsatile mass, absent pulses, or sudden death. Diagnosis Approach depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. Symptomatic patients Patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia are evaluated for the amount and location of vascular occlusion by various invasive and noninvasive tests, depending on the organ involved (see elsewhere in T he M anual ). Such patients also should be evaluated for atherosclerosis risk factors by using History and physical examination Fasting lipid

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

120. Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer Esophageal Cancer - Gastrointestinal Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Helicobacter pylori (...) Infection People with Helicobacter pylori infection are 3 to 6 times more likely to develop stomach cancer. Which of the following cancers is NOT associated with H. pylori infection? Adenocarcinoma of the antrum Adenocarcinoma of the gastric body Cancer of the gastric cardia Gastric lymphoma NEWS & VIDEOS Stereotactic Body RT Promising for Low-, Intermediate-Risk PCa TUESDAY, March 5, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In men with low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer, stereotactic body radiotherapy

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

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