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Helicobacter pylori Noninvasive Testing

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41. Helicobacter pylori Infection

Helicobacter pylori Infection Helicobacter pylori Infection - Gastrointestinal Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your (...) for antibodies to H. pylori have a sensitivity and specificity of > 85% and previously were considered the noninvasive tests of choice for initial documentation of H. pylori infection. However, as the prevalence of infection has declined, the percentage of false-positive results with serologic assays has increased significantly, making these tests too unreliable in most countries and regions. As a result, urea breath testing and stool antigen testing are preferred for initial diagnosis. Qualitative assays

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

42. Helicobacter pylori. The latest in diagnosis and treatment

are summarised in Table 3. Background European and North American guidelines on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection were updated in 2007. New diagnostic methods have been introduced and in Australia, the recommended therapy choices in cases of penicillin allergy and for second line treatment are only accessible through the Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme. Objective The article aims to update general practitioners on recommendations for testing and treating H. pylori (...) factors are present. Helicobacter pylori eradication seems to have a different effect in chronic and naive NSAID users. 5,6 Dyspepsia A test and treat strategy for H. pylori infection is recommended for patients with uninvestigated persistent dyspepsia who are less than 45 years of age without any of the following ‘alarm features’: • bleeding • anaemia • early satiety • unexplained weight loss • progressive dysphagia • odynophagia • recurrent vomiting • family history of gastrointestinal cancer

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

43. Helicobacter pylori

with a number of disorders of the . Testing for H. pylori is not routinely recommended. Testing is recommended if or low-grade gastric is present, after resection of early , for first-degree relatives with gastric cancer, and in certain cases of . Several methods of testing exist, including invasive and noninvasive testing methods. Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection may be suitable and include tests, stool s, or the (in which the patient drinks —or -labelled , which the bacterium metabolizes (...) ; Low, Benjamin; Yaghoobi, Mohammad; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan (15 March 2018). "Non-invasive diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 3 : CD012080. : . . Logan RP, Walker MM (October 2001). . BMJ . 323 (7318): 920–2. : . . . Selgrad M, Malfertheiner P (October 2008). "New strategies for Helicobacter pylori eradication". Curr Opin Pharmacol . 8 (5): 593–7. : . . Blanchard, T G; Nedrud, J G (2010). . In Sutton, Philip; Mitchell, Hazel

2012 Wikipedia

44. Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori

a "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in young patients without atypical symptoms. This strategy advocates the use of noninvasive testing to evaluate for H. pylori and simply treating if found, even in the absence of ulcer disease documented on . 2005 Warren and Marshall are awarded the for their work on H. pylori and PUD. References [ ] ^ Kidd, Mark; Irvin M. Modlin (1998). . Digestion . 59 (1): 1–15. : . . ^ Unge, Peter (2002). " Helicobacter pylori treatment in the past and in the 21st century (...) Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori - Wikipedia Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Electron micrograph of H. pylori Gastric ulcer This is a timeline of the events relating to the discovery that peptic ulcer disease and some cancers are caused by H. pylori . In 2005, and were awarded the for their discovery that (PUD) was primarily caused by , a with affinity

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2012 Wikipedia

45. Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori: A Reappraisal. (PubMed)

Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori: A Reappraisal. Despite many changes, no large studies comparing the different diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori have been performed in the past 10 years. In this time, monoclonal stool antigen immunoassays and in-office 13C-urea breath tests (UBTs) have appeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and noninvasive tests in a large series of dyspeptic patients.A total of 199 dyspeptic patients who had (...) not previously been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled. Noninvasive analyses included a commercial infrared-based UBT and a commercially available stool test. Biopsy-based tests included histological examination and a rapid urease test. A patient was considered to be infected when at least 2 test results were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The test results were compared using the McNemar

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2009 Clinical Infectious Diseases

46. Lack of Diagnostic Accuracy of the Monoclonal Stool Antigen Test for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Young Australian Aboriginal Children. (PubMed)

Lack of Diagnostic Accuracy of the Monoclonal Stool Antigen Test for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Young Australian Aboriginal Children. : The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among Aboriginal Australians children is unclear. The aims of the present study are to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection among young Aboriginal children recovering from acute diarrheal disease in hospital and to evaluate the H. pylori stool antigen test as a noninvasive diagnostic (...) test in this setting.: This was a prospective comparative study using the C-Urea Breath Test as reference standard. Fifty-two children between 4 months and 2 years of age were consecutively enrolled. These children comprised a representative sample of Australian Aboriginal children admitted to hospital with acute diarrheal disease from remote and rural communities across Northern Territory of Australia.: The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 44.2%. The stool antigen test had a sensitivity of 0.55

2009 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

48. Management of Acute Pancreatitis in the Pediatric Population: A Clinical Report From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Pancreas Committee

glands and the pancreas. Most laboratories measure total amylase levels, which contain both s-amylase (salivary) and p-amylase (pancreas) isoforms (45). Laboratory tests exist to fractionate p- and s-amylase, but this practice is less available. Amylase refer- ence values are different depending on the laboratory test used, but also vary with age and gender (46,47). Serum amylase levels can be altered by the etiology of pancreatitis as noted above. Amylase levels rise faster than lipase levels (...) proposed and studied in animal models or small clinical trials (reviewed in (45,50,51)). None has, however, gained prominence and many have yet to be validated for general clinical use. Several laboratory tests are helpful for monitoring the course of AP (52). In general, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and a complete blood cell count are important to monitor fluid/hydration status and renal function. A hepatic enzyme panel is indicated to seek biliary or gallstone etiology

2018 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

49. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology

laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician/advanced practice provider and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the healthcare team. This document, developed by experts in laboratory and adult and pediatric clinical medicine, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. This document presents a system-based approach rather than (...) , and blood and tissue parasite infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. In addition

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2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

50. National minimum retesting intervals in pathology: A final report detailing consensus recommendations for minimum retesting intervals for use in pathology

4.1 Haematology general 33 4.2 Haematology coagulation 35 4.3 Haematology transfusion 38 5 Immunology recommendations 40 6 Microbiology recommendations 46 6.1 General microbiology 46 6.2 Fungal recommendations 48 CEff 161215 3 V7 Final 7 Virology recommendations 50 7.1 Congenital/perinatal blood borne viral infection – testing in asymptomatic infants 50 7.2 Congenital viral infection 51 7.3 Viral encephalitis investigation 51 7.4 Respiratory tract infections 52 7.5 Renal testing 53 7.6 Post (...) for the patient can only be seen as contributing to the optimisation of patient care. At a time when many laboratories and providers are implementing electronic requesting of laboratory tests, which allows the requestor and the laboratory to manage what is requested, there needs to be a solution to support this process based on the best available evidence. Similar initiatives have been reported including the work of the Pathology Harmony Group and the recent proposal to standardise test profiles. 1,2 How

2016 Royal College of Pathologists

51. The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland Consensus Guidelines in Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

and treatment with glucocorticoids. The management includes nutritional support, immunomodulators and surgery . Catch‐up growth is usually manifested in children within 6 months after surgery . Thus, surgery is an attractive option for treatment of children with localized disease after failure of noninvasive methods that enables relief from acute complications, maintaining remission and nutritional recovery . Statement 2.2 Surgery is indicated in children/adolescents with significant growth retardation due

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2018 Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland

52. Barrett's Esophagus

is very common, being described in up to 20% of asymptomatic subjects presenting for routine open access endoscopic examinations (18). Studies have suggested that IM of the cardia is not more common in BE patients compared with controls (19), and that the natural history of IM at the EGJ is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and not associated with EAC (20). Based on this information, biopsy of a normal or slightly irregular EGJ is not recommended. The location of the EGJ has been defined (...) ) have been identified as potential BE risk factors. H. pylori infection, particularly infection with Cag A+ strains, is associated with a decreased risk of BE in some studies (54, 55). Risk factors associated with dysplasia and EAC in patients with BE. Advancing age and increasing BE segment length are known risk factors for the presence of dysplasia in patients with BE. In a multicenter study of 309 BE patients (5 with cancer, 11 with HGD, and 29 with LGD), the risk factors for prevalent dysplasia

2016 American Gastroenterological Association Institute

53. Portal Hypertension Bleeding in Cirrhosis, Guidance

centers. a) NONINVASIVE TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT PORTAL HYPERTENSION In a step‐wise diagnostic approach, specific signs of PH should be first looked for on physical examination. They include spider nevi or visible abdominal portosystemic collaterals. The absence of physical signs cannot be used to rule out CSPH. Among laboratory data, a low platelet count is the most common laboratory sign of PH; it correlates slightly with HVPG and with the presence of GEV. However, taken (...) alone, it is not accurate enough to either diagnose or exclude CSPH or GEV. On the other hand, the combination of platelet count with other unrelated noninvasive tests (NITs) improves the noninvasive diagnosis of CSPH. Ultrasound provides safe and inexpensive imaging evidence of morphological abnormalities associated with cirrhosis and PH. The presence of portocollateral circulation on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (recanalized paraumbilical vein, spontaneous

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2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

54. Management of Patients With Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

recommendation, very-low-quality evidence). 24. If a diagnostic test is desired for localization of the bleeding site before angiography, CT angiography should be considered (conditional recommenda- tion, very-low-quality evidence). Prevention of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding 25. Non-aspirin NSAID use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute LGIB, particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia (strong recommendation, low-quality evidence). 26. In patients (...) testing should include a complete blood count, serum electrolytes, coagulation studies, and a type and cross match. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability should lead to consideration of a brisk UGIB source, especially in at-risk patients such as those with a history of peptic ulcer disease or liver disease with portal hypertension and those using antiplatelet or anti- coagulant medications ( 6,11,12,19 ). An elevated blood urea nitrogen- to-creatinine ratio also suggests an UGIB source

2016 American College of Gastroenterology

55. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive Medical Care of Patients with Obesity

prospective or case-controlled trials; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; MUFA = monoun- saturated fatty acid; NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH = nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NES = night eating syndrome; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; NHLBI = National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; NHS = Nurses’ Health Study; NICE = National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; OA = osteoarthritis; OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test; OR = odds ratio; OSA = obstructive

2016 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

56. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

% or greater on MMRpro and MMRpredict are recommended for genetic evaluation referral and testing. Associated Genes and Syndromes Hereditary CRC has two well-described forms: (1) polyposis (including and (AFAP), which are caused by pathogenic variants in the gene; and , which is caused by pathogenic variants in the MUTYH gene); and (2) (often referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), which is caused by germline pathogenic variants in DNA MMR genes ( , , , and ) and . Other CRC syndromes (...) individuals with newly diagnosed CRC are evaluated for Lynch syndrome through molecular diagnostic tumor testing assessing MMR deficiency. A is supported, in which all CRC cases are evaluated regardless of age at diagnosis or fulfillment of existing clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome. A more cost-effective approach has been reported whereby all patients aged 70 years or younger with CRC and older patients who meet the revised Bethesda guidelines are tested for Lynch syndrome. Tumor evaluation often

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

57. The usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in diagnosing child and adolescent's gastritis: STROBE compliant article. (PubMed)

The usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in diagnosing child and adolescent's gastritis: STROBE compliant article. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive inflammatory marker that can useful in the assessment of inflammatory activity, especially in pediatric ages. The aim of our study was to establish correlations between the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) proved histologically and NLR in children.A prospective, case-control study was performed on 137 (...) from rural area (P = .0089). Epigastric pain and loss of appetite were significantly associated with HP infection (P = .0350 /P = .0281). We noticed that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher in group 1 (P = .0076/P = .0306). We did not find any significant statistical differences between the 2 groups in terms of lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and NLR or other assessed laboratory parameters. Regarding the IgA antibodies anti-HP and rapid urease test, they were

2019 Medicine

58. The role of endoscopy in dyspepsia

of alarm features. PATIENTS WITHOUT ALARM FEATURES Dyspeptic patients younger than 50 years of age and without alarm features are commonly evaluated by 1 of 3 methods: (1) noninvasive testing for Helicobacter pylori, with subsequent treatment if positive (the “test and treat” approach), (2) an empiric trial of acid suppression, or (3) initial endoscopy. Test and treat The rationale for testing and treating H pylori in patients with dyspepsia is that H pylori may be associated with true pathologic (...) population. Hence, testing and treating for H pylori may be relevant and cost-effective in regions with prevalence rates of H py- lori of 20% or higher. 18,19,29 Noninvasive testing options for H pylori include serology, urea breath testing, and stool antigen testing. Serologic testing has a sensitivity and speci?city ranging from 85% to 100% and 76% to 96%, respectively. 30,31 The speci?city of urea breath testing and stool antigen is higher than that of serologic testing. 32 In summary, an initial

2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

59. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

with typical GERD symptoms. • Urea breath testing (UBT; 13 C or 14 C) or H. pylori stool antigen testing are recommended as noninvasive tests for active H. pylori infection, as a basis for a “test-and-treat” strategy for H. pylori in regions in which the prevalence of H. pylori exceeds 20% [50]. H. pylori testing does not confirm or exclude a diagnosis of GERD, but in line with the Cascades approach, the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal symptoms should be guided by local disease prevalence and economic (...) symptoms, no alarm features. For extraesophageal GERD A negative trial does not rule out GERD Urea breath test or H. pylori stool antigen test For uninvestigated dyspepsia, in populations in which the H. pylori prevalence is high (> 20%): “test- and-treat” strategy This approach is subject to local cost–benefit considerations It should be based on a noninvasive test of active infection [50] (UBT, monoclonal stool antigen test) Endoscopy For alarm symptoms, screening of high-risk patients, chest pain

2015 World Gastroenterology Organisation

60. Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

among individuals who have not previously experienced a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Evidence- based recommendations are included for the control of risk factors, interventional approaches to atherosclerotic disease of the cervicocephalic circulation, and antithrombotic treatments for preventing thrombotic and thromboembolic stroke. Further recommendations are provided for genetic and pharmacogenetic testing and for the prevention of stroke in a variety of other specific circumstances (...) for primary stroke prevention. 14,15 Some of the goals of such risk assessment tools are to identify people at elevated risk who might be unaware of their risk, to assess risk in the presence of >1 condition, to measure an individual’s risk that can be tracked and lowered by appropri- ate modifications, to estimate risk for selecting treatments or stratification in clinical trials, and to guide appropriate use of further diagnostic testing. Although stroke risk assessment tools exist, the complexi- ties

2014 American Heart Association

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