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Hand-foot-and-mouthdiseaseHand-foot-and-mouthdisease - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Hand-foot-and-mouthdisease Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: August 2018 Summary Diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a typical history and characteristic clinical features. Infection typically resolves spontaneously within 10 to 14 days, and treatment is mainly supportive. In East and South-east Asian (...) countries, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for a more severe version of the disease with serious complications; however, this is uncommon in the US and Europe. Definition A common childhood viral infection that is most commonly caused by a coxsackievirus, characterised by low-grade fever, painful oral ulcers, and vesicles on the hands and feet. The disease has no relation to foot-and-mouthdisease, which affects cattle and other cloven-hoofed animals. History and exam presence of risk factors low
Severity and burden of hand, foot and mouthdisease in Asia: a modelling study Hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach (...) to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties.Complementary data from a variety of sources were synthesised with mathematical models to obtain estimates of severity of HFMD. This includes serological and other data extracted through a systematic review of HFMD epidemiology previously published by the authors
The surveillance of the epidemiological and serotype characteristics of hand, foot, mouthdisease in Neijiang city, China, 2010-2017: A retrospective study. Hand, foot, and mouthdisease (HFMD) is well recognized as one of the major threats to children's health globally. The increasing complexity of the etiology of HFMD still challenges disease control in China. There is little surveillance of the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the enteroviruses (EVs) that cause HFMD in Neijiang (...) disease control in China.
Identification of immune and metabolic predictors of severe hand-foot-mouthdisease. Hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that affects mostly children. The children with HFMD also have other immune and metabolic disorders. However, the association of these disorders with the severity of HFMD has not yet been determined. In this study, we used a case-control study design to examine the correlation of immune and metabolic disorders with HFMD development in children. 406 (...) with the rise of body temperature by using a Chis-quare trend test (P = 0.01). We also found that a decreased number of eosinophils was an predictor of severe HFMD at 1, 2, 3,and 4 days post infection (dpi). Decreased levels of Na+, Cl-, and creatine kinase were also predictors at 1 and ≥5 dpi. On the other hand, elevated level of globulin was a predictor for severe HFMD at 4 dpi and ≥5 dpi, and the increased number of neutrophils or increased level of alkaline phosphatase posed risk for severe HFMD at 3
Surveillance for severe hand, foot, and mouthdisease from 2009 to 2015 in Jiangsu province: epidemiology, etiology, and disease burden. Severe hand, foot, and mouthdisease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine the epidemiology, CNS complication, and etiology among severe HFMD patients, in Jiangsu, China.Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of severe (...) HFMD cases were extracted from 2009 to 2015. The CNS complication, annually severe illness rates, mortality rates, severity-PICU admission rates, severity-hospitalization rates, and so on were analyzed to assess the disease burden of severe HFMD. All analyses were stratified by time, region, population, CNS involvement and serotypes. The VP1 gene from EV-A71, CV-A16, CV-A6, CV-A10 and other enteroviruses isolates was amplified. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA5.0.Seven thousand nine
Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouthdisease in childcare facilities: a systematic review. Hand, foot, and mouthdisease continues to cause seasonal epidemics in the Asia-Pacific Region. Since the current Enterovirus 71 vaccines do not provide cross-protection for all Enterovirus species that cause hand, foot, and mouthdisease, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate detection tools and best practice to prevent its transmission (...) or English: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, WHO Western Pacific Region Index Medicus database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases, and Chinese Scientific Journals Database. Studies conducted during or retrospective to outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouthdisease caused by Enterovirus 71 from 1980 to 2012 within childcare facilities and with a study population of 0 to 6 years old were included.Sixteen studies conducted on outbreaks in China showed that hand, foot, and mouthdisease spread
Clinical characteristics of hand, foot and mouthdisease in Daklak Province, Vietnam and associated factors of severe cases The Hand, Foot and MouthDisease (HFMD) outbreaks occurred throughout Daklak province, Vietnam in 2011. This study reviewed all 744 medical records of HFMD patients admitted to Daklak Hospital in 2011 to describe the clinical characteristics of HFMD patients and determined factors associated with severe illness. Among 744 patients, 63 (8.5%) cases were severe. Most (695
Association between HMGB1 and hand, foot, and mouthdisease: a meta-analysis and systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external (...) cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models, the decision to pool certain units of measurement for an outcome
A case report of a teenager with severe hand, foot, and mouthdisease with brainstem encephalitis caused by enterovirus 71. Hand, foot, and mouthdisease (HFMD) is an acute viral infection occurring mostly in infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection mostly occurs in children < 5 years of age. Severe cases, however, are usually encountered in children under the age of 3 years, and exceedingly rare in teenagers > 14 years and adults.We report a rare case of HFMD in a 16-year-old male
Epidemic pattern of hand-foot-and-mouthdisease in Xi'an, China from 2008 through 2015. Hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses that has a severely impair for those high incidence countries such as China.The current study aimed to investigate the epidemic pattern of HFMD by time and region in Northwestern China.All reported HFMD cases from 2008 to 2015 were collected from local Disease Control and Prevention.The HFMD was diagnosed in accordance
Identifying risk factors for neurological complications and monitoring long-term neurological sequelae: protocol for the Guangzhou prospective cohort study on hand-foot-and-mouthdisease. Hand-foot-and-mouthdisease (HFMD) is a paediatric infectious disease that is particularly prevalent in China. Severe HFMDs characterised by neurological involvement are fatal and survivors who have apparently fully recovered might still be afflicted later in life with neurocognitive impairments. Only when
Application of a combined model with seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average and support vector regression in forecasting hand-foot-mouthdisease incidence in Wuhan, China. Hand-foot-mouthdisease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem with increasing cases and substantial financial burden in China, especially in Wuhan city. Hence, there is an urgent need to construct a model to predict the incidence of HFMD that could make the prevention and control of this disease more
Population based hospitalization burden of laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouthdisease caused by multiple enterovirus serotypes in Southern China. Hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD) is spread widely across Asia, and the hospitalization burden is currently not well understood. Here, we estimated serotype-specific and age-specific hospitalization rates of HFMD in Southern China.We enrolled pediatric HFMD patients admitted to 3/3 county-level hospitals, and 3/23 township-level hospitals (...) by those aged 24-35 months (1,828/100,000 person-years) and 6-11 months (1,572/100,000 person-years). Compared with other serotypes, CV-A6-associated hospitalizations were evident at younger ages.Our study indicates a substantial hospitalization burden associated with non-severe HFMD in a rural county in southern China. Future mitigation policies should take into account the disease burden identified, and optimize interventions for HFMD.
Enterovirus A71 Phenotypes Causing Hand, Foot and MouthDisease, Vietnam. We investigated enterovirus A71-associated hand, foot and mouthdisease in Vietnam and found that, after replacing subgenogroup C4 in 2013, B5 remained the leading cause of this disease. In contrast with previous observations, this switch did not result in an explosive outbreak, and B5 evolution was driven by negative selection.
Comparison of Nonpolio Enteroviruses in Children With Herpangina and With Hand, Foot and MouthDisease in Taiwan. Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) infections are often present with herpangina (HA) and hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD). Most countries sample NPEVs in HFMD cases, targeting enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) that are associated with outbreaks and severe complications. HA is also monitored in Taiwan and several other countries, but its viral characteristics
Acute unilateral maculopathy associated with adult onset of hand, foot and mouthdisease: a case report. To report the case of a 31-year-old patient with Hand, Foot and MouthDisease (HFMD) and concurrent acute monocular maculopathy, and to describe multimodal imaging findings never before described including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).Nine days after the onset of clinically highly probable but not laboratory-verified HFMD, a 31-year old male noticed a central scotoma (...) morphological pathologies such as impaired perfusion of the choroidal vessels can recover spontaneously over a period lasting 12 months. OCT-A can be employed as a non-invasive tool to detect the reduced perfusion of the choroidal vessels and for monitoring the disease course.
Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouthdisease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China. Hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD) is a transmissible infectious disease caused by human enteroviruses (EV). Here, we described features of children with severe HFMD caused by EV-A71 or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Shanghai, China.Severe EV-A71 or CV-A16 caused HFMD children admitted to the Xinhua Hospital from January 2014 and December 2016 (...) , were recruited retrospectively to the study. Symptoms and findings at the time of hospitalization, laboratory tests, treatments, length of stay and residual findings at discharge were systematically recorded and analyzed.Of 19,995 children visited clinic service with probable HFMD, 574 children (2.87%) were admitted, 234 children (40.76%) were confirmed with EV-A71 (90/574) or CV-A16 (144/574) disease. Most (91.02%) of the patients were under 5 years. Initial clinical symptoms of EV-A71 and CV-A16
Nonsexually Transmitted Genital Ulcer Secondary to Hand, Foot, and MouthDisease. Genital ulcers that are not the result of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are uncommon, and case reports predominantly feature pubertal girls.A 38-year-old monogamous, nulliparous woman acutely developed painful vaginal ulcers 7 days after babysitting a child who was subsequently diagnosed with hand, foot, and mouthdisease. The patient developed nonspecific systemic symptoms followed by painful and rapidly
The complex transmission seasonality of hand, foot, and mouthdisease and its driving factors. The transmission rate seasonality is an important index for transmission dynamics in many childhood infections, and has been widely studied in industrialized countries. However, it has been neglected in the study of pathogens in China.To understand the transmission dynamics of hand, foot and mouthdisease (HFMD), we examined the transmission rate seasonality of HFMD in three provinces, Henan, Anhui