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161. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Impairs Th1 and Th17 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific T-Cell Responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Impairs Th1 and Th17 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific T-Cell Responses. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk.Mtb-specific T-cell (...) and Rv2031c than HIV-uninfected subjects. Mtb-specific T cells showed distinct patterns of cytokine expression comprising both Th1 (CD4 and CD8) and Th17 (CD4) cytokines, the latter at highest frequency for Rv2031c. Th17 antigen-specific responses to all antigens tested were specifically impaired in HIV-infected individuals.HIV-associated impairment of CD4+ and CD8+Mtb-specific T-cell responses is antigen specific, particularly impacting responses to PPD and Rv2031c. Preferential depletion of Th17

2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

162. Phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC among recently infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve men who have sex with men in Jiangsu province, China, 2012 to 2015: A molecular epidemiology-based study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC among recently infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve men who have sex with men in Jiangsu province, China, 2012 to 2015: A molecular epidemiology-based study. The prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among men who have sex with men (MSM) are on the rise throughout China. With a large population of MSM, Jiangsu Province is facing an escalating HIV-1 epidemic.The aim (...) reference sequences of various subtypes/recombinants from the Los Alamos HIV-1 database. Phylogenetic and Bayesian evolutionary analysis was performed by MEGA version 6.0, Fasttree v2.1.7. and BEAST v1.6.2. Categorical variables were analyzed using χ test (or Fisher exact test where necessary). χ test with trend was used to assess the evolution of HIV-1 subtype distribution over time. All data were analyzed using SPSS20.0 software package (IBM Company, New York, NY).HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis revealed

2018 Medicine

163. Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Receipt of Sexually Transmitted Infection/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Services. (Abstract)

Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Receipt of Sexually Transmitted Infection/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Services. Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods do not require annual clinic visits for continuation, potentially impacting receipt of recommended sexually transmitted infection (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services for young women. We assess service receipt among new and continuing LARC users versus (...) moderately and less effective method users and non-contraceptors.Using 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth data from sexually active women aged 15-24 years (n = 2,018), we conducted logistic comparisons of chlamydia, any STI and HIV testing, and sexual risk assessment in the past year by current contraceptive type.Less than half of respondents were tested for chlamydia (40.9%), any STI (47.3%), or HIV (25.9%); 66.5% had their sexual risk assessed. Differences in service receipt between new

2018 The Journal of Adolescent Health

164. State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap. (Abstract)

State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap. Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened (...) and, in particular, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) in the context of HIVDR. Limited experience with INSTI represents an important knowledge gap in HIV resistance science. Utilizing such knowledge in a clinical setting relies on accurate testing and analysis of resistance-associated mutations. As next-generation sequencing becomes more widely available, a gap in the interpretation of data is the lack of a defined, clinically relevant threshold of minority variants. Further research will provide

2018 AIDS reviews

165. Expectoration of <i>Cryptosporidium</i> Parasites in Sputum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and -Negative Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expectoration of Cryptosporidium Parasites in Sputum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and -Negative Adults. Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is thought to be a rare, end-stage complication of HIV. Few studies have systematically examined the frequency of such infection in adults. Sputum specimens submitted for tuberculosis (TB) testing at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, were anonymously retested for Cryptosporidium using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Visual confirmation using (...) immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was performed for a subset of PCR-positive samples. Of 824 sputum samples tested, 24 (2.9%) were Cryptosporidium positive. Prevalence in sputum ranged between 0% and 10% in each month of the study and exceeded TB prevalence in some months. In this referral population, respiratory Cryptosporidium prevalence was lower in people with HIV (1.3% versus 4.4% without HIV, P = 0.028) and higher in those with TB (6.8% versus 2.6% without TB, P = 0.086). The weak association between

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

166. <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> Drug Resistance and Transmission among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance and Transmission among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Vietnam has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, but drug resistance patterns and TB transmission dynamics among TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients are not well described. We characterized 200 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from TB/HIV coinfected patients diagnosed at the main TB referral (...) hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first-line drugs, spoligotyping, and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) analysis was performed on all isolates. The 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit clusters and MDR isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Most of the TB/HIV coinfected patients were young (162/174; 93.1% aged < 45 years) males (173; 86.5% male). Beijing (98; 49.0%) and Indo-Oceanic (70

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

167. A Novel, 5-Transcript, Whole-blood Gene-expression Signature for Tuberculosis Screening Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kampala, Uganda. We randomly split the patients into training (n = 80) and test (n = 40) datasets. We used the training dataset to derive candidate signatures that consisted of 1 to 5 differentially-expressed transcripts (P ≤ .10) and compared the performance of our candidate signatures with 4 published TB gene-expression signatures, both on the independent test dataset and in 2 external datasets.We identified a novel, 5-transcript (...) A Novel, 5-Transcript, Whole-blood Gene-expression Signature for Tuberculosis Screening Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Gene-expression profiles have been reported to distinguish between patients with and without active tuberculosis (TB), but no prior study has been conducted in the context of TB screening.We included all the patients (n = 40) with culture-confirmed TB and time-matched controls (n = 80) enrolled between July 2013 and April 2015 in a TB screening study

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

168. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 dual-target nucleic acid technology improves blood safety: 5 years of experience of the German Red Cross blood donor service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen. (Abstract)

viral genome regions was introduced by our blood donation service in 2010 on a voluntary basis and became mandatory in Germany since the beginning of 2015.Blood donor screening was done using, in parallel, the German Red Cross (GRC) HIV-1 CE long terminate repeats (LTR) PCR kit and the GRC HIV-1 gag CE PCR kit. In total, 7 million blood donations were screened during the study period from 2010 to 2014 with the GRC dual-target human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) NAT system. Additionally, three (...) Human immunodeficiency virus 1 dual-target nucleic acid technology improves blood safety: 5 years of experience of the German Red Cross blood donor service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen. RNA viruses are associated with a high frequency of mutations because of the missing proofreading function of polymerases, such as reverse transcriptase. Between 2007 and 2010, six blood donations with false-negative nucleic acid technology (NAT) results were reported in Germany. Therefore, NAT screening in two

2018 Transfusion

169. Safe Water and Hygiene Integration with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Antenatal Services: Leveraging Opportunities for Public Health Interventions and Improved Service Uptake. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Safe Water and Hygiene Integration with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Antenatal Services: Leveraging Opportunities for Public Health Interventions and Improved Service Uptake. Integrating public health interventions with antenatal clinic (ANC) visits may motivate women to attend ANC, thereby improving maternal and neonatal health, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. In 2009, in an integrated ANC/Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission program, we provided (...) free hygiene kits (safe storage containers, WaterGuard water treatment solution, soap, and oral rehydration salts) to women at their first ANC visit and refills at subsequent visits. To increase fathers' participation, we required partners' presence for women to receive hygiene kits. We surveyed pregnant women at baseline and at 12-month follow-up to assess ANC service utilization, HIV counseling and testing (HCT), test drinking water for residual chlorine, and observe handwashing. We conducted

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

170. Ryanodine Receptor to Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway Plays an Important Role in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120MN-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats. (Abstract)

Ryanodine Receptor to Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway Plays an Important Role in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120MN-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats. Chronic pain is one of the most common complaints in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. Here, we investigated the role of RyR and mitochondrial superoxide (...) in neuropathic pain induced by repeated intrathecal HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injection.Recombinant HIV glycoprotein gp120MN was intrathecally administered to induce neuropathic pain. Mechanical threshold was tested using von Frey filaments. Peripheral nerve fiber was assessed by the quantification of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density in the skin of the hindpaw. The expression of spinal RyR was examined using Western blots. Colocalization of RyR with neuronal nuclei (NeuN; neuron marker), glial

2018 Anesthesia and Analgesia

171. Natural Killer Cells Adapt to Cytomegalovirus Along a Functionally Static Phenotypic Spectrum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects distinguished as HCMV-seronegative or HCMV-seropositive with either high (>20%) or low (<6%) fractions of their NK cells expressing NKG2C. The NK cells of all three HIV-infected groups responded to HCMVsn and IFN-α2 in a manner similar to the NK cells of either HCMV-seronegative or seropositive controls. Neither HCMV status, nor the extent of phenotypic evidence of adaptation to HCMV infection significantly affected mean levels of ADCC or CD16 (...) Natural Killer Cells Adapt to Cytomegalovirus Along a Functionally Static Phenotypic Spectrum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Events related to HCMV infection drive accumulation of functionally enhanced CD57posNKG2Cpos adapted NK cells. We investigated NK cell adaptation to HCMV along a proposed continuum progressing from acute activation through maturation and memory formation towards functional exhaustion. Acute exposure to conditioned medium collected 24 h after HCMV infection

2018 Frontiers in immunology

172. Pomalidomide in Treating Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Biological therapies, such as pomalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing and it may also block the growth of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Positive Skin Kaposi Sarcoma Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Drug: Pomalidomide Phase 2 Detailed Description: PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To determine if pomalidomide (...) ] The binomial proportion and its 95% exact confidence interval will be used to estimate the proportion of participants who experience a grade 3 or higher toxicity. Secondary Outcome Measures : Changes in CD4 T cell count [ Time Frame: Baseline to up to 30 days after last dose of study drug ] Changes in CD4 counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load will be evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Changes in HIV viral load as measured by HIV quantitative polymerase chain reaction

2018 Clinical Trials

173. Effects of undernutrition on survival of human immunodeficiency virus positive children on antiretroviral therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of undernutrition on survival of human immunodeficiency virus positive children on antiretroviral therapy The relationship between undernutrition and HIV is bidirectional, ultimately contributing to quality of life and survival of affected individuals. Ethiopia is a sub-Saharan nation influenced by both undernutrition and HIV. In Ethiopia, although individuals are often dually impacted, the effect of undernutrition on the survival of HIV positive children on anti-retroviral therapy (ART (...) ) has not been well investigated. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of undernutrition on survival rates of HIV positive children on ART in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia.An institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 390 HIV positive children on ART from the 1st of January, 2012 to the 28th of February, 2017 in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were extracted by reviewing

2018 Italian journal of pediatrics

174. Implementation of universal rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening on labor and delivery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implementation of universal rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening on labor and delivery A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation.We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework.We could not evaluate (...) decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size (n = 3324) and no true-positive results. Patients not tested (n = 458) were predominately secondary to physician omission (93.7%) and were more likely to be White (p < 0.01) and older (p < 0.01). There was a negative relationship with physician omission over time.The policy was successfully implemented with decreasing proportions of patients not tested. Earlier inclusion of testing into standard admission orders and nurse-based approach may have

2018 Therapeutic advances in infectious disease

175. Benzyl-2-Acetamido-2-Deoxy-α-d-Galactopyranoside Increases Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication and Viral Outgrowth Efficacy In Vitro Full Text available with Trip Pro

Benzyl-2-Acetamido-2-Deoxy-α-d-Galactopyranoside Increases Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication and Viral Outgrowth Efficacy In Vitro Glycosylation of host and viral proteins is an important posttranslational modification needed to ensure correct function of glycoproteins. For this reason, we asked whether inhibition of O-glycosylation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro replication could affect HIV infectivity and replication rates. We used benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d (...) of infected cells (30-fold, p < 0.0001), intracellular p24 (1.5-fold, p = 0.0433), and secreted viral particles (74-fold, p < 0.0001). BAGN-treated target cells showed less CD25 and CCR5 expression, but increased HLA-DR surface expression, which positively correlated with the number of infected cells. Importantly, BAGN improved viral outgrowth kinetics in 66% of the samples tested, including samples from HIV controllers and subjects in whom no virus could be expanded in the absence of BAGN. Sequencing

2018 Frontiers in immunology

176. Evaluation of dried blood spot samples for screening of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus in a real-world setting Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of dried blood spot samples for screening of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus in a real-world setting Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are underdiagnosed, particularly in low-income countries and in difficult-to-access populations. Our aim was to develop and evaluate a methodology for the detection of HCV and HIV infection based on capillary dry blood spot (DBS) samples taken under real-world conditions. We carried (...) %. Finally, the HCV-RNA detection test revealed a detection limit of 5 copies/µl with an efficiency of 100% and sensitivity of 99.1%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 96.9%. In conclusion, our methodology was able to detect both HCV infection and HIV infection from the same DBS sample with good diagnostic performance. Screening for HCV and HIV using DBS might be a key strategy in the implementation of national programs for the control of both infections.

2018 Scientific reports

177. Antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 against human immunodeficiency virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 against human immunodeficiency virus Investigation of antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 (AP-PLA2) from moluccas to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Crude venom (CV) and F20 (PLA2 with 20% fractioned by ammonium sulfate) as a sample of PLA 2 obtained from A. planci's extract were used. Enzymatic activity of PLA2 was determined using the degradation of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Activity test was performed using (...) in vitro method using coculture of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from a blood donor and PBMC from HIV patient. Toxicity test of AP-PLA2 was done using lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population (LC50).AP-PLA2 F20 had activity and purity by 15.66 times bigger than CV. The test showed that the LC50 of AP-PLA2 is 1.638 mg/ml. Antiviral analysis of AP-PLA2 in vitro showed the inhibition of HIV infection to PBMC. HIV culture with AP-PLA2 and without

2018 Veterinary world

178. Characterizing Pediatric Tuberculosis with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Harare, Zimbabwe. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterizing Pediatric Tuberculosis with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Harare, Zimbabwe. Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) represents a major barrier to reducing global TB mortality, especially in countries confronting dual TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Our study aimed to characterize pediatric TB epidemiology in the high-burden setting of Harare, Zimbabwe, both to fill the current knowledge gap around the epidemiology of pediatric TB and to indicate (...) areas for future research and interventions. We analyzed de-identified data of 1,051 pediatric TB cases (0-14 years) found among a total of 11,607 TB cases reported in Harare, Zimbabwe, during 2011-2012. We performed Pearson's χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis to characterize pediatric TB and to assess predictors of HIV coinfection. Pediatric TB cases accounted for 9.1% of all TB cases reported during 2011-2012. Approximately 50% of pediatric TB cases were children younger than 5

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

179. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures. The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed (...) younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P < .001). Older adolescents were also more likely to report receiving HIV test education and promotion (42.7% vs 29.5%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.02) and a condom demonstration with condoms to take home (16.8% vs 4.4%; aPR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.30-4.58). No significant age differences appeared in reports of explanations of VMMC risks and benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

180. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Poor Diagnostic Accuracy of Dipstick Proteinuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: A Multicenter Study in Japan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Poor Diagnostic Accuracy of Dipstick Proteinuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: A Multicenter Study in Japan Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become one of the common comorbid conditions affecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals are at increased risk of developing CKD, and they are likely to experience faster progression of renal dysfunction compared with HIV (...) -uninfected individuals. Albuminuria represents not only kidney damage but also manifests metabolic syndrome and vascular dysfunction.We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving 2135 HIV-infected individuals in Japan to test the prevalence of CKD and proteinuria/albuminuria. Urine sample was analyzed by both dipstick test and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) assay. Chronic kidney disease was classified according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and Kidney Disease

2018 Open forum infectious diseases

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