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Hallucinogen

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1. CRACKCast E154 – Hallucinogens

CRACKCast E154 – Hallucinogens CRACKCast E154 - Hallucinogens - CanadiEM CRACKCast E154 – Hallucinogens In by Chris Lipp February 15, 2018 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s 9th Ed Chapter 150, Hallucinogens. This chapter covers exposure to several families of hallucinogenic toxins, their presentations, complications, and treatment. Shownotes – Key Concepts: Hallucinogens include many types of drugs and chemicals with different associated effects, including action at serotonin receptors (...) hallucinogens continue to emerge and may have effects from hallucinogenic, serotonergic, and dissociative toxidromes. These drugs are rarely detected by screening tests, and cases of toxicity may occur in regional outbreaks. Patients with PCP toxicity can have unpredictable, violent behavior, and may sustain traumatic injuries. Extreme agitation, although possible, is less common with ketamine and methoxetamine. Extremely agitated, violent PCP-intoxicated patients may require rapid sedation to decrease

2018 CandiEM

2. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Suppresses the Rat Phenethylamine Hallucinogen-Induced Head Twitch Response: Hallucinogen-Induced Excitatory Post-synaptic Potentials as a Potential Substrate (PubMed)

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Suppresses the Rat Phenethylamine Hallucinogen-Induced Head Twitch Response: Hallucinogen-Induced Excitatory Post-synaptic Potentials as a Potential Substrate 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled (...) receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1-adrenergic and orexin2) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2], adenosine A1, μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Another neurotransmitter receptor also localized to apparent thalamocortical afferents to layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex is the β2-adrenergic receptor. Therefore

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2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

3. Classical hallucinogens and neuroimaging: a systematic review of human studies: Hallucinogens and neuroimaging. (PubMed)

Classical hallucinogens and neuroimaging: a systematic review of human studies: Hallucinogens and neuroimaging. Serotonergic hallucinogens produce alterations of perceptions, mood, and cognition, and have anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiaddictive properties. These drugs act as agonists of frontocortical 5-HT2A receptors, but the neural basis of their effects are not well understood. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies analyzing the effects of serotonergic (...) hallucinogens in man. Studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases until 12 April 2016 were included using the following keywords: "ayahuasca", "DMT", "psilocybin", "LSD", "mescaline" crossed one by one with the terms "mri", "fmri", "pet", "spect", "imaging" and "neuroimaging". Of 279 studies identified, 25 were included. Acute effects included excitation of frontolateral/frontomedial cortex, medial temporal lobe, and occipital cortex, and inhibition of the default mode network. Long-term

2016 Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews

4. Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: effects on cognition. (PubMed)

Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: effects on cognition. Classic psychedelics (serotonin 2A receptor agonists) and dissociative hallucinogens (NMDA receptor antagonists), though differing in pharmacology, may share neuropsychological effects. These drugs, however, have undergone limited direct comparison. This report presents data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study comparing the neuropsychological effects of multiple (...) doses of the classic psychedelic psilocybin with the effects of a single high dose of the dissociative hallucinogen dextromethorphan (DXM).Twenty hallucinogen users (11 females) completed neurocognitive assessments during five blinded drug administration sessions (10, 20, and 30 mg/70 kg psilocybin; 400 mg/70 kg DXM; and placebo) in which participants and study staff were informed that a large range of possible drug conditions may have been administered.Global cognitive impairment, assessed using

2018 Psychopharmacology

5. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports (PubMed)

The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis (...) to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception ("see," "visual," "face," "reality," "color"), emotion ("fear"), setting ("outside," "inside," "street," "front," "behind") and relatives ("mom," "dad

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

6. N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an Endogenous Hallucinogen: Past, Present, and Future Research to Determine Its Role and Function (PubMed)

N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an Endogenous Hallucinogen: Past, Present, and Future Research to Determine Its Role and Function This report provides a historical overview of research concerning the endogenous hallucinogen N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), focusing on data regarding its biosynthesis and metabolism in the brain and peripheral tissues, methods and results for DMT detection in body fluids and brain, new sites of action for DMT, and new data regarding its possible physiological (...) the "natural" role of an endogenous hallucinogen from the effects observed from peripheral administration are also emphasized.

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

7. Horizontal gene cluster transfer increased hallucinogenic mushroom diversity (PubMed)

Horizontal gene cluster transfer increased hallucinogenic mushroom diversity Secondary metabolites are a heterogeneous class of chemicals that often mediate interactions between species. The tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite, psilocin, is a serotonin receptor agonist that induces altered states of consciousness. A phylogenetically disjunct group of mushroom-forming fungi in the Agaricales produce the psilocin prodrug, psilocybin. Spotty phylogenetic distributions of fungal compounds (...) are sometimes explained by horizontal transfer of metabolic gene clusters among unrelated fungi with overlapping niches. We report the discovery of a psilocybin gene cluster in three hallucinogenic mushroom genomes, and evidence for its horizontal transfer between fungal lineages. Patterns of gene distribution and transmission suggest that synthesis of psilocybin may have provided a fitness advantage in the dung and late wood-decay fungal niches, which may serve as reservoirs of fungal indole-based

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2018 Evolution Letters

8. “Hallucinations” Following Acute Cannabis Dosing: A Case Report and Comparison to Other Hallucinogenic Drugs (PubMed)

“Hallucinations” Following Acute Cannabis Dosing: A Case Report and Comparison to Other Hallucinogenic Drugs Introduction: Cannabis has been historically classified as a hallucinogen. However, subjective cannabis effects do not typically include hallucinogen-like effects. Empirical reports of hallucinogen-like effects produced by cannabis in controlled settings, particularly among healthy research volunteers, are rare and have mostly occurred after administration of purified Δ-9 (...) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) rather than whole plant cannabis. Methods: The case of a healthy 30-year-old male who experienced auditory and visual hallucinations in a controlled laboratory study after inhaling vaporized cannabis that contained 25 mg THC (case dose) is presented. Ratings on the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS) following the case dose are compared with HRS ratings obtained from the participant after other doses of cannabis and with archival HRS data from laboratory studies involving acute doses

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2018 Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

9. Metabotropic Glutamate2 Receptors Play a Key Role in Modulating Head Twitches Induced by a Serotonergic Hallucinogen in Mice (PubMed)

Metabotropic Glutamate2 Receptors Play a Key Role in Modulating Head Twitches Induced by a Serotonergic Hallucinogen in Mice There is substantial evidence that glutamate can modulate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor activation through stimulation of metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Here we show that constitutive deletion of the mGlu2 gene profoundly attenuates an effect of 5-HT2A receptor activation using the mouse head twitch

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2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

10. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives (PubMed)

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs (...) . The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies. We searched PubMed to identify original studies about psychedelics and Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Our research

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2018 Brain sciences

11. Chronic cannabis promotes pro-hallucinogenic signaling of 5-HT2A receptors through Akt/mTOR pathway. (PubMed)

Chronic cannabis promotes pro-hallucinogenic signaling of 5-HT2A receptors through Akt/mTOR pathway. Long-term use of potent cannabis during adolescence increases the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life, but to date, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several findings suggest that the functional selectivity of serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) through inhibitory G-proteins is involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for psychotic symptoms. Moreover, this receptor (...) is dysregulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. In this context, studies involving cannabis exposure and 5-HT2AR are scarce. Here, we tested in mice the effect of an early chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on cortical 5-HT2AR expression, as well as on its in vivo and in vitro functionality. Long-term exposure to THC induced a pro-hallucinogenic molecular conformation of the 5-HT2AR and exacerbated schizophrenia-like responses, such as prepulse inhibition disruption

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2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

12. Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience. (PubMed)

Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience. The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However (...) , accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p.o.) and the non-hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist ergotamine (3mg p.o.) on psilocybin-induced (170 µg/kg p.o.) psychological effects in two groups (n=19, n=17) of healthy human subjects. Psychological

2017 European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

13. Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review. (PubMed)

Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review. Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated (...) associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety benefit from the anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of serotonergic hallucinogens. Some studies anecdotally reported improvements in patients´ quality of life and reduced fear of death. Moreover, low rates of side effects were reported in studies that adhered to safety guidelines. Further studies are needed to determine how these results can be transferred into clinical practice.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry

14. The "Endless Trip" among the NPS Users: Psychopathology and Psychopharmacology in the Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder. A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

The "Endless Trip" among the NPS Users: Psychopathology and Psychopharmacology in the Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder. A Systematic Review. Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline

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2017 Frontiers in Psychiatry

15. Locomotor and discriminative stimulus effects of four novel hallucinogens in rodents (PubMed)

Locomotor and discriminative stimulus effects of four novel hallucinogens in rodents There has been increasing use of novel synthetic hallucinogenic compounds, 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25B-NBOMe), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25C-NBOMe), 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25I-NBOMe), and N,N-diallyl-5-methoxy tryptamine (5-MeO-DALT), which have been (...) associated with severe toxicities. These four compounds were tested for discriminative stimulus effects similar to a prototypical hallucinogen (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and the entactogen (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Locomotor activity in mice was tested to obtain dose range and time-course information. 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and 25I-NBOMe decreased locomotor activity. 5-MeO-DALT dose dependently increased locomotor activity, with a peak at 10 mg/kg. A higher dose (25 mg

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2017 Behavioural pharmacology

16. Is Shame Hallucinogenic? (PubMed)

Is Shame Hallucinogenic? Research into the causes of "hearing voices," formally termed auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), has primarily focused on cognitive mechanisms. A potentially causative role for emotion has been relatively neglected. This paper uses historical and contemporary case studies of AVH to tentatively generate the hypothesis that shame can be a causal factor in the onset of AVH. Other sources of support for the generation of this hypothesis are then sought. First, evidence

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2017 Frontiers in psychology

17. Could Hallucinogens Induce Permanent Pupillary Changes in (Ab)users? A Case Report from New Zealand (PubMed)

Could Hallucinogens Induce Permanent Pupillary Changes in (Ab)users? A Case Report from New Zealand An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD

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2017 Case reports in neurological medicine

18. The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro (PubMed)

The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here

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2017 Scientific reports

19. Clinical Applications of Hallucinogens: A Review (PubMed)

Clinical Applications of Hallucinogens: A Review Hallucinogens fall into several different classes, as broadly defined by pharmacological mechanism of action, and chemical structure. These include psychedelics, entactogens, dissociatives, and other atypical hallucinogens. Although these classes do not share a common primary mechanism of action, they do exhibit important similarities in their ability to occasion temporary but profound alterations of consciousness, involving acute changes (...) in somatic, perceptual, cognitive, and affective processes. Such effects likely contribute to their recreational use. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that these drugs may have therapeutic applications beyond their potential for abuse. This review will present data on several classes of hallucinogens with a particular focus on psychedelics, entactogens, and dissociatives, for which clinical utility has been most extensively documented. Information on each class is presented in turn, tracing

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2016 Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology

20. Chemogenomics Knowledgebase and Systems Pharmacology for Hallucinogen Target Identification - Salvinorin A as a Case Study (PubMed)

Chemogenomics Knowledgebase and Systems Pharmacology for Hallucinogen Target Identification - Salvinorin A as a Case Study Drug abuse is a serious problem worldwide. Recently, hallucinogens have been reported as a potential preventative and auxiliary therapy for substance abuse. However, the use of hallucinogens as a drug abuse treatment has potential risks, as the fundamental mechanisms of hallucinogens are not clear. So far, no scientific database is available for the mechanism research (...) of hallucinogens. We constructed a hallucinogen-specific chemogenomics database by collecting chemicals, protein targets and pathways closely related to hallucinogens. This information, together with our established computational chemogenomics tools, such as TargetHunter and HTDocking, provided a one-step solution for the mechanism study of hallucinogens. We chose salvinorin A, a potent hallucinogen extracted from the plant Salvia divinorum, as an example to demonstrate the usability of our platform

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2016 Journal of molecular graphics & modelling

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