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121. Involvement of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in hair growth and melanogenesis among different mouse strains. (PubMed)

Involvement of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in hair growth and melanogenesis among different mouse strains. Stress has been demonstrated to play an important role in hair follicle function and the pathogenesis of some hair disorders. The central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by stress stimuli, synthesizes and releases various components and eventually induces the pathogenesis and recurrence of peripheral diseases. Our aim is to compare the different (...) responses under exposure of stress in hair follicle function among different mouse strains, and to detect the involvement of the central HPA axis after stress in hair follicle growth and melanogenesis. In this study, we exposed different mouse strains (C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H/HeN, BALB/c and ICR) to a 21-day chronic restraint stress protocol and selected C57BL/6, CBA/J and BALB/c mice for further study because of their significant behavioral alterations. Then, we evaluated and compared the different

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2018 PLoS ONE

122. Transcriptomic analysis reveals critical genes for the hair follicle of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat from catagen to telogen. (PubMed)

Transcriptomic analysis reveals critical genes for the hair follicle of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat from catagen to telogen. There are two main types of hair follicle in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats, the primary hair follicle (PHF) producing hair fibers and the secondary hair follicle (SHF) producing cashmere fibers. Of both fibers from cashmere-bearing goats in Aerbasi, Inner Mongolia, the timing of cyclical phases for the cashmere have been well clarified but hair fibers have been less

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2018 PLoS ONE

123. Eucalyptus ash alters secondary protein conformation of human grey hair and facilitates anthocyanin dyeing. (PubMed)

Eucalyptus ash alters secondary protein conformation of human grey hair and facilitates anthocyanin dyeing. Wood ashes infused with water have been traditionally used as hair cosmetics, but little or no research has examined the effects of ash on human hair. This study investigated the effect of eucalyptus ash on the structure and morphology of excised human grey hair and its potential use as a pretreatment in natural hair dyeing using anthocyanins extracted from purple cops of Zea mays (...) . Tensile characteristics and surface morphology of ash-pretreated hair was monitored by texture analysis, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The biochemical characteristics of ash-treated hair were analyzed by synchrotron radiation-FTIR and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge. Dyeing with anthocyanins was analyzed by Lab color scale and adsorption of anthocyanins. Ash-treated hair was elastically and plastically deformed with microscopic alterations to the ridges

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2018 PLoS ONE

124. Correction: Comparing hair-morphology and molecular methods to identify fecal samples from Neotropical felids. (PubMed)

Correction: Comparing hair-morphology and molecular methods to identify fecal samples from Neotropical felids. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184073.].

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2018 PLoS ONE

125. FEMALE PATTERN HAIR LOSS AND ANDROGEN EXCESS: A REPORT FROM THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS COMMITTEE. (PubMed)

FEMALE PATTERN HAIR LOSS AND ANDROGEN EXCESS: A REPORT FROM THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS COMMITTEE. To determine the current state of knowledge and provide evidence-based recommendations that could be valid for all specialists taking care of female pattern hair loss (FPHL), a common form of hair loss in women that is characterized by the reduction of hair density in the central area of the scalp, while the frontal hairline is generally well conserved.An expert task force (...) appointed by Androgen Excess and PPCOS society, which included specialists from dermatology, endocrinology, and reproductive endocrinology.Levels of evidence were assessed and graded from A to D.Peer reviewed studies evaluating FPHL published through December 2017 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion/exclusion of the published papers were agreed upon by at least two reviewers in each area and arbitrated by a third when necessary.1. The term Female Pattern Hair Loss should be used avoiding the previous

2019 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

126. Do human dermal adipocytes switch from lipogenesis in anagen to lipophagy and lipolysis during catagen in the human hair cycle? (PubMed)

Do human dermal adipocytes switch from lipogenesis in anagen to lipophagy and lipolysis during catagen in the human hair cycle? In murine skin dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT) undergoes fluctuations in size across the hair cycle, whereas changes in size, function and metabolism of dermal adipocytes (DAs) during the human scalp hair cycle remain unexplored. Transmission electron microscopy results suggest that, during anagen-catagen transition, human DAs co-opt the autophagy machinery (...) to undergo lipophagy within their lipid droplets. Wholemount staining of hair follicles (HFs) and surrounding DWAT for the autophagy marker LC3B confirms the increased presence of LC3B+ lipid droplets adjacent to catagen HFs; moreover, DWAT around catagen HFs engages in greater glycerol release compared to DWAT surrounding anagen HFs. Thus, we hypothesize that human DAs switch from lipogenesis during anagen to lipophagy together with lipolysis during catagen. We propose various experiments to further

2019 Experimental Dermatology

127. Impact of Preservation Solutions on the Trichogenicity of Hair Micrografts Ascertained by Dermal Papilla Gene Expression. (PubMed)

Impact of Preservation Solutions on the Trichogenicity of Hair Micrografts Ascertained by Dermal Papilla Gene Expression. Appropriate storage of human hair follicle (HF) grafts during follicular unit excision (FUE) is crucial toward successful hair shaft implantation. Several commercial storage solutions are currently used to ensure ex vivo maintenance of follicular grafts viability and trichogenicity. However, quantitative experimental evidence demonstrating molecular changes in HF cells (...) associated with the usage of different storage solutions is largely missing.To identify gene expression changes in HF cells caused by ex vivo storage of hair grafts in different preservation conditions.The authors performed gene expression analysis in dermal papilla (DP) isolated from HF stored under different temperatures and solutions. The expression signature of key genes controlling hair growth and cycling, apoptosis, inflammation, and senescence was assessed for (1) chilled versus room temperature

2019 Dermatologic Surgery

128. Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutations Cause a Multi-System, Recessive Disease That Includes Microcephaly, Developmental Delay, and Brittle Hair and Nails. (PubMed)

Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutations Cause a Multi-System, Recessive Disease That Includes Microcephaly, Developmental Delay, and Brittle Hair and Nails. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with cognate amino acids. Consistent with the essential function and ubiquitous expression of ARSs, mutations in 32 of the 37 ARS-encoding loci cause severe, early-onset recessive phenotypes. Previous genetic and functional data suggest a loss (...) -of-function mechanism; however, our understanding of the allelic and locus heterogeneity of ARS-related disease is incomplete. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) encodes the enzyme that charges tRNACys with cysteine in the cytoplasm. To date, CARS variants have not been implicated in any human disease phenotype. Here, we report on four subjects from three families with complex syndromes that include microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair and nails. Each affected person carries bi-allelic CARS

2019 American Journal of Human Genetics

129. High naevus count and MC1R red hair alleles contribute synergistically to increased melanoma risk. (PubMed)

High naevus count and MC1R red hair alleles contribute synergistically to increased melanoma risk. A high total body naevus count is the highest risk factor for melanoma; the red hair colour phenotype of red hair, freckling and pale skin that burns easily, produced by MC1R R alleles, also predisposes to melanoma.To determine whether the known melanoma risk factors of high naevus count and red hair or MC1R R alleles act synergistically to increase melanoma risk.The Brisbane Naevus Morphology (...) to individuals with dark brown hair and 0-4 naevi, individuals with red hair and 20+ naevi had a melanoma OR 10·0 (95%CI 4·2-24·3). Individuals with MC1R R/R genotype and 20+ naevi ≥5mm had a melanoma OR 25·1 (95%CI 8·4-82·7) compared to WT/WT individuals with 0-4 naevi. The highest risk group, Australian men with MC1R R/R genotype and 20+ moles, had an absolute risk of melanoma to age 75 of 23·3%, compared to 0·8% for men with WT/WT genotype and 0-4 naevi.Patients living in a high incident UV setting

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

130. Inside health 5/2/19 venous access and arm hair: clipping vs shaving vs au naturale

Inside health 5/2/19 venous access and arm hair: clipping vs shaving vs au naturale Inside health 5/2/19 venous access and arm hair: clipping vs shaving vs au naturale | Margaret McCartney's Blog Claim (lack of) evidence on shaving for giving clipping is less harmful than however- is not clipping better than clipping?: trials that compared clipping with shaving Six trials, two of which had three comparison arms, (972 participants) compared hair removal (shaving, clipping, or depilatory cream (...) ) with no hair removal and found no statistically significant difference in surgical site infection rates however the comparison is underpowered. argument that clipping is better for dressing adherence: well: review of risk/benefits of different dressings: v little in literature about whether dressing on clipped hair is …. overview of Comments Off on Inside health 5/2/19 venous access and arm hair: clipping vs shaving vs au naturale Comments are closed. Twitter Follow on Twitter Links Meta Margaret

2019 Margaret McCartney's Blog

131. Wanted, dead and alive; why a multidisciplinary approach is needed to unlock hair treatment potential. (PubMed)

Wanted, dead and alive; why a multidisciplinary approach is needed to unlock hair treatment potential. Human recorded history is littered with attempts to improve the perceived appearance of scalp hair. Throughout history treatments have included both biological and chemical interventions. Hair "quality" or "perceived appearance" is regulated by multiple biological intervention opportunities: adding more hairs by flipping follicles from Telogen to Anagen, or delaying Anagen follicles transiting (...) into Catagen; altering hair "apparent amount" by modulating shaft diameter or shape; or, in principle, altering shaft physical properties changing its synthesis. By far the most common biological intervention strategy today is to increase the number of hairs, but to date this has proven difficult and has yielded minimal benefits. Chemical intervention primarily consists of active material surface deposition to improve shaft shine, fibre-fibre interactions, and strength. Real, perceptible benefits will best

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2019 Experimental Dermatology

132. Elevated hair cortisol is associated with childhood maltreatment and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorders. (PubMed)

Elevated hair cortisol is associated with childhood maltreatment and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorders. The neural diathesis-stress model is useful to understand schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BD) disorders. Childhood maltreatment could affect the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis and lead to chronic changes in stress-sensitivity, which can be measured with hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), representing long-term, cumulative cortisol levels. Here we

2019 Schizophrenia Research

133. Anagen hair follicle repair: timely regenerative attempts from plastic extra-bulge epithelial cells. (PubMed)

Anagen hair follicle repair: timely regenerative attempts from plastic extra-bulge epithelial cells. Anagen hair follicle repair is the regenerative scheme activated to restore the structure and hair growth following injuries to anagen hair follicles. Compared with telogen-to-anagen regeneration and hair follicle neogenesis, anagen hair follicle repair is a clinically important, yet relatively unexplored regenerative feature of hair follicles. Due to their highly proliferative character (...) , germinative cells and matrix cells within hair bulbs are highly susceptible to injuries, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Clinical and experimental observations suggest that damaged anagen hair follicles are able to repair themselves to resume anagen growth, bypassing premature catagen/telogen entry. Mechanistically, extra-bulge epithelial cells in the outer root sheath and the lower proximal cup are quickly mobilized for regeneration. These cells acquire stem cell-like properties, exhibiting high

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2019 Experimental Dermatology

134. Lower allergen levels in hypoallergenic Curly Horses? A comparison among breeds by measurements of horse allergens in hair and air samples. (PubMed)

Lower allergen levels in hypoallergenic Curly Horses? A comparison among breeds by measurements of horse allergens in hair and air samples. Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced (...) allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples.In total, 224 hair samples from 32 different horse breeds were investigated. Personal nasal filters were used to collect airborne dust during the grooming of 20 Curly Horses and 20 Quarter Horses. Quantitative analysis of all samples was performed

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2018 PLoS ONE

135. Statistical resolutions for large variabilities in hair mineral analysis. (PubMed)

Statistical resolutions for large variabilities in hair mineral analysis. Measuring biomaterials is usually subject to error. Measurement errors are classified into either random errors or biases. Random errors can be well controlled using appropriate statistical methods. But, biases due to unknown, unobserved, or temporary causes, may lead to biased conclusions. This study describes a verification method to examine whether measurement errors are random or not and to determine efficient (...) statistical methods. A number of studies have dealt with associations between hair minerals and exposures such as health, dietary or environmental conditions. Most review papers, however, emphasize the necessity for validation of hair mineral measurements, since large variations can cause highly variable results. To address these issues, we answer the following questions: How can we ascertain the reliability of measurements?How can we assess and control the variability of measurements?How do we

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2018 PLoS ONE

136. Deletion of Brg1 causes stereocilia bundle fusion and cuticular plate loss in vestibular hair cells. (PubMed)

Deletion of Brg1 causes stereocilia bundle fusion and cuticular plate loss in vestibular hair cells. Brg1 is an ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it is indispensable for the development and homeostasis of various organs. Conditional deletion of Brg1 in cochlea hair cells (HCs) leads to multiple structural defects and profound deafness. However, the premature death of Brg1-deficient cochlea HCs hindered further study of the role of Brg1. In contrast to cochlea HCs

2019 Hearing Research

137. Assessing fractional hair cell survival in archival human temporal bones. (PubMed)

Assessing fractional hair cell survival in archival human temporal bones. Histopathological analysis of hair cell survival in human temporal bone sections has historically been binarized such that each hair cell row is rated as either present or absent, thereby greatly underestimating the amount of hair cell loss. Here, we describe and validate a technique to reliably assess fractional hair cell survival in archival sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) using high-resolution light (...) microscopy and optical sectioning.Technique validation.Hair cell counts in archival temporal bone slide sets were performed by several observers using either differential interference contrast (DIC) or confocal microscopy of the endogenous eosin fluorescence in hair cells. As a further cross-check, additional decelloidinized sections were immunostained with hair cell markers myosin VI and VIIa.Cuticular plates and stereocilia bundles are routinely resolvable in DIC imaging of archival H&E-stained human

2019 Laryngoscope

138. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Hair-Thread Tourniquets. (PubMed)

Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Hair-Thread Tourniquets. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is a rare, painful condition that occurs when a strand of hair or thread becomes wrapped around toes, fingers, or other appendages. This causes focal edema, which eventually reduces arterial blood flow and can lead to ischemia and necrosis. A thorough physical examination and assessment of risk factors are important. Treatment involves depilatory agents or targeted incision

2019 Pediatric Emergency Care

139. Hair loss among transgender and gender-nonbinary patients: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Hair loss among transgender and gender-nonbinary patients: a cross-sectional study. As facial, scalp, and body hair are closely linked to gender expression and perception, hair concerns represent important considerations in gender minority patients. Diagnosis and subsequent treatment of hair conditions in this population require an understanding of gender affirming hormones, which include both masculinizing hormone therapy (MHT, i.e. testosterone use) and feminizing hormone therapy (FHT, i.e (...) . estrogen and antiandrogen use).1 Testosterone has been found to induce androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in roughly two-thirds of transmen, while estrogen/antiandrogens have been shown to increase scalp hair density in transwomen in limited case reports.2,3 In this cross-sectional study, we sought to capture the frequency of scalp hair loss and its relation to gender affirming hormone use in gender minority patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

140. Postzygotic HRAS mutation in heterochromia of straight scalp hair. (PubMed)

Postzygotic HRAS mutation in heterochromia of straight scalp hair. The growth of hair of two distinct colors in one person is a well-described phenomenon defined as heterochromia of the scalp. We studied one case with heterochromia of straight scalp hair associated with a keratinocytic epidermal nevus. Samples from lesional skin were obtained for histopathological evaluation and for DNA isolation. DNA from hair bulbs and from buccal mucosa was also isolated and molecularly analyzed. We (...) performed HRAS, NRAS and KRAS mutational analysis by Sanger sequencing using DNA from different tissues, including nevus, hair bulbs and buccal mucosa of the patient. We disclosed the HRAS heterozygous pathogenic variant c.34G>A, p.Gly12Ser in DNA from lesional skin, blond hair and, at a low level, in the mucosa of the left cheek. The mutation was not present in DNA extracted from the right oral mucosa and in normal dark colored hair. No mutations were found in NRAS or KRAS. Thus, in the present case

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

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