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symptoms of vaginal bleeding, edema, severe headache and convulsions during pregnancy relative to nonsmokers. Mortality per 100,000 pregnancies appeared to be higher among smokers than nonsmokers in the placebo group (915 vs 584, RR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.80-3.08). beta-Carotene supplementation reduced pregnancy-related mortality both among smokers (RR=0.31 95% CI: 0.11-0.89) and nonsmokers (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89). Similar results obtained with vitamin A supplementation were not statistically significant (...) Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in rural Nepal. Risk factors and effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. We examined risk factors of smoking and the association between smoking and pregnancy-related and 6-month infant mortality in rural Nepal, where 30% women reported smoking during pregnancy.Cross-sectional analysis of risk factors associated with smoking status and health consequences of smoking, using prospective data collected as part of a randomized community trial
Evaluation of glyceryl trinitrate, misoprostol, and prostaglandin E2 gel for preinduction cervical ripening in term pregnancy. To compare the efficacy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), dinoprostone and misoprostol for preinduction cervical ripening in primigravida at term.Sixty-five term primigravida, each with an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score =5), were randomized to receive GTN (0.5 mg perivaginally, n = 21), dinoprostone gel (0.5 mg intracervically, n = 21) and misoprostol (50 microg (...) in misoprostol (3.5 +/- 2.1) and dinoprostone groups (2.8 +/- 1.5), compared with the GTN group (2.0 +/- 1.0, ANOVA F = 4.8, P = 0.01). Hyperstimulation and tachysystole were observed only in the misoprostol (9% and 4.3%) and dinoprostone groups (4.7% and 16.2%). The most common adverse effect in the GTN group was headache, which was observed in 47.6% of this group's subjects.The findings of the present study suggest that GTN is safer, but less efficacious, compared with prostaglandins for preinduction
and controls were followed with questionnaires every year for five years.Migraine with aura was the most common cause of symptoms during pregnancy, occurring in 34 patients, while 2 were diagnosed with stroke, 2 with carpal tunnel syndrome, 1 with partial epilepsy, 1 with multiple sclerosis and 1 with presyncope. Patients had more headache before pregnancy than controls, but the average levels of vascular risk factors were similar. None of the patients or the controls reported cerebrovascular episodes (...) Migraine aura or transient ischemic attacks? A five-year follow-up case-control study of women with transient central nervous system disorders in pregnancy. Migraine aura may be difficult to differentiate from transient ischemic attacks and other transient neurological disorders in pregnant women. The aims of the present study were to investigate and diagnose all pregnant women with transient neurological disorders of suspected central nervous system origin, and to compare this group
Brain abscess complicating pregnancy. Brain abscess is a potentially life-threatening complication that is only rarely associated with pregnancy. Although predispositions such as a preexisting infection, foreign body, or immunosuppression are often present, up to 30% of individuals could have no risk factors. Presenting symptoms are often nonspecific but suggestive of a central nervous system process and include headache, seizures, mental status changes, and focal neurologic deficits. Cranial
Neurological disorders in pregnancy. Neurological disorders are common in women of childbearing age and can lead to maternal death, as evident from previous reports of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in England and Wales. In the last report (1997-1999) alone, there were 34 deaths indirectly caused by neurological disorders.With the new developments in drugs, investigations and research, clinicians are now more able than ever before to diagnose and treat some disorders. A recent (...) example is the French Study Group on Stroke in Pregnancy.This paper reviews the current concepts and outlines appropriate management of conditions such as epilepsy, headache, benign intracranial hypertension, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, Bell's palsy and cerebrovascular disorders.
Sinogenic brain abscess complicating pregnancy. Cerebral abscess is an extremely rare complication of pregnancy. We report a case of a patient at 36 weeks of gestation presenting with severe headache, confusion, and seizures after starting treatment for sinusitis. Imaging revealed a left temporal lobe abscess, which was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Neurologic deterioration in a gravida with sinusitis suggests secondary sinogenic intracranial suppurative complications.
).The incidence, mortality and disability from pregnancy related-stroke are higher than previously reported. African-American women are at an increased risk, as are women aged 35 years and older. Risk factors, not previously reported, include lupus, blood transfusion, and migraine headaches. Specific strategies, not currently employed, may be required to reduce the devastation caused by stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium.II-2. (...) Incidence and risk factors for stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium. To estimate the incidence, mortality, and risk factors for pregnancy-related stroke in the United States.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, for the years 2000-2001 was queried for International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes for stroke among all pregnancy-related discharges.A total of 2,850 pregnancy-related
Natural course and pathogenesis of transient focal neurologic symptoms during pregnancy. To determine the pathogenesis and course of transient focal neurologic symptoms in pregnant women and to identify prognostic variables that will enable targeted workup.Case-control series.Tertiary care university hospital.Pregnant patients with acute transient focal neurologic symptoms. Women with histories of migraine, recurrent thromboembolism, or cerebrovascular disease were excluded.Diffusion-weighted (...) imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, gradient-recalled echo imaging, and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and angiography to determine the presence of brain ischemia and venous thrombosis. Patients underwent echocardiography, duplex ultrasonography, and a battery of hypercoagulability tests and were followed up a mean of 12 months after the event.Twenty-eight controls and 14 patients were enrolled from 23 773 pregnancies. Mean age was 31.2
Scrub typhus during pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease that is uncommon during pregnancy. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman, G1P0, 29 weeks pregnancy who presented to hospital with high fever, chill and headache for two weeks. Her diagnosis of scrub typhus was confirmed by serum immunofluorescent assay. She was successfully treated with chloramphenicol, but preterm delivery occurred. Her infant died from respiratory distress (...) syndrome. No vertical transmission was demonstrated in this case. Scrub typhus should be listed in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in pregnant women, who either live in, or return from, endemic areas. Chloramphenicol can be used safely during pregnancy if it is not circulating at the time of delivery.
A Trial of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Pregnancy in Tanzania A Trial of Antimalarial Drugs Used in Pregnancy in Tanzania - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Trial of Antimalarial Drugs Used (...) in Pregnancy in Tanzania The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00146731 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : September 7, 2005 Last Update Posted : January 12, 2017 Sponsor: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Collaborator: National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania
Botulinum toxin A during pregnancy: a survey of treating physicians. Botulinum toxin A (btxA) is widely used for cosmetic purposes, headaches, dystonia, spasticity, pain and other on and off label uses. Despite the widespread use of btxA in women of childbearing potential, there are few data on the effects of this drug on pregnant women and the fetus. The goal of this study was to survey physicians who use btxA, to determine their experience with pregnant women. We surveyed 900 physicians who (...) used commercially available btxA. The questionnaire asked treating physicians if they had knowingly or unknowingly injected pregnant women and what was the outcome of each pregnancy. In total, 396 physicians (44%) returned questionnaires, of whom only 12 physicians reported injecting pregnant women with btxA. Sixteen pregnant women were injected, mostly in the first trimester, and only one patient, who had prior spontaneous abortions, suffered a miscarriage. Another woman had a therapeutic abortion
Randomised trial of nitric oxide donor versus prostaglandin for cervical ripening before first-trimester termination of pregnancy. Vaginal administration of the nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate can induce effective ripening of the human cervix. We investigated whether this drug is associated with fewer side-effects than prostaglandins when used to ripen the cervix before first-trimester surgical termination of pregnancy, and assessed whether the extent of cervical ripening it induces (...) bleeding in 32% compared with 3% and 0%, respectively, after isosorbide mononitrate, whereas, more women developed headache after isosorbide mononitrate (27%) than after gemeprost (0%). Cervical resistance and measured intraoperative blood loss were lowest after pretreatment with gemeprost. The measured cervical resistance and intraoperative blood loss with either dose of isosorbide mononitrate did not differ from those in a comparison group of 22 parous women not in the randomised trial.Pretreatment
Hypertension in Pregnancy Hypertension in Pregnancy. About Hypertension in Pregnancy | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Hypertension in Pregnancy Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 7 Jan 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK (...) and European Guidelines. You may find the article more useful, or one of our other . In this article In This Article Hypertension in Pregnancy In this article Introduction Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, both in developing and developed countries. Hypertension is the most common medical problem in pregnancy, complicating up to 15% of pregnancies and accounting for about a quarter of all antenatal admissions in the UK. Women
of pregnancy (AFLP) tends to occur in late pregnancy. [ ] Risk factors include first pregnancies, pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancies and male fetuses. It may be associated with a mutant gene producing a defect in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and infants born to mothers with AFLP should be screened for defects in this system. Presentation [ ] This usually presents acutely with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, fevers, headache and pruritus, beginning typically at about 35 weeks of gestation but can (...) Jaundice in Pregnancy Jaundice in Pregnancy. About Jaundice in Pregnancy | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Jaundice in Pregnancy Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 29 May 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European
is the most common symptom. Flu-like symptoms, myalgia, headache, abdominal/back pain, sore throat, vomiting/diarrhoea may also occur. Backache, which may be mistaken for a urinary tract infection, may be present. In pregnancy, there may be uterine irritability, premature labour or miscarriage. Differential diagnosis See also separate article. (a gynaecological emergency) - symptoms include diarrhoea (due to pelvic irritation); signs can be subtle and easily missed. - can also present with diarrhoea (...) Gastrointestinal Infections in Pregnancy Gastrointestinal Infections. Listeria in Pregnancy | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Gastrointestinal Infections in Pregnancy Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 5 May 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based
pregnant woman with unexplained fever or anaemia. Fever may be absent, low-grade or very high and may not behave in the classical quartian/tertian fashion. Other symptoms may include cough, malaise, headache, myalgia and diarrhoea. Anaemia is a common feature and may be the only clue to the illness in mature primigravidae living in endemic areas. Splenomegaly may occur but tends to regress in the second half of pregnancy. Complications (see 'Complications', below), along with features of cerebral (...) Malaria in Pregnancy Malaria in Pregnancy. Learn about Malaria in Pregnancy | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Malaria in Pregnancy Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 23 Feb 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European
Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - Including Hyperemesis Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy (Hyperemesis Gravidarum) | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - including Hyperemesis Gravidarum Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 7 Jan 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use (...) . They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the article more useful, or one of our other . In this article In This Article Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - including Hyperemesis Gravidarum In this article Nausea and vomiting are both common in early pregnancy. There is no evidence of fetal damage as a result of the nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting can occur at any time of the day and may be constant. The causes of nausea and vomiting
: Constant pain, profound shock, fetal distress and vaginal bleeding; usually presents during labour and with history of uterine scar. Rarely, occurs without labour and without uterine scar. Chorioamnionitis: This usually follows premature rupture of membranes but can occur with membranes intact. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: Presents in the second half of pregnancy with abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, jaundice, malaise and headache. Acute polyhydramnios. Rupture of utero-ovarian vessels. [ ] Severe (...) or trauma. Pelvic girdle pain: Symphysis pubis dehiscence. Osteomalacia may present in pregnancy due to increasing vitamin D requirements. Assessment [ ] History Pain history - nature, location and radiation, onset, exacerbating or relieving factors. These will give clues about the cause (see separate article for details). Other abdominal symptoms - vaginal bleeding, bowel and urinary symptoms; pre-eclampsia symptoms (eg, headache, visual change, nausea). Fetal movements. Obstetric history - last
Thyroid Disease In Pregnancy Thyroid Disease In Pregnancy. Pregnant Thyroid Symptoms | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Thyroid Disease In Pregnancy Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 24 Jun 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK (...) and European Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Thyroid Disease In Pregnancy In this article It is usual for the thyroid gland to hypertrophy in normal pregnancies. There is also an increase in thyroid-binding globulin and albumin due to increased hepatic synthesis. [ ] In pregnancy Total T4 and T3 increase. Free T4 and T3 remain within normal range. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) does not change. Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with miscarriage