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Headache-Related Neuroimaging

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121. Linking signal detection theory and encoding models to reveal independent neural representations from neuroimaging data (PubMed)

Linking signal detection theory and encoding models to reveal independent neural representations from neuroimaging data Many research questions in visual perception involve determining whether stimulus properties are represented and processed independently. In visual neuroscience, there is great interest in determining whether important object dimensions are represented independently in the brain. For example, theories of face recognition have proposed either completely or partially independent (...) time, to precisely define separability of neural representations and to theoretically link behavioral and brain measures of separability. The framework formally specifies the relation between these different levels of perceptual and brain representation, providing the tools for a truly integrative research approach. In particular, the theory identifies exactly what valid inferences can be made about independent encoding of stimulus dimensions from the results of multivariate analyses

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2018 PLoS computational biology

122. Secondary prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia: neuroimaging contributions (PubMed)

Secondary prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia: neuroimaging contributions In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological changes may arise up to 20 years before the onset of dementia. This pre-dementia window provides a unique opportunity for secondary prevention. However, exposing non-demented subjects to putative therapies requires reliable biomarkers for subject selection, stratification, and monitoring of treatment. Neuroimaging allows the detection of early pathological changes (...) , and longitudinal imaging can assess the effect of interventions on markers of molecular pathology and rates of neurodegeneration. This is of particular importance in pre-dementia AD trials, where clinical outcomes have a limited ability to detect treatment effects within the typical time frame of a clinical trial. We review available evidence for the use of neuroimaging in clinical trials in pre-dementia AD. We appraise currently available imaging markers for subject selection, stratification, outcome measures

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2018 Alzheimer's research & therapy

123. Reward and aversion processing in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: functional neuroimaging with visual and thermal stimuli (PubMed)

unavailable to respond to reward-related content. The purpose of this study was to juxtapose brain responses to functional neuroimaging probes that reliably produce rewarding and aversive experiences in PTSD subjects and in healthy controls. The stimuli used were pleasant, aversive and neutral images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) along with pain-inducing heat applied to the dorsum of the left hand; all were administered during 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (...) Reward and aversion processing in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: functional neuroimaging with visual and thermal stimuli In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a decrease in the brain reward function was reported in behavioral- and in neuroimaging studies. While pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this response are unclear, there are several lines of evidence suggesting over-recruitment of the brain reward regions by aversive stimuli rendering them

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2018 Translational psychiatry

124. Neuroimaging Metrics of Drug and Food Processing in Cocaine-Dependence, as a Function of Psychopathic Traits and Substance Use Severity (PubMed)

Neuroimaging Metrics of Drug and Food Processing in Cocaine-Dependence, as a Function of Psychopathic Traits and Substance Use Severity Previous studies suggest that psychopathic traits commonly present as comorbid with substance use disorders. Moreover, neuroimaging and psychometric findings suggest that psychopathic traits may predispose individuals to a sensitized reward response to drugs. Given that substance use disorders are characterized by a neurocognitive bias toward drug-reward (...) relative to non-drug reward, it is possible that heightened psychopathic characteristics may further predispose to this processing bias. To evaluate this possibility, we assessed psychopathic traits (measured using the PCL-R; Hare, 2003) in 105 probationers/parolees and evaluated the relationship between PCL-R scores, lifetime duration of drug use, and biases in neural response to drug- compared to food-related videos. Psychopathic traits (potentially driven by interpersonal/affective traits) were

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2018 Frontiers in human neuroscience

125. Subcortical brain volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – A multiplex multigenerational neuroimaging study (PubMed)

Subcortical brain volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – A multiplex multigenerational neuroimaging study Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a disabling psychiatric condition with a genetic background. Brain alterations in gray matter (GM) related to SAD have been previously reported, but it remains to be elucidated whether GM measures are candidate endophenotypes of SAD. Endophenotypes are measurable characteristics

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2018 EBioMedicine

126. Neural Correlates of Familiarity in Music Listening: A Systematic Review and a Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis (PubMed)

Emission Tomography OR Electroencephalography OR Event Related Potential OR Magnetoencephalography). Of the 704 titles identified, 23 neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria for the systematic review. After removing studies providing insufficient information or contrasts, 11 studies (involving 212 participants) qualified for the meta-analysis using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. Our results did not find significant peak activations consistently across included studies (...) Neural Correlates of Familiarity in Music Listening: A Systematic Review and a Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis Familiarity in music has been reported as an important factor modulating emotional and hedonic responses in the brain. Familiarity and repetition may increase the liking of a piece of music, thus inducing positive emotions. Neuroimaging studies have focused on identifying the brain regions involved in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar musical stimuli. However, the use of different

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

127. Neuroimaging of status epilepticus. (PubMed)

Neuroimaging of status epilepticus. In the past 2 decades we have observed an extensive use of different neuroimaging techniques to evaluate patients with status epilepticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular may show a broad spectrum of abnormalities that are either the causes or the consequences of sustained epileptic activity. Neuroimaging techniques can offer a contribution both in the clinical management of individual patients, identifying hemodynamic patterns that support (...) the diagnosis, and also in the recognition of periictal reversible or irreversible alterations. For the future it is necessary to develop larger and prospective studies in which imaging techniques and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings are acquired closely to understand which EEG patterns are related to imaging biomarkers of neuronal damage.Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

2018 Epilepsia

128. Correlations between brain changes and pain management after cognitive and meditative therapies: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies. (PubMed)

technique (n = 1). Neuroimaging results revealed distinct patterns of activity, but the main findings were related to increased activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC), specially dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OBF), somatosensory cortices (SSC) and limbic system in chronic pain population; and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insular cortex (AI) and decreased activation of thalamus in healthy (...) Correlations between brain changes and pain management after cognitive and meditative therapies: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies. There are different ways of dealing with pain and cognitive and meditative therapies (CMT) are alternative ways to regulate the emotions associated with pain. Current studies apply neuroimaging techniques trying to elucidate the neural mechanisms of cognitive strategies for pain. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence on brain activity

2018 Complementary Therapies In Medicine

129. Perspective: Stepping Stones to Unraveling the Pathophysiology of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome with Neuroimaging (PubMed)

the most recent findings on neuroimaging studies related to MdDS, as well as to suggest further potential research questions that could be addressed with the use of neuroimaging techniques. A detailed analysis of previous work on MdDS has led to five main research questions that could be addressed in new neuroimaging studies. Furthermore, in this perspective, we propose new stepping-stones to addressing critical research questions related to MdDS and its pathophysiology. We propose considerations (...) Perspective: Stepping Stones to Unraveling the Pathophysiology of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome with Neuroimaging Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a neurological condition typically characterized by a sensation of motion, which in most cases manifests after disembarking from a vehicle (e.g., boat, plane, and car). However, the same symptoms can also occur spontaneously. Two main theories of the pathophysiology of MdDS are briefly summarized here. In this perspective, we aimed to report

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

130. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction (PubMed)

Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction Neuroimaging-based age prediction using machine learning is proposed as a biomarker of brain aging, relating to cognitive performance, health outcomes and progression of neurodegenerative disease. However, even leading age-prediction algorithms contain measurement error, motivating efforts to improve experimental pipelines. T1-weighted MRI is commonly used for age prediction, and the pre-processing (...) , best performance was achieved when applying the entire Bayesian optimization framework to the new dataset, out-performing the parameters optimized for the initial training dataset. Our study outlines the proof-of-principle that neuroimaging models for brain-age prediction can use Bayesian optimization to derive case-specific pre-processing parameters. Our results suggest that different pre-processing parameters are selected when optimization is conducted in specific contexts. This potentially

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2018 Frontiers in aging neuroscience

131. Voxel-wise comparisons of cellular microstructure and diffusion-MRI in mouse hippocampus using 3D Bridging of Optically-clear histology with Neuroimaging Data (3D-BOND) (PubMed)

Voxel-wise comparisons of cellular microstructure and diffusion-MRI in mouse hippocampus using 3D Bridging of Optically-clear histology with Neuroimaging Data (3D-BOND) A key challenge in medical imaging is determining a precise correspondence between image properties and tissue microstructure. This comparison is hindered by disparate scales and resolutions between medical imaging and histology. We present a new technique, 3D Bridging of Optically-clear histology with Neuroimaging Data (3D-BOND (...) and the corresponding confocal images. The cell population in each MRI voxel was determined within hippocampal subregions and compared to MRI-derived metrics. 3D-BOND provided robust voxel-wise, cellular correlates of dMRI data. CA1 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granular layers had significantly different mean diffusivity (p > 0.001), which was related to microstructural features. Overall, mean and radial diffusivity correlated with cell and axon density and fractional anisotropy with astrocyte density, while

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2018 Scientific reports

132. Hemodynamic effects of sex and handedness on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: the contradiction between neuroimaging and behavioural results (PubMed)

Hemodynamic effects of sex and handedness on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: the contradiction between neuroimaging and behavioural results This study investigated the potential role of sex and handedness on the performance of a computerised Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in healthy participants by applying functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) sex-related differences of hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex of 70 healthy participants (...) (female, n = 35 and male, n = 35; right-handed, n = 40 and left-handed, n = 30). In contrast, behavioural results of the WCST do not show sex bias, which is consistent with previous literature. Because of this, we compared ours and sparse previous fNIRS studies on the WCST. We propose that, according to recent studies of neurovascular coupling, this contradiction between neuroimaging and behavioural results may be explained by normal variability in neurovascular dynamics.

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2018 PeerJ

133. The Physiological Bases of Hidden Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Protocol for a Functional Neuroimaging Study (PubMed)

The Physiological Bases of Hidden Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Protocol for a Functional Neuroimaging Study Rodent studies indicate that noise exposure can cause permanent damage to synapses between inner hair cells and high-threshold auditory nerve fibers, without permanently altering threshold sensitivity. These demonstrations of what is commonly known as hidden hearing loss have been confirmed in several rodent species, but the implications for human hearing are unclear.Our Medical Research (...) Council-funded program aims to address this unanswered question, by investigating functional consequences of the damage to the human peripheral and central auditory nervous system that results from cumulative lifetime noise exposure. Behavioral and neuroimaging techniques are being used in a series of parallel studies aimed at detecting hidden hearing loss in humans. The planned neuroimaging study aims to (1) identify central auditory biomarkers associated with hidden hearing loss; (2) investigate

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2018 JMIR Research Protocols

134. Executive control processes are associated with individual fitness outcomes following regular exercise training: blood lactate profile curves and neuroimaging findings (PubMed)

Executive control processes are associated with individual fitness outcomes following regular exercise training: blood lactate profile curves and neuroimaging findings Cardiovascular training has been associated with neuroimaging correlates of executive control functions (ECF) in seniors and children/adolescents, while complementary studies in middle-aged populations are lacking. Ascribing a prominent role to cardiorespiratory fitness improvements, most studies concentrated on training-induced (...) plasticity of ECF-related brain activity can be observed in late middle adulthood, but depends on individual fitness gains. For moderate training intensities, BLC shifts may provide sensitive markers for training-induced adaptations linked to ECF-related brain function.

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2018 Scientific reports

135. Molecular Neuroimaging in an Agraphia Predominant Primary Progressive Aphasia (PubMed)

Molecular Neuroimaging in an Agraphia Predominant Primary Progressive Aphasia A 62-year-old male presented with progressive isolated writing and spelling difficulties. Neurological, neuropsychological, speech, and language evaluations identified only minimal additional abnormalities. The presenting characteristics did not meet criteria for any particular variant of primary progressive aphasia; his clinical presentation is best described as primary progressive aphasia, with a predominant, almost (...) pure agraphia. Brain MRI showed asymmetric, bilateral parenchymal volume loss, with left hippocampal atrophy. Fluorodeoxyglucose-F18 positron emission tomography showed hypometabolism in the lateral left frontal lobe, including Exner's area. Beta-amyloid and tau-positron emission tomography scans were negative, indicating the etiology was not Alzheimer's disease. The underlying neurodegenerative process is most likely related to TDP-43, although a 4-repeat tauopathy cannot be excluded. Following

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2018 Neurocase

136. Can neuroimaging help combat the opioid epidemic? A systematic review of clinical and pharmacological challenge fMRI studies with recommendations for future research. (PubMed)

Can neuroimaging help combat the opioid epidemic? A systematic review of clinical and pharmacological challenge fMRI studies with recommendations for future research. The current opioid epidemic is an urgent public health problem, with enormous individual, societal, and healthcare costs. Despite effective, evidence-based treatments, there is significant individual variability in treatment responses and relapse rates are high. In addition, the neurobiology of opioid-use disorder (OUD) and its (...) treatment is not well understood. This review synthesizes published fMRI literature relevant to OUD, with an emphasis on findings related to opioid medications and treatment, and proposes areas for further research. We conducted a systematic literature review of Medline and Psychinfo to identify (i) fMRI studies comparing OUD and control participants; (ii) studies related to medication, treatment, abstinence or withdrawal effects in OUD; and (iii) studies involving manipulation of the opioid system

2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

137. Multimodal Structural Neuroimaging Markers of Brain Development and ADHD Symptoms. (PubMed)

in a densely phenotyped pediatric cohort (N=160; 70 with ADHD; age range, 9-12 years). Multivariate analysis identified associations between clinical and cognitive factors and multimodal neuroimaging markers (across tissue volume, cortical thickness, cortical area, and white matter microstructure). The resulting imaging markers were validated in an independent cohort (N=231; 132 with ADHD; age range, 7-18 years).Four novel patterns of neuroanatomical variation that related to phenotypic variation were (...) Multimodal Structural Neuroimaging Markers of Brain Development and ADHD Symptoms. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multifactorial disorder with diverse associated risk factors and comorbidities. In this study, the authors sought to understand ADHD from a dimensional perspective and to identify neuroanatomical correlates of traits and behaviors that span diagnostic criteria.Multimodal neuroimaging data and multi-informant cognitive and clinical data were collected

2018 American Journal of Psychiatry

138. Neurococognitive and neuroimaging correlates of obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Neurococognitive and neuroimaging correlates of obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with the general population. Obesity and MetS are associated with cognitive deficits and brain imaging abnormalities in the general population. Obesity and components of MetS might potentially associate with neuroimaging and neurocognitive findings (...) in BD.A literature search of studies investigating the association between obesity (and other components of MetS) and neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in BD was conducted. In addition to a systematic review, a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted when sufficient data were available.Twenty-three studies were included in the current systematic review. Overweight/obese patients were significantly associated with impaired neurocognition compared normal weight individuals with BD (d = 0.37

2018 Psychological Medicine

139. Macrophagic myofasciitis-associated dysfunctioning: An update of neuropsychological and neuroimaging features. (PubMed)

the existence of a suggestive pathological pattern with involvement of posterior associative areas, temporal lobes, limbic system, and cerebellum. Put together, neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging investigations support the view that MACD relates to organic central nervous system involvement.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Macrophagic myofasciitis-associated dysfunctioning: An update of neuropsychological and neuroimaging features. Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) syndrome is a subtype of autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) or Shoenfeld's syndrome, characterized by the presence of stereotyped inflammatory lesions at muscle biopsy attesting the long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles at the site of previous immunization. Most frequently reported symptoms are chronic

2018 Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology

140. Validation of the Ottawa Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rule in patients with acute headache (PubMed)

Validation of the Ottawa Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rule in patients with acute headache We previously derived the Ottawa Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rule to identify subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in patients with acute headache. Our objective was to validate the rule in a new cohort of consecutive patients who visited an emergency department.We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study at 6 university-affiliated tertiary-care hospital emergency departments in Canada from January 2010 (...) to January 2014. We included alert, neurologically intact adult patients with a headache peaking within 1 hour of onset. Treating physicians in the emergency department explicitly scored the rule before investigations were started. We defined subarachnoid hemorrhage as detection of any of the following: subarachnoid blood visible upon computed tomography of the head (from the final report by the local radiologist); xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid (by visual inspection); or the presence

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

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