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Hand Foot and Mouth Disease

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1. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

countries, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for a more severe version of the disease with serious complications; however, this is uncommon in the US and Europe. Definition A common childhood viral infection that is most commonly caused by a coxsackievirus, characterised by low-grade fever, painful oral ulcers, and vesicles on the hands and feet. The disease has no relation to foot-and-mouth disease, which affects cattle and other cloven-hoofed animals. History and exam presence of risk factors low (...) Hand-foot-and-mouth disease Hand-foot-and-mouth disease - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Hand-foot-and-mouth disease Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: August 2018 Summary Diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a typical history and characteristic clinical features. Infection typically resolves spontaneously within 10 to 14 days, and treatment is mainly supportive. In East and South-east Asian

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Severity and burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia: a modelling study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Severity and burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia: a modelling study Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach (...) to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties.Complementary data from a variety of sources were synthesised with mathematical models to obtain estimates of severity of HFMD. This includes serological and other data extracted through a systematic review of HFMD epidemiology previously published by the authors

2018 BMJ global health

4. Identification of immune and metabolic predictors of severe hand-foot-mouth disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification of immune and metabolic predictors of severe hand-foot-mouth disease. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that affects mostly children. The children with HFMD also have other immune and metabolic disorders. However, the association of these disorders with the severity of HFMD has not yet been determined. In this study, we used a case-control study design to examine the correlation of immune and metabolic disorders with HFMD development in children. 406 (...) with the rise of body temperature by using a Chis-quare trend test (P = 0.01). We also found that a decreased number of eosinophils was an predictor of severe HFMD at 1, 2, 3,and 4 days post infection (dpi). Decreased levels of Na+, Cl-, and creatine kinase were also predictors at 1 and ≥5 dpi. On the other hand, elevated level of globulin was a predictor for severe HFMD at 4 dpi and ≥5 dpi, and the increased number of neutrophils or increased level of alkaline phosphatase posed risk for severe HFMD at 3

2019 PLoS ONE

5. The surveillance of the epidemiological and serotype characteristics of hand, foot, mouth disease in Neijiang city, China, 2010-2017: A retrospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The surveillance of the epidemiological and serotype characteristics of hand, foot, mouth disease in Neijiang city, China, 2010-2017: A retrospective study. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is well recognized as one of the major threats to children's health globally. The increasing complexity of the etiology of HFMD still challenges disease control in China. There is little surveillance of the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the enteroviruses (EVs) that cause HFMD in Neijiang (...) disease control in China.

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Surveillance for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2009 to 2015 in Jiangsu province: epidemiology, etiology, and disease burden. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surveillance for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2009 to 2015 in Jiangsu province: epidemiology, etiology, and disease burden. Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine the epidemiology, CNS complication, and etiology among severe HFMD patients, in Jiangsu, China.Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of severe (...) HFMD cases were extracted from 2009 to 2015. The CNS complication, annually severe illness rates, mortality rates, severity-PICU admission rates, severity-hospitalization rates, and so on were analyzed to assess the disease burden of severe HFMD. All analyses were stratified by time, region, population, CNS involvement and serotypes. The VP1 gene from EV-A71, CV-A16, CV-A6, CV-A10 and other enteroviruses isolates was amplified. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA5.0.Seven thousand nine

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

7. Population based hospitalization burden of laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease caused by multiple enterovirus serotypes in Southern China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Population based hospitalization burden of laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease caused by multiple enterovirus serotypes in Southern China. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is spread widely across Asia, and the hospitalization burden is currently not well understood. Here, we estimated serotype-specific and age-specific hospitalization rates of HFMD in Southern China.We enrolled pediatric HFMD patients admitted to 3/3 county-level hospitals, and 3/23 township-level hospitals (...) by those aged 24-35 months (1,828/100,000 person-years) and 6-11 months (1,572/100,000 person-years). Compared with other serotypes, CV-A6-associated hospitalizations were evident at younger ages.Our study indicates a substantial hospitalization burden associated with non-severe HFMD in a rural county in southern China. Future mitigation policies should take into account the disease burden identified, and optimize interventions for HFMD.

2018 PLoS ONE

8. Involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in the progression of severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in the progression of severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is generally considered as a mild exanthematous disease to infants and young children worldwide. HFMD cases are usually mild and self-limiting but for few cases leads to complicated severe clinical outcomes, and even death. Previous studies have indicated that serum Ang II levels in patients with H7N9 infection were related to the severity of infection

2018 PLoS ONE

9. Factors associated with severe neurologic complications in patients with either hand-foot-mouth disease or herpangina: A nationwide observational study in South Korea, 2009-2014. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors associated with severe neurologic complications in patients with either hand-foot-mouth disease or herpangina: A nationwide observational study in South Korea, 2009-2014. In 2009, a nationwide sentinel surveillance for hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA) with neurologic complications was initiated in South Korea. We used this surveillance system to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with either HFMD or HA with neurologic complications, with the aim (...) of determining risk factors for severe neurologic complications.A retrospective review of medical records was conducted on all cases of HFMD and HA with neurologic complications that were reported in the national system between April 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. A severe case was defined as having HFMD or HA with encephalitis, polio-like syndrome, or cardiopulmonary failure, and less-severe cases were defined as having HFMD or HA with aseptic meningitis.A total of 138 cases (less-severe: 90/138, 65.2

2018 PLoS ONE

10. Clinical characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Daklak Province, Vietnam and associated factors of severe cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Daklak Province, Vietnam and associated factors of severe cases The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) outbreaks occurred throughout Daklak province, Vietnam in 2011. This study reviewed all 744 medical records of HFMD patients admitted to Daklak Hospital in 2011 to describe the clinical characteristics of HFMD patients and determined factors associated with severe illness. Among 744 patients, 63 (8.5%) cases were severe. Most (695 (...) . Multivariable analysis found that oral ulcers (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.74; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.13-6.58), myoclonus (OR 44.75; 95% CI 6.04-331.66) and high white blood cell count (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16 per 1000/mm3 increase) were significantly associated with severe illness. HFMD mainly occurs in children younger than 3 years old and rainy season. Oral ulcers, myoclonus, and leukocytosis should be closely monitored to promptly detect severe cases of HFMD.

2017 Virusdisease

11. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and absence due to sickness among kindergarteners in China: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A hand hygiene intervention to decrease Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and absence due to sickness among kindergarteners in China: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effect of the "Clean Hands, Happy Life" intervention on the incidence of hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) and on school absences due to sickness in kindergarten students.The intervention consisted of four hand hygiene (HH) promotion components and was evaluated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial among

2018 Journal of Infection Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Network Meta-analysis of Heat-clearing and Detoxifying Oral Liquid of Chinese Medicines in Treatment of Hand-foot-mouth Disease

Network Meta-analysis of Heat-clearing and Detoxifying Oral Liquid of Chinese Medicines in Treatment of Hand-foot-mouth Disease Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2020 PROSPERO

13. Network meta analysis of six kinds of Chinese patent medicines oral liquid in the treatment of viral Hand-foot-mouth disease

Network meta analysis of six kinds of Chinese patent medicines oral liquid in the treatment of viral Hand-foot-mouth disease Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2020 PROSPERO

14. Efficacy and safety of lanqin oral liquid for hand, foot and mouth disease: a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis

Efficacy and safety of lanqin oral liquid for hand, foot and mouth disease: a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2020 PROSPERO

15. Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a transmissible infectious disease caused by human enteroviruses (EV). Here, we described features of children with severe HFMD caused by EV-A71 or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Shanghai, China.Severe EV-A71 or CV-A16 caused HFMD children admitted to the Xinhua Hospital from January 2014 and December 2016 (...) , were recruited retrospectively to the study. Symptoms and findings at the time of hospitalization, laboratory tests, treatments, length of stay and residual findings at discharge were systematically recorded and analyzed.Of 19,995 children visited clinic service with probable HFMD, 574 children (2.87%) were admitted, 234 children (40.76%) were confirmed with EV-A71 (90/574) or CV-A16 (144/574) disease. Most (91.02%) of the patients were under 5 years. Initial clinical symptoms of EV-A71 and CV-A16

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

16. Acute unilateral maculopathy associated with adult onset of hand, foot and mouth disease: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute unilateral maculopathy associated with adult onset of hand, foot and mouth disease: a case report. To report the case of a 31-year-old patient with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and concurrent acute monocular maculopathy, and to describe multimodal imaging findings never before described including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).Nine days after the onset of clinically highly probable but not laboratory-verified HFMD, a 31-year old male noticed a central scotoma (...) morphological pathologies such as impaired perfusion of the choroidal vessels can recover spontaneously over a period lasting 12 months. OCT-A can be employed as a non-invasive tool to detect the reduced perfusion of the choroidal vessels and for monitoring the disease course.

2019 BMC Ophthalmology

17. Two Coxsackievirus B3 outbreaks associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in China and the evolutionary history worldwide. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two Coxsackievirus B3 outbreaks associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in China and the evolutionary history worldwide. Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) is usually associated with aseptic meningitis and myocarditis; however, the association between CV-B3 and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has not been clearly demonstrated, and the phylogenetic dynamics and transmission history of CV-B3 have not been well summarized.Two HFMD outbreaks caused by CV-B3 were described in Hebei Province

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

18. The complex transmission seasonality of hand, foot, and mouth disease and its driving factors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The complex transmission seasonality of hand, foot, and mouth disease and its driving factors. The transmission rate seasonality is an important index for transmission dynamics in many childhood infections, and has been widely studied in industrialized countries. However, it has been neglected in the study of pathogens in China.To understand the transmission dynamics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), we examined the transmission rate seasonality of HFMD in three provinces, Henan, Anhui

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

19. Nonsexually Transmitted Genital Ulcer Secondary to Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. (Abstract)

Nonsexually Transmitted Genital Ulcer Secondary to Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. Genital ulcers that are not the result of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are uncommon, and case reports predominantly feature pubertal girls.A 38-year-old monogamous, nulliparous woman acutely developed painful vaginal ulcers 7 days after babysitting a child who was subsequently diagnosed with hand, foot, and mouth disease. The patient developed nonspecific systemic symptoms followed by painful and rapidly (...) expanding genital ulcers. Laboratory test results for herpes, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and Epstein-Barr virus were all negative. The patient was treated with brief inpatient observation, oral prednisone, meticulous wound care, and debridement. The ulcers resolved over a 3-week period.Although typically associated with pubertal girls, genital ulcers that are not the result of STIs can affect adults as well. The cornerstone of management regardless of age is supportive

2019 Obstetrics and Gynecology

20. Forecasting incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease using BP neural networks in Jiangsu province, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Forecasting incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease using BP neural networks in Jiangsu province, China. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a rising public health problem and has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimal model with meteorological factors to predict the epidemic of HFMD.Two types of methods, back propagation neural networks (BP) and auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), were employed to develop forecasting

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

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