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Headache-Related Neuroimaging

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81. Brain MRI fiber-tracking reveals white matter alterations in hypertensive patients without damage at conventional neuroimaging. (PubMed)

neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests.This work was conducted on hypertensive and normotensive subjects with no sign of structural damage at conventional neuroimaging and no diagnosis of dementia revealed by neuropsychological assessment. All individuals underwent cardiological clinical examination in order to define the hypertensive status and the related target organ damage. Additionally (...) Brain MRI fiber-tracking reveals white matter alterations in hypertensive patients without damage at conventional neuroimaging. Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering

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2018 Cardiovascular Research

82. Cognitive and neuroimaging features and brain β-amyloidosis in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (INSIGHT-preAD): a longitudinal observational study. (PubMed)

Cognitive and neuroimaging features and brain β-amyloidosis in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (INSIGHT-preAD): a longitudinal observational study. Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease.The INSIGHT-preAD (...) assessments of demographic, cognitive, and psychobehavioural, characteristics, APOE ε4 allele carrier status, brain structure and function on MRI, brain glucose-metabolism on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET, and event-related potentials on electroencephalograms (EEGs). Actigraphy and CSF investigations were optional. Participants were followed up with clinical, cognitive, and psychobehavioural assessments every 6 months, neuropsychological assessments, EEG, and actigraphy every 12 months, and MRI

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2018 Lancet Neurology

83. Neuroimaging Identifies Patients Most Likely to Respond to a Restorative Stroke Therapy. (PubMed)

Neuroimaging Identifies Patients Most Likely to Respond to a Restorative Stroke Therapy. Patient heterogeneity reduces statistical power in clinical trials of restorative therapies. Valid predictors of treatment responsiveness are needed, and several have been studied with a focus on corticospinal tract (CST) injury. We studied performance of 4 such measures for predicting behavioral gains in response to motor training therapy.Patients with subacute-chronic hemiparetic stroke (n=47) received (...) standardized arm motor therapy, and change in arm Fugl-Meyer score was calculated from baseline to 1 month post-therapy. Injury measures calculated from baseline magnetic resonance imaging included (1) percent CST overlap with stroke, (2) CST-related atrophy (cerebral peduncle area), (3) CST integrity (fractional anisotropy) in the cerebral peduncle, and (4) CST integrity in the posterior limb of internal capsule.Percent CST overlap with stroke, CST-related atrophy, and CST integrity did not correlate

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2018 Stroke

84. Disambiguating pharmacological mechanisms from placebo in neuropathic pain using functional neuroimaging. (PubMed)

Disambiguating pharmacological mechanisms from placebo in neuropathic pain using functional neuroimaging. A lack of objective outcome measures and overreliance on subjective pain reports in early proof-of-concept studies contribute to the high attrition of potentially effective new analgesics. We studied the utility of neuroimaging in providing objective evidence of neural activity related to drug modulation or a placebo effect in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way (...) compared with placebo only, pregabalin significantly suppressed allodynia-evoked neural activity in several nociceptive and pain-processing areas of the brain, despite the absence of behavioural analgesia. Furthermore, placebo significantly increased functional connectivity between the rostral anterior cingulate and the brainstem, a core component of the placebo neural network.Functional neuroimaging provided objective evidence of pharmacodynamic efficacy in a proof-of-concept study setting where

2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia

85. Neuroimaging in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Neuroimaging in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a systematic review. In recent decades there has been growing interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques to explore the structural and functional brain changes that take place in those with eating disorders. However, to date, the majority of research has focused on patients with anorexia nervosa. This systematic review addresses a gap in the literature by providing an examination of the published literature on the neurobiology (...) ; a link between illness severity in BN and neural changes; diminished attentional capacity and early learning; and in SPECT studies, increased rCBF in relation to disorder-related stimuli.Studies included in this review are heterogenous, preventing many robust conclusions from being drawn. The precise neurobiology of BN and BED remains unclear and ongoing, large-scale investigations are required. One clear finding is that illness severity, exclusively defined as the frequency of binge eating

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2018 Journal of eating disorders

86. A Systematic Review for Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Reserve Across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum.

A Systematic Review for Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Reserve Across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum. Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates (...) of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i.e., normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease).This review examined published articles up to March 2017. There were 13 cross-sectional observational studies that met the inclusion criteria, including relevance to cognitive reserve, subjects 60 years or older with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and/or Alzheimer's disease, at least one quantitative measure

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2018 Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists

87. Regional cerebral blood flow predictors of relapse and resilience in substance use recovery: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies.

Regional cerebral blood flow predictors of relapse and resilience in substance use recovery: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Predicting relapse vulnerability can inform level-of-care and personalized substance use treatment. Few reliable predictors of relapse risk have been identified from traditional clinical, psychosocial, and demographic variables. However, recent neuroimaging findings highlight the potential prognostic import of brain-based signals, indexing (...) with substance use treatment outcomes. Consensus patterns of activation associated with relapse vulnerability (greater activation predicts poorer outcomes) versus resilience (greater activation predicts improved outcomes) were specifically investigated.Twenty-four eligible studies yielded 134 foci, representing 923 subjects. Consensus activation was identified in right putamen and claustrum (p < .05, cluster-corrected) in relation to positive and negative treatment outcomes - likely reflecting variability

2018 Drug and alcohol dependence

88. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences (PubMed)

Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation (...) between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions

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2018 Scientific reports

89. Alterations in the Three Components of Selfhood in Persons with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot qEEG Neuroimaging Study (PubMed)

Alterations in the Three Components of Selfhood in Persons with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot qEEG Neuroimaging Study Understanding how trauma impacts the self-structure of individuals suffering from the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a complex matter and despite several attempts to explain the relationship between trauma and the "Self", this issue still lacks clarity. Therefore, adopting a new theoretical perspective may help understand PTSD deeper (...) and to shed light on the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms.In this study, we employed the "three-dimensional construct model of the experiential selfhood" where three major components of selfhood (phenomenal first-person agency, embodiment, and reflection/narration) are related to three Operational Modules (OMs) of the self-referential brain network. These modules can be reliably estimated through operational synchrony analysis of the Electroencephalogram (EEG). Six individuals with PTSD symptoms

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2018 The open neuroimaging journal

90. Characterising Arm Recovery in People with Severe Stroke (CARPSS): protocol for a 12-month observational study of clinical, neuroimaging and neurophysiological biomarkers. (PubMed)

Characterising Arm Recovery in People with Severe Stroke (CARPSS): protocol for a 12-month observational study of clinical, neuroimaging and neurophysiological biomarkers. In individuals with early (indexed ≤7 days poststroke) and severe upper limb paresis (shoulder abduction and finger extension score of <5 out of 10), our objectives are to: (1) determine if biomarkers of brain structure and function collected at <1 month poststroke explain who will experience clinically important recovery (...) will be performed to examine the relationship between clinically important recovery achieved (yes/no) and a priori defined brain biomarkers related to the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum. Secondary analyses will compare stroke survivor's perception of recovery, as well as real-world arm use via accelerometry, to the proposed metric of clinically meaningful recovery; and model trajectory of recovery across clinical, a priori defined biomarkers and exploratory variables related to functional

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2018 BMJ open

91. Imaging Care Requirements: Use of Functional Neuroimaging to Predict Dementia Caregiver Burden (PubMed)

Imaging Care Requirements: Use of Functional Neuroimaging to Predict Dementia Caregiver Burden Dementia caregivers frequently report high stress, with increased burden associated with worse outcomes for both patients and caregivers. Although many studies relate clinical phenotypes to burden, the relationship between imaging pathology and burden, irrespective of diagnosis, is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between caregiver burden and patient regional cerebral blood flow (...) of patients with abnormal perfusion compared to those with normal perfusion in the left and right frontal, right parietal, and right temporal lobes. No difference in burden was found in the left parietal or temporal groups. Correlations showed that a higher caregiver burden was associated with lower patient perfusion scores in the same regions.Caregiver burden is strongly related to the extent of frontal or right-predominant parietal or temporal lobe dysfunction. Regional abnormality on perfusion imaging

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2018 Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra

92. Pain Neuroimaging in Humans: A Primer for Beginners and Non-Imagers (PubMed)

of the approach.This article provides an overview of the concepts and considerations of structural and functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies. The primer is written for those who are not familiar with brain imaging. We review key concepts related to recruitment and study sample, experimental design, data analysis and data interpretation.Published by Elsevier Inc. (...) Pain Neuroimaging in Humans: A Primer for Beginners and Non-Imagers Human pain neuroimaging has exploded in the past 2 decades. During this time, the broader neuroimaging community has continued to investigate and refine methods. Another key to progress is exchange with clinicians and pain scientists working with other model systems and approaches. These collaborative efforts require that non-imagers be able to evaluate and assess the evidence provided in these reports. Likewise, new trainees

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2018 The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society

93. Functional Neuroimaging in Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (PubMed)

Functional Neuroimaging in Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Functional neuroimaging was able to identify key structures for the pathophysiology of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) including cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing or cranial autonomic features and hemicrania continua. The posterior hypothalamus was the structure most consistently depicted with functional imaging (...) in different states of disease with and without pain. Network-oriented imaging techniques such as resting-state functional resonance imaging were able to show a broader involvement of human trigeminal pain processing in the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the different TACs, highlighting similarities between this distinct group of primary headache disorders, while also demonstrating the differences in brain activation across these disorders. The most important clinical assignment

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2018 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

94. Neural correlates of interference resolution in the multi-source interference task: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies (PubMed)

Neural correlates of interference resolution in the multi-source interference task: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies Interference resolution refers to cognitive control processes enabling one to focus on task-related information while filtering out unrelated information. But the exact neural areas, which underlie a specific cognitive task on interference resolution, are still equivocal. The multi-source interference task (MSIT), as a particular cognitive task, is a well (...) associated with the MSIT so as to identify the localization of interference resolution in such a specific cognitive task. Articles on MSIT-related fMRI published between 2003 and July 2017 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Differential BOLD activation patterns between the incongruent and congruent condition were meta-analyzed in anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping software.Robustness meta-analysis indicated that two

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2018 Behavioral and brain functions : BBF

95. Mapping the Schizophrenia Genes by Neuroimaging: The Opportunities and the Challenges (PubMed)

analysis, development of multisite consortia for large-scale data collection, emergence of non-candidate gene (hypothesis-free) approach of neuroimaging genetics are likely to contribute to a rapid progress for gene discovery besides to gene validation studies that are related to SZ. (...) Mapping the Schizophrenia Genes by Neuroimaging: The Opportunities and the Challenges Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable brain disease originating from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The genes underpinning the neurobiology of SZ are largely unknown but recent data suggest strong evidence for genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, making the brain vulnerable to the risk of SZ. Structural and functional brain mapping of these genetic variations

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2018 International journal of molecular sciences

96. Neuroimaging meta-analysis of cannabis use studies reveals convergent functional alterations in brain regions supporting cognitive control and reward processing (PubMed)

to delineate those brain regions that consistently demonstrate functional alterations among cannabis users versus non-users across neuroimaging studies using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis framework. In ancillary analyses, we characterized task-related brain networks that co-activate with cannabis-affected regions using data archived in a large neuroimaging repository, and then determined which psychological processes may be disrupted via functional decoding techniques. When considering (...) Neuroimaging meta-analysis of cannabis use studies reveals convergent functional alterations in brain regions supporting cognitive control and reward processing Lagging behind rapid changes to state laws, societal views, and medical practice is the scientific investigation of cannabis's impact on the human brain. While several brain imaging studies have contributed important insight into neurobiological alterations linked with cannabis use, our understanding remains limited. Here, we sought

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2018 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

97. Anorexia nervosa, neuroimaging research, and the contextual salience of food cues: The food approach–avoidance conundrum (PubMed)

relating to core AN psychopathology. This Idea Worth Researching discusses the notion that neuroimaging studies relying on food cue presentation paradigms may be methodologically flawed without specifying the contextual salience of the food cues presented in paradigms. The appraisal of food cues may diverge as a function of one's intent-to-eat, and thus, neuroimaging studies not specifying the contextual salience of food cues (i.e., intent-to-eat or not) may confound two distinctly different processes (...) Anorexia nervosa, neuroimaging research, and the contextual salience of food cues: The food approach–avoidance conundrum Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by an avoidance and marked apprehension around food intake, yet paradoxically, those with AN often display approach behaviors to food, engaging in food shopping or preparation activities which are described as rewarding. This approach-avoidance conundrum is of much importance as neuroimaging studies continue to probe mechanisms

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2018 The International journal of eating disorders

98. Neuroimaging, neuromodulation, and population health: the neuroscience of chronic disease prevention (PubMed)

Neuroimaging, neuromodulation, and population health: the neuroscience of chronic disease prevention Preventable chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of countries throughout the world, and this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. The potential to offset the social, economic, and personal burdens associated with such conditions depends on our ability to influence people's thought processes, decisions, and behaviors, all of which can be understood (...) with reference to the brain itself. Within the health neuroscience framework, the brain can be viewed as a predictor, mediator, moderator, or outcome in relation to health-related phenomena. This review explores examples of each of these, with specific reference to the primary prevention (i.e., prevention of initial onset) of chronic diseases. Within the topic of primary prevention, we touch on several cross-cutting themes (persuasive communications, delay discounting of rewards, and self-control), and place

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2018 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

99. Roadmap for optimizing the clinical utility of emotional stress paradigms in human neuroimaging research (PubMed)

Roadmap for optimizing the clinical utility of emotional stress paradigms in human neuroimaging research The emotional stress response is relevant to a number of psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular. Research using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe stress-related neural processing have provided some insights into psychiatric disorders. Treatment providers and individual patients would benefit from (...) clinically useful fMRI paradigms that provide information about patients' current brain state and responses to stress in order to inform the treatment selection process. However, neuroimaging has not yet made a meaningful impact on real-world clinical practice. This lack of clinical utility may be related to a number of basic psychometric properties that are often overlooked during fMRI task development. The goals of the current review are to discuss important methodological considerations for current

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2018 Neurobiology of stress

100. Neuroimaging results suggest the role of prediction in cross-domain priming (PubMed)

Neuroimaging results suggest the role of prediction in cross-domain priming The repetition of a stimulus leads to shorter reaction times as well as to the reduction of neural activity. Previous encounters with closely related stimuli (primes) also lead to faster and often to more accurate processing of subsequent stimuli (targets). For instance, if the prime is a name, and the target is a face, the recognition of a persons' face is facilitated by prior presentation of his/her name. A possible

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2018 Scientific reports

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