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Headache in Pregnancy

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281. Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Overview)

Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Overview) Liver Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTg4MTQzLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing (...) > Liver Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Mar 19, 2018 Author: Kirsten J Sasaki, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Liver Disease and Pregnancy Overview Overview Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for healthcare providers. Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP

2014 eMedicine.com

282. Hypertension and Pregnancy (Overview)

and scotomata, presumed to be due to cerebral vasospasm. The woman may describe new-onset headache that is frontal, throbbing, or similar to a migraine headache, and gastrointestinal complaints of sudden, new-onset, constant epigastric pain that may be moderate to severe in intensity and due to hepatic swelling and inflammation, with stretch of the liver capsule. Although mild lower extremity edema is common in normal pregnancy, descriptions of rapidly increasing or nondependent edema may be a signal (...) Hypertension and Pregnancy (Overview) Hypertension and Pregnancy: Overview, Chronic Hypertension, Differential Diagnosis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjYxNDM1LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing

2014 eMedicine.com

283. Pregnancy, Special Considerations (Diagnosis)

and Other Tumors Pituitary adenomas With pregnancy, previously asymptomatic pituitary adenomas or microadenomas may enlarge and result in various ophthalmic symptoms, such as headache, visual field change, and/or visual acuity loss. For this reason, patients with amenorrhea are often screened to rule out pathological causes (ie, pituitary mass) prior to initiating pro-ovulation medications. Although most pituitary adenomas remain asymptomatic during their pregnancy, a small proportion may require (...) present as a sudden onset of headache, visual loss, and/or ophthalmoplegia. Pregnancy is one of several potential risk factors for its occurrence. The management of such patients includes a neurosurgical opinion for potential surgical decompression. Endocrinological coverage also is warranted because of the risk of hypopituitarism (Sheehan syndrome). Meningiomas Meningiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors that typically occur in older females. However, they may present in pregnancy due

2014 eMedicine.com

284. Preeclampsia (Toxemia of Pregnancy) (Diagnosis)

pregnancies. A history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia should strongly raise clinical suspicion. Physical findings Patients with preeclampsia with severe features display end-organ effects and may complain of the following: Headache Visual disturbances: Blurred, scintillating scotomata Altered mental status Blindness: May be cortical [ ] or retinal Dyspnea Edema Epigastric or right upper quadrant abdominal pain Weakness or malaise - May be evidence of hemolytic anemia Edema exists in many (...) Preeclampsia (Toxemia of Pregnancy) (Diagnosis) Preeclampsia: Practice Essentials, Overview, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTQ3NjkxOS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Preeclampsia

2014 eMedicine.com

285. Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

with the doses of cabergoline used to treat hyperprolactinemia, nor with bromocriptine or quinagolide (a nonergot-based dopamine agonist). [ ] Prolactinoma and pregnancy Given the stimulatory effects of pregnancy on the normal lactotrophs, enlargement of the normal pituitary can be expected. This does not necessarily mean that the adenomatous pituitary may enlarge. Prolactinomas that symptomatically enlarge during pregnancy are uncommon. Symptoms suggestive of growth are headache, visual field changes (...) of symptomatic growth during pregnancy, after the bromocriptine is discontinued. Re-initiation of bromocriptine is the preferred treatment for pregnant women with prolactinomas who become symptomatic. Most cases quickly show a regression of symptoms (headache) and signs (visual field changes) of tumor enlargement, and the bromocriptine re-administration to date appears to be safe. Given the risks of fetal loss associated with surgery, restarting bromocriptine may be preferable if tumor enlargement occurs

2014 eMedicine.com

286. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

the drug is essential to the management of seizures, or for manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder (FDA fetal risk category D). It should not be used for migraine headache prophylaxis during pregnancy (FDA fetal risk category X). Carbamazepine In 1989, a syndrome that included craniofacial abnormalities and hypoplastic nails was described in infants exposed to carbamazepine monotherapy in utero. [ ] In a 1996 cohort study, 6 of 47 infants demonstrated this syndrome. [ ] These infants also had (...) Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy: Overview, Fetal Congenital Abnormalities and Adverse Outcomes, Mechanisms of Teratogenicity Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

287. Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Liver Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTg4MTQzLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing (...) > Liver Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Mar 19, 2018 Author: Kirsten J Sasaki, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Liver Disease and Pregnancy Overview Overview Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for healthcare providers. Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP

2014 eMedicine.com

288. Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

stating not to use valproate derivatives in women of childbearing age unless the drug is essential to the management of seizures, or for manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder (FDA fetal risk category D). It should not be used for migraine headache prophylaxis during pregnancy (FDA fetal risk category X). Previous Next: Discussion of Specific Agents: Psychiatric Medications Benzodiazepines (alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flurazepam, halazepam (...) Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy: Overview, Approach to Patients Needing Medication During Pregnancy, Example Mechanisms of Teratogenesis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

289. Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy (Follow-up)

Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy (Follow-up) Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, Adrenal Glands in Pregnancy, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI3NzcyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Nov 15, 2016 Author: Mini R Abraham, MD; Chief Editor: Carl V Smith, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy Overview Overview Adrenal disease—including disorders such as (CAH), Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, , and primary hyperaldosteronism—can reduce female fertility or severely impact maternal and fetal health during pregnancy. Adrenal insufficiency, for example, was associated with a 35-45

2014 eMedicine.com

290. Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy: Alterations in Pulmonary Physiology During Pregnancy, Alterations in Cardiac Physiology During Pregnancy, Dyspnea During Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzAzODUyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Aug 16, 2018 Author: Tarun Madappa, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pulmonary Disease and Pregnancy Alterations in Pulmonary Physiology During Pregnancy Pregnancy induces profound changes in the mother, resulting in significant alterations in normal physiology. The anatomical and functional changes affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Management

2014 eMedicine.com

291. Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks (Diagnosis)

Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks (Diagnosis) Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks: Overview, Radiation Exposure, Chemical Exposure Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjU5MzQ2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks Updated: Aug 29, 2017 Author: Kelly S Acharya, MD; Chief Editor: Christine Isaacs, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks Overview Overview The purpose of obstetrics is to maintain the health of the pregnant woman and to ensure optimal health of the fetus. Preconception and postconception risks exist for both mother and child. Certain fetal and maternal conditions have been

2014 eMedicine.com

292. Renal Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

Renal Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Renal Disease and Pregnancy: Overview of Renal Disease and Pregnancy, Renal Changes During Pregnancy, Overview of Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjQ2MTIzLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Renal Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Dec 01, 2015 Author: N Kevin Krane, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Renal Disease and Pregnancy Overview of Renal Disease and Pregnancy Pregnancy results in important alterations in acid-base, electrolyte, and renal function due to pregnancy-associated physiologic changes in renal and systemic hemodynamics. [ , ] Understanding these changes is essential when evaluating pregnant

2014 eMedicine.com

293. Common Pregnancy Complaints and Questions (Follow-up)

, and oral erythromycin are all safe. Although topical tretinoin has not been reported to cause risk, no studies have established its safety and it should be avoided. Tetracyclines are contraindicated during pregnancy. Appropriate cleansing with mild abrasion aids has been found to be helpful. Will changes in headache patterns occur during pregnancy? For most women, headaches remain unchanged during pregnancy. Some women improve, but some may worsen. Because migraines have a hormonal component, many (...) women's migraines improve with increasing estrogen levels, such as those that occur during pregnancy. For women whose conditions remain unchanged or worsen, treatment options are limited, especially in the first trimester. Some clinicians suggest acetaminophen, narcotics, and antiemetics. Nonpharmacologic treatments include relaxation strategies, eliminating stressors, and a good exercise program. These should first be attempted before pharmacologic therapy. Note that women with migraine headaches

2014 eMedicine.com

294. Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy: Overview, Definition and Clinical Manifestations, Etiologic Classification Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjcyODY3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Updated: Sep 30, 2016 Author: Natalie A Bowersox, MD; Chief Editor: Ronald M Ramus, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Overview Overview Thrombocytopenia, or a low blood platelet count, is encountered in 7-12% of all pregnancies. [ ] Women are more commonly diagnosed with platelet disorders during pregnancy since screening is done as part of the initial clinic evaluation with automated blood counts

2014 eMedicine.com

295. Hypertension and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

and scotomata, presumed to be due to cerebral vasospasm. The woman may describe new-onset headache that is frontal, throbbing, or similar to a migraine headache, and gastrointestinal complaints of sudden, new-onset, constant epigastric pain that may be moderate to severe in intensity and due to hepatic swelling and inflammation, with stretch of the liver capsule. Although mild lower extremity edema is common in normal pregnancy, descriptions of rapidly increasing or nondependent edema may be a signal (...) Hypertension and Pregnancy (Diagnosis) Hypertension and Pregnancy: Overview, Chronic Hypertension, Differential Diagnosis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjYxNDM1LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing

2014 eMedicine.com

296. Hypertension and Pregnancy (Follow-up)

and scotomata, presumed to be due to cerebral vasospasm. The woman may describe new-onset headache that is frontal, throbbing, or similar to a migraine headache, and gastrointestinal complaints of sudden, new-onset, constant epigastric pain that may be moderate to severe in intensity and due to hepatic swelling and inflammation, with stretch of the liver capsule. Although mild lower extremity edema is common in normal pregnancy, descriptions of rapidly increasing or nondependent edema may be a signal (...) Hypertension and Pregnancy (Follow-up) Hypertension and Pregnancy: Overview, Chronic Hypertension, Differential Diagnosis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjYxNDM1LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing

2014 eMedicine.com

297. Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy (Follow-up)

Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy (Follow-up) Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy: Overview, Definition and Clinical Manifestations, Etiologic Classification Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjcyODY3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Updated: Sep 30, 2016 Author: Natalie A Bowersox, MD; Chief Editor: Ronald M Ramus, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Overview Overview Thrombocytopenia, or a low blood platelet count, is encountered in 7-12% of all pregnancies. [ ] Women are more commonly diagnosed with platelet disorders during pregnancy since screening is done as part of the initial clinic evaluation with automated blood counts

2014 eMedicine.com

298. Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy (Follow-up)

stating not to use valproate derivatives in women of childbearing age unless the drug is essential to the management of seizures, or for manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder (FDA fetal risk category D). It should not be used for migraine headache prophylaxis during pregnancy (FDA fetal risk category X). Previous Next: Discussion of Specific Agents: Psychiatric Medications Benzodiazepines (alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flurazepam, halazepam (...) Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy (Follow-up) Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy: Overview, Approach to Patients Needing Medication During Pregnancy, Example Mechanisms of Teratogenesis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

299. Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Follow-up)

Liver Disease and Pregnancy (Follow-up) Liver Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTg4MTQzLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing (...) > Liver Disease and Pregnancy Updated: Mar 19, 2018 Author: Kirsten J Sasaki, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Liver Disease and Pregnancy Overview Overview Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for healthcare providers. Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP

2014 eMedicine.com

300. Viral Infections and Pregnancy (Follow-up)

Viral Infections and Pregnancy (Follow-up) Viral Infections and Pregnancy: Background, Clinical Presentation, Workup Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjM1MjEzLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Viral (...) Infections and Pregnancy Updated: May 02, 2017 Author: Teresa Marino, MD; Chief Editor: Christine Isaacs, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Viral Infections and Pregnancy Background Viral infections in pregnancy are major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Infections can develop in the neonate transplacentally, perinatally (from vaginal secretions or blood), or postnatally (from breast milk or other sources). The clinical manifestations of neonatal infections vary

2014 eMedicine.com

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