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41. Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Re-growth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis. (PubMed)

Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Re-growth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development and hair regeneration in adults. We discovered that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis via an interaction with Dishevelled. CXXC5 was upregulated in miniaturized hair follicles and arrector pili (...) muscles in human balding scalps. The inhibitory effects of CXXC5 on alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation were demonstrated using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, CXXC5-/- mice displayed accelerated hair regrowth, and treatment with valproic acid, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, further induced hair regrowth in the CXXC5-/- mice. Disrupting the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction with a competitor peptide activated the Wnt/β

2017 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

42. The Hair in the Sinus: Sharp-Ended Rootless Head Hair Fragments can be Found in Large Amounts in Pilonidal Sinus Nests. (PubMed)

The Hair in the Sinus: Sharp-Ended Rootless Head Hair Fragments can be Found in Large Amounts in Pilonidal Sinus Nests. Hair has been identified as the causative agent of Pilonidal Sinus Disease (PSD). Stiffer, dark hair as well as hairiness has been postulated as causative factors. Astonishingly, despite the early clinical significance of this condition (Hodges in Boston Med Surg J 2:485-486, 1880), macroscopic and microscopic examinations of hair inside pilonidal sinus cavities have been (...) scarce. The purpose of this study was to study the morphological aspects of the hair found in PSD in order to determine the origin of the hair.Hair from inside pilonidal sinus cavities was collected intraoperatively from 20 PSD patients. Additionally, occipital, lumbar and intergluteal hair was harvested from the same patients and compared to the hair of volunteer-matched pair patients admitted to the hospital at the same time for non-PSD surgery. Intra- and intergroup variations of hair length were

2017 World Journal of Surgery

43. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks. (PubMed)

Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks. The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern.The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure (...) and prevent occupational disease.Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure.Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands.Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients

2017 Contact Dermatitis

44. Attenuation of Dickkopf 1-Induced Hair Growth Inhibition in Cultured Human Hair Follicles by Tianeptine (PubMed)

Attenuation of Dickkopf 1-Induced Hair Growth Inhibition in Cultured Human Hair Follicles by Tianeptine 28223757 2018 11 13 1013-9087 29 1 2017 Feb Annals of dermatology Ann Dermatol Attenuation of Dickkopf 1-Induced Hair Growth Inhibition in Cultured Human Hair Follicles by Tianeptine. 102-105 10.5021/ad.2017.29.1.102 Jeong Hyun Sik HS Department of Immunology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. Kwack Mi Hee MH Department of Immunology, Kyungpook National

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2017 Annals of dermatology

45. The Hair Shedding Visual Scale: A Quick Tool to Assess Hair Loss in Women (PubMed)

The Hair Shedding Visual Scale: A Quick Tool to Assess Hair Loss in Women Hair shedding is a common consequence of the normal hair cycle that changes with internal and external factors. Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is difficult to assess in terms of shedding severity as the conscious perception of hair shedding varies according to each individual, and most utilized methods are semi-invasive or very time consuming. In this study, we establish and validate a hair-shedding scale for women (...) with thick hair of different lengths.A visual analog scale was developed for thick hair of short, medium, and long lengths by dividing a bundle of hairs of each length into nine piles of increasing hair amount that were then photographed and arranged in order of size. Twenty women with no FPHL with each length of hair (60 total) were asked to select the photographed hair bundle that best correlated with the amount of hair they shed on an average day. A total of 94 women with FPHL with excessive shedding

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2017 Dermatology and therapy

46. Various Types of Minor Trauma to Hair Follicles During Follicular Unit Extraction for Hair Transplantation (PubMed)

Various Types of Minor Trauma to Hair Follicles During Follicular Unit Extraction for Hair Transplantation When performing follicular unit extraction (FUE), various types of minor hair follicle trauma unapparent during follicular unit strip surgery are likely to occur. However, no studies have examined such damage.In total, 100 grafts were randomly selected from each of 42 patients who underwent FUE with a 1-mm-diameter sharp punch. A ×5.5 magnifying loupe and a ×60 magnifying binocular (...) microscope were used. The transection rate (TR), paring, fractures of and damage to the dermal papilla (DP) areas, and hair bulb partial injury were assessed.Observation with the magnifying loupe revealed an average TR of 7.40%, and 4.31, 1.90, 1.52, and 0.43 hair follicles per 100 grafts exhibited paring, fracture, DP partial injury, and hair bulb partial injury, respectively. An average of 9.21 telogen hairs were observed. Microscopic examination revealed a TR of 6.34%, and 9.07, 1.95, 0.79, and 1.24

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2017 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

47. The Contributory Roles of Th17 Lymphocyte and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte at the Hair Bulge Region as Well as the Hair Bulb Area in the Chronic Alopecia Areata Patients (PubMed)

The Contributory Roles of Th17 Lymphocyte and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte at the Hair Bulge Region as Well as the Hair Bulb Area in the Chronic Alopecia Areata Patients Alopecia areata (AA) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that targets hair follicles and interrupts hair regrowth. The microenvironment of the effector T cells and their related cytokines may affect immunopathogenesis around the hair bulb/bulge.To determine the contributory roles of the effector T cell subsets and related (...) cytokines to the pathogenesis of AA.We investigated the correlation between histopathological grades and four clinical prognostic factors in 331 patients with AA, and analyzed the topography of T cell infiltrates and related cytokines around the hair bulb/bulge according to histopathological grades through immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescence studies on a subset of AA specimens.First, the groups with more severe histopathological grades were associated with earlier onset, longer duration

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2017 Annals of dermatology

48. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation (PubMed)

Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report (...) the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20+ cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix

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2017 Genes & development

49. Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance (PubMed)

Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between (...) reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape. The biophysical rationale behind this morphology, however, remains unknown. Here we use analytical and computational methods to study the fluid flow across rows of differently shaped hair bundles. We find that rows of V-shaped hair bundles have a considerably reduced resistance to crossflow, and that the biologically observed shapes of hair bundles

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2017 Scientific reports

50. The BEACH protein LRBA is required for hair bundle maintenance in cochlear hair cells and for hearing (PubMed)

The BEACH protein LRBA is required for hair bundle maintenance in cochlear hair cells and for hearing Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) belongs to the enigmatic class of BEACH domain-containing proteins, which have been attributed various cellular functions, typically involving intracellular protein and membrane transport processes. Here, we show that LRBA deficiency in mice leads to progressive sensorineural hearing loss. In LRBA knockout mice, inner and outer hair (...) cell stereociliary bundles initially develop normally, but then partially degenerate during the second postnatal week. LRBA deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of radixin and Nherf2, two adaptor proteins, which are important for the mechanical stability of the basal taper region of stereocilia. Our data suggest that due to the loss of structural integrity of the central parts of the hair bundle, the hair cell receptor potential is reduced, resulting in a loss of cochlear sensitivity

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2017 EMBO reports

51. Alkaline Ceramidase 1 Protects Mice from Premature Hair Loss by Maintaining the Homeostasis of Hair Follicle Stem Cells (PubMed)

Alkaline Ceramidase 1 Protects Mice from Premature Hair Loss by Maintaining the Homeostasis of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Ceramides and their metabolites are important for the homeostasis of the epidermis, but much remains unknown about the roles of specific pathways of ceramide metabolism in skin biology. With a mouse model deficient in the alkaline ceramidase (Acer1) gene, we demonstrate that ACER1 plays a key role in the homeostasis of the epidermis and its appendages by controlling (...) the metabolism of ceramides. Loss of Acer1 elevated the levels of various ceramides and sphingoid bases in the skin and caused progressive hair loss in mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that loss of Acer1 widened follicular infundibulum and caused progressive loss of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) due to reduced survival and stemness. These results suggest that ACER1 plays a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of HFSCs, and thereby the hair follicle structure and function, by regulating the metabolism

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2017 Stem cell reports

52. Stem cells from human hair follicles: first mechanical isolation for immediate autologous clinical use in androgenetic alopecia and hair loss (PubMed)

Stem cells from human hair follicles: first mechanical isolation for immediate autologous clinical use in androgenetic alopecia and hair loss Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands (...) . The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle.In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition. Here, we used human follicle stem cells (HFSCs), to improve the hair density in 11 patients (38 to 61 years old) affected by AGA in stage 3-5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale.The primary outcomes

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2017 Stem Cell Investigation

53. A multi-scale model for hair follicles reveals heterogeneous domains driving rapid spatiotemporal hair growth patterning (PubMed)

A multi-scale model for hair follicles reveals heterogeneous domains driving rapid spatiotemporal hair growth patterning The control principles behind robust cyclic regeneration of hair follicles (HFs) remain unclear. Using multi-scale modeling, we show that coupling inhibitors and activators with physical growth of HFs is sufficient to drive periodicity and excitability of hair regeneration. Model simulations and experimental data reveal that mouse skin behaves as a heterogeneous regenerative (...) field, composed of anatomical domains where HFs have distinct cycling dynamics. Interactions between fast-cycling chin and ventral HFs and slow-cycling dorsal HFs produce bilaterally symmetric patterns. Ear skin behaves as a hyper-refractory domain with HFs in extended rest phase. Such hyper-refractivity relates to high levels of BMP ligands and WNT antagonists, in part expressed by ear-specific cartilage and muscle. Hair growth stops at the boundaries with hyper-refractory ears and anatomically

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2017 eLife

54. Promotion of anagen, increased hair density and reduction of hair fall in a clinical setting following identification of FGF5-inhibiting compounds via a novel 2-stage process (PubMed)

Promotion of anagen, increased hair density and reduction of hair fall in a clinical setting following identification of FGF5-inhibiting compounds via a novel 2-stage process There are very few effective, scientifically validated treatments with known mechanisms of action for treatment of hair loss in both men and women. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is an important factor in the irreversible transition from anagen to catagen, and inhibition of FGF5 prolongs anagen phase and reduces hair (...) loss.We aimed to screen botanically derived molecules for FGF5 inhibitory activity in vitro and assess efficacy in a clinical setting.We screened for FGF5 inhibitory efficacy via a novel 2-step in vitro pipeline consisting of an engineered FGF5 responsive cell line, followed by an activated dermal papillae (DP) cell method. Efficacy in a clinical setting was assessed in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial against early- to mid-stage pattern hair loss in men and women.We observed FGF5

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2017 Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial (PubMed)

Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO®; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami (...) Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19-63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17

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2017 The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

56. Exogen Hairs in Women with and without Hair Loss (PubMed)

Exogen Hairs in Women with and without Hair Loss Contrary to the classical view of the hair cycle, in which telogen is the resting phase that precedes the release of the hair shaft, another phase has been introduced, exogen. Exogen is the phase wherein the processes for the release of the hair shaft are initiated and successfully executed. Exogen ends when the shaft is liberated. Accordingly, human hairs would be preferably released not with telogen but with exogen roots. To better understand (...) this somehow revolutionary point and what occurs in telogen effluvium (TE) and in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), we undertook a morphological study. We examined 25 women of comparable age by collecting shedding hairs by the Modified Wash Test under stringent diagnostic criteria. Eight patients were "normal", 5 had AGA, 9 TE, and 3 had a TE+AGA overlap. Hair roots were divided into early telogen, full telogen, and exogen. Exogens accounted, in normal women, for 2.6% of all hairs, for 5.2% in AGA, for 6.6

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2017 Skin appendage disorders

57. Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant (PubMed)

Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant Since the beginning of the twentieth century, there have been attempts at creating artificial hair to treat baldness. Major evolution took place at the end of 1970's when, unfortunately, artificial hair treatments were applied without appropriate medical controls, resulting in sub-standard results from the use of unsuitable materials and technique. The large improper use of this technique in North America from no medical (...) personnel and with dangerous fibres led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to suspend the procedure in 1983. In Europe, a new trial on artificial hair procedure started at the beginning of 1990's. In 1995 the European Union (UE) recognised the artificial hair implant as a legitimate medical treatment and outlined the rules related to that procedure. In 1996, biocompatible fibres (Biofibre®) produced by Medicap® Italy were approved by the UE Authorities and by the Australian Therapeutic Goods

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2017 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

58. PPD-free hair dyes: Alternative hair dyes for patients allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)

PPD-free hair dyes: Alternative hair dyes for patients allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) Allergy Notes: PPD-free hair dyes: Alternative hair dyes for patients allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) Allergy, Asthma and Immunology News Updated Daily by Board-certified Allergist at Cleveland Clinic Florida Pages PPD-free hair dyes: Alternative hair dyes for patients allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) Para-phenylenediamine is an azo dye, most commonly used in permanent hair dyes (...) as a black dye. It is also used in black rubbers, photographic developers, fabric dyes, epoxy resin curing agents, oils and greases, and gasoline. Potential cross-reactions include preservatives of the paraben family, para-aminobenzoic acid, sulfonamides (including diuretics and diabetes agents), and benzoic acid ester group anesthetics. Even if the hair product is "PPD free", other phenylenediamine variants may cause reactions. Pure, uncontaminated Lawsonia inermis (henna tree) should not cause

2019 Allergy Notes blog

59. Quality and quantity of dromedary camel DNA sampled from whole-blood, saliva, and tail-hair. (PubMed)

Quality and quantity of dromedary camel DNA sampled from whole-blood, saliva, and tail-hair. Camels are livestock with unique adaptations to hot-arid regions. To effectively study camel traits, a biobank of camel DNA specimens with associated biological information is needed. We examined whole-blood, saliva (buccal swabs), and tail-hair follicle samples to determine which is the best source for establishing a DNA biobank. We inspected five amounts of each of whole-blood, buccal swabs, and tail (...) -hair follicles in nine camels, both qualitatively via gel electrophoresis and quantitatively using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer. We also tested the effects of long term-storage on the quality and quantity of DNA, and measured the rate of degradation, by analyzing three buccal swab samples and 30 tail-hair follicles over a period of nine months. Good quality DNA, in the form of visible large size DNA bands, was extracted from all three sources, for all five amounts. The five volumes of whole-blood

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2019 PLoS ONE

60. A multicenter survey of temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss in breast cancer patients. (PubMed)

A multicenter survey of temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss in breast cancer patients. Many breast cancer patients suffer from chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Accurate information about temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss is important for supporting patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy, because it helps them to prepare. However, accurate information, on issues such as the frequency of hair loss after chemotherapy, when regrowth starts, the condition (...) of regrown hair, and the frequency of incomplete hair regrowth, is lacking. This study aimed to clarify the long-term temporal changes in chemotherapy-induced hair loss using patient-reported outcomes for chemotherapy-induced hair loss.We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Disease-free patients who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline and/or taxanes for breast cancer within the prior 5 years were enrolled from 47 hospitals and clinics in Japan

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2019 PLoS ONE

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