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141. Stability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Serological Markers in Samples Collected as HemaSpot and Whatman 903 Dried Blood Spots Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the performance of the HS was compared to that of the 903 using previously characterized clinical specimens and HIV seroconversion panels known to exhibit markers of early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HS and 903 samples were prepared and tested by Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab enzyme immunoassay (EIA), GS HIV-1/-2 Plus O EIA, GS HIV-1 Western blot, and HIV-1 Geenius assays. Both HS and 903 performed well for up to 6 months at room temperature, but a marked loss of Western blot and low titer (...) Stability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Serological Markers in Samples Collected as HemaSpot and Whatman 903 Dried Blood Spots Dried blood spots (DBS) are frequently used in clinical testing for biosurveillance, infectious disease and confirmatory testing, and clinical trials, particularly for populations in remote areas. The HemaSpot-HF blood collection device (HS) provides an alternative format to the Whatman 903 cards (903) to simplify sample collection and processing. In this study

2018 Journal of clinical microbiology

142. Prevalence and Predictors of Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Beira, Mozambique Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and Predictors of Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Beira, Mozambique Co-infection between malaria and HIV has major public health implications. The aims of this study were to assess the malaria prevalence and to identify predictors of positivity to malaria Test in HIV positive patients admitted to the health center São Lucas of Beira, Mozambique. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from January 2016 to December 2016. Overall, 701 adult HIV (...) patients were enrolled, positivity to malaria test was found in 232 (33.0%). These patients were found to be more frequently unemployed (76.3%), aged under 40 (72.0%), with a HIV positive partner (22.4%) and with a CD4 cell count <200 (59.9%). The following variables were predictors of malaria: age under 40 (O.R. = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.22⁻2.08), being unemployed (O.R. = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.24⁻2.21), irregularity of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis's (O.R. = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.10⁻1.78), CD4 cell count <200 (O.R. = 2.01; 95

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

143. Weight loss might be an early clinical feature of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Weight loss might be an early clinical feature of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan Little research is available on the relationship between weight loss and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. We hope to evaluate whether weight loss could be an early clinical feature of undiagnosed HIV infection in Taiwan.We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Program. There were (...) patients with weight loss who have risk factors for HIV infection should be recommended to regularly be tested for HIV infection.© Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

2018 BioMedicine

144. Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia and Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS) in a 63-Year-Old Woman Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia and Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS) in a 63-Year-Old Woman BACKGROUND Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) - formerly known as Pneumocyctis carinii pneumonia - with newly diagnosed AIDS is an uncommon presentation in people over 50 years of age. A high level of suspicion is required for this diagnosis when an elderly patient with pneumonia is not responding to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. CASE REPORT We describe the case of a 63-year (...) -old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and significant hypoxemia requiring high-flow oxygen supplement with bilateral lung infiltrates, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for a presumed diagnosis of pneumonia. The patient demonstrated slow clinical improvement. A diagnostic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy was done, which revealed unexpected findings of Pneumocystis organisms on GMS stain. The patient tested positive for HIV and was found to have a low CD4 of 47. She was treated

2018 The American journal of case reports

145. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus following femoral head harvest post-total hip arthroplasty Full Text available with Trip Pro

for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a virus normally first diagnosed through serological testing, makes up part of this process. This case describes a 43-year-old male who underwent elective THA, with subsequent analysis of the excised femoral head at time of screening revealing a diagnosis of HIV, a condition previously never detected in the donor. First diagnosis of HIV from bone is exceedingly rare, with this case illustrating an unusual diagnostic pathway of a well-understood condition, as well (...) Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus following femoral head harvest post-total hip arthroplasty Elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a routine procedure. Intraoperative harvesting of excised femoral heads for the purpose of donation during this procedure has become standard practice, in response to increasing bone allograft demand. Robust patient screening and femoral head analysis typically occurs, to minimize the risk of disease transmission to any potential recipient. Screening

2018 Journal of surgical case reports

146. Reduced Cell-Associated DNA and Improved Viral Control in Macaques following Passive Transfer of a Single Anti-V2 Monoclonal Antibody and Repeated Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenges Full Text available with Trip Pro

-specific human MAb, 830A, against mucosal simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. V2i MAb binding sites overlap the integrin binding site in the V2 region and are similar to the epitopes bound by antibodies associated with reduced HIV infection rates in RV144. Because the IgG3 subclass was a correlate of reduced infection rates in RV144, we compared passive protection by both IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of V2i MAb 830A. This experiment represents the first in vivo test of the hypothesis (...) Reduced Cell-Associated DNA and Improved Viral Control in Macaques following Passive Transfer of a Single Anti-V2 Monoclonal Antibody and Repeated Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenges A high level of V1V2-specific IgG antibodies (Abs) in vaccinees' sera was the only independent variable that correlated with a reduced risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in the RV144 clinical trial. In contrast, IgG avidity, antibody neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular

2018 Journal of virology

147. Basic Coagulation Parameters among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Basic Coagulation Parameters among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study We aimed at assessing the basic coagulation parameters of HIV-infected adults at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy clinic.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017. A total of 300 study participants, consisting of 100 HAART-naïve HIV-infected adults, 100 HIV-infected adults who were taking (...) HAART, and 100 HIV-seronegative apparently healthy adults, were included. Basic coagulation functional assays such as PT, APTT, and INR were determined by coagulation analyzer. CD4 cells and platelet count were analyzed by FACS count and SYSMEX K-21N automated analyzer, respectively. The data were entered, cleaned, and edited using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Kruskal-Wallis H, Dunn-Bonferroni pairwise comparison test, and Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis were

2018 BioMed research international

148. Proximity of Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD8+ T Cells to Replicative Senescence in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals Full Text available with Trip Pro

Proximity of Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD8+ T Cells to Replicative Senescence in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively extends the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals; however, age-related morbidities have emerged as major clinical concerns. In this context, coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) accelerates immune senescence and elevates risk for other age-related morbidities, possibly through increased (...) . Lymphocyte telomere length in general correlated with age, but for 32/32 subjects tested, there was a consistent hierarchy of telomere lengths with CD8+ T cells' shorter than the general lymphocyte population, CD57+CD8+ T cells' shorter than CD8+ T cells' and CMV-specific CD57+CD8+ T cells' the shortest of all. Telomeres of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were longer than those of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells in all cases tested and over 10 years, CMV-specific CD8+ T cell telomeres of two HIV-infected individuals

2018 Frontiers in immunology

149. Ets-2 Acts As a Transcriptional Repressor of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 through Binding to a Repressor–Activator Target Sequence of 5′-LTR Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ets-2 Acts As a Transcriptional Repressor of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 through Binding to a Repressor–Activator Target Sequence of 5′-LTR HIV-1 is transcriptionally active in activated T helper (Th)-cells and inactive in naive or resting memory Th-cells. Ets-2 is a preinduction transcriptional repressor of the IL-2 gene in naive Th-cells and a candidate transcriptional repressor of HIV-1 in the same cells, because the -279 to -250 upstream region of HIV-1-LTR [repressor (...) and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. In unstimulated cells, Ets-2 bound to RATS, whereas no binding was observed in stimulated cells. To test for RATS specificity, the same experiments were performed with 2× mutantRATS-CAT, and no binding of Ets-2 was observed. The results were corroborated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed with the same cells. Our results show that Ets-2 is a transcriptional repressor of HIV-1. Repression of HIV-LTR-RATS mediated by Ets-2 may account for the low

2018 Frontiers in immunology

150. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with anaemia, secondary to antiretroviral drug in a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient Full Text available with Trip Pro

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with anaemia, secondary to antiretroviral drug in a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient Papilledema in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is an alarming finding. Any condition giving rise to raised intracranial tension (ICT) can cause papilledema, and in these patients, it could be secondary to opportunistic infections like meningitis to neoplasm. We report a case of a 28-year old female (...) with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, who presented to us, with papilledema. Her fundus examination revealed superficial hemorrhages and Roth's spots along with papilledema. Patient was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and all other possible systemic associations were ruled out. Her blood tests showed severe anemia. The papilledema and retinal changes resolved with treatment of anemia. This is a rare presentation of IIH in HIV positive patient due to anemia, secondary

2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

151. Blood donor deferral policies across Europe and characteristics of men whohave sex with men screened for human immunodeficiency virus in bloodestablishments: data from the European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet Survey (EMIS) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blood donor deferral policies across Europe and characteristics of men whohave sex with men screened for human immunodeficiency virus in bloodestablishments: data from the European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet Survey (EMIS) The predominant mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Europe is male-to-male transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are deferred from donating blood in many countries, but nevertheless do donate blood. Based on data from 34 countries, we (...) estimated the proportion of MSM screened for HIV in the context of a blood donation and identified individual factors associated with this HIV screening in order to propose possible public health interventions.In 2010, the first European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) collected self-reported data on HIV testing from >180,000 MSM in 38 European countries. Using logistic regression, demographic and behavioural factors associated with screening for HIV in blood establishments were identified. Stratified

2018 Blood Transfusion

152. Universal Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening at Delivery: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Universal Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening at Delivery: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal maternal HIV screening at time of delivery to decrease mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), by comparing the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of universal rapid HIV screening at time of delivery to two current standards of care for prenatal HIV screening in the United States.We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the cost (...) and QALY of universal intrapartum rapid HIV screening with two current standards of care: (I) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without previous third-trimester screening and (II) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without any prenatal screening. We developed a decision-tree model and performed sensitivity analyses to estimate the impact of variances in QALY, estimated lifetime medical costs, HIV prevalence, and cumulative incidence.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

2018 Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology

153. Evaluation of two 4th generation point-of-care assays for the detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of two 4th generation point-of-care assays for the detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Fourth generation assays detect simultaneously antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen, identifying HIV infection earlier than previous generation tests. Previous studies have shown that the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo has lower than anticipated performance in detecting antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen. Furthermore, there are currently very few studies evaluating (...) the performance of Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo.To evaluate the performance of the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo and the Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo in a panel of frozen serum samples.The testing panel included 133 previously frozen serum specimens from the UCLA Clinical Microbiology & Immunoserology laboratory. Reference testing included testing for HIV antibodies by a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay followed by HIV RNA detection. Antibody negative and RNA positive sera

2017 PLoS ONE

154. "He does not have to wait under a tree": perceptions of men, women and health care workers on male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus services in Malawi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

"He does not have to wait under a tree": perceptions of men, women and health care workers on male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus services in Malawi. The perception of male involvement (MI) in maternal child health services is multifaceted and differs among varying programs and populations. In the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) context, MI includes men's attendance at antenatal care (ANC) clinics, undertaking (...) an HIV tests within the ANC and financial and psychological support. Contexualising the definition of MI is fundamental in the development of MI in PMTCT policy and interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of men, women and health care workers on male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Malawi.A qualitative descriptive study was conducted at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) in Blantyre, Malawi from December 2012 to January 2013. We conducted s Key Informant

2018 BMC health services research

155. Protein structural disorder of the envelope V3 loop contributes to the switch in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell tropism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protein structural disorder of the envelope V3 loop contributes to the switch in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell tropism. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope gp120 is partly an intrinsically disordered (unstructured/disordered) protein as it contains regions that do not fold into well-defined protein structures. These disordered regions play important roles in HIV's life cycle, particularly, V3 loop-dependent cell entry, which determines how the virus uses two (...) to sequence variation thus contributing to the switch in cell tropism. To test this we use three independent data sets of gp120 to analyse V3 loop disorder. We find that the V3 loop of X4 virus has significantly higher intrinsic disorder tendency than R5 and R5X4 virus, while R5X4 virus has the lowest. These results indicate that structural disorder plays an important role in HIV-1 cell tropism and CXCR4 binding. We discuss the potential evolutionary mechanisms leading to the fixation of disorder

2017 PLoS ONE

156. Antigen Detection in Urine for Noninvasive Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfected Patients: An Exploratory Analysis from Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antigen Detection in Urine for Noninvasive Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfected Patients: An Exploratory Analysis from Ethiopia. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and assessment of treatment response in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients still relies on invasive tissue aspiration. This hampers scale-up and decentralization of care in resource-limited settings. Noninvasive diagnostics are urgently (...) needed. KATEX is a frequently used latex agglutination test for Leishmania antigen in urine that has never been evaluated in HIV-coinfected individuals from Leishmania donovani-endemic areas. This was an exploratory sub-study embedded within the screening phase of a trial in highly endemic northwestern Ethiopia. All patients were HIV-positive and aspirate-confirmed VL cases. We assessed diagnostic accuracy of KATEX for VL diagnosis and as test of cure at end of treatment, using tissue aspirate

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

157. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: 2018 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: 2018 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ART) and management strategies have diminished both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment failure and the acquired resistance to drugs in resource-rich regions, but transmission of drug-resistant viruses has not similarly decreased. In low- and middle-income regions, ART roll-out has improved outcomes, but has resulted in increasing (...) acquired and transmitted resistances. Our objective was to review resistance to ART drugs and methods to detect it, and to provide updated recommendations for testing and monitoring for drug resistance in HIV-infected individuals.A volunteer panel of experts appointed by the International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA reviewed relevant peer-reviewed data that were published or presented at scientific conferences. Recommendations were rated according to the strength of the recommendation

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

158. Spastic paraparesis caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mimicking vacuolar myelopathy in a human immunodeficiency virus patient: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spastic paraparesis caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mimicking vacuolar myelopathy in a human immunodeficiency virus patient: A case report. Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological (...) paraparesis can occur in HIV patients; additional tests such as VLCFA can be useful for the differential diagnosis. More data are needed to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying the two diseases.

2018 Medicine

159. Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. The purpose of this case report is to describe a conjunctiva and eyelid Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. There are only 3 reported cases of ocular KS as an initial manifestation of HIV infection.A 32-year old white man presented to our department with a 1 (...) month history of eye redness. The patient had an enlarged violet-coloured mass on the right superior eyelid which had evolved over the course of 1 week. There was also a mobile bulbar conjunctival lesion with a bright red colour, approximately 5 mm × 5 mm, in the superior temporal quadrant of his left eye. The lesions looked like a chalazion and a subconjunctival haemorrhage, respectivly. Presumed KS diagnosis was confirmed with HIV-1 positive testing and histopathology from tissue biopsy

2018 BMC Cancer

160. Treatment Outcomes of Brazilian Inmates with <i>Treponema pallidum</i> and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Prospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment Outcomes of Brazilian Inmates with Treponema pallidum and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Prospective Cohort Study. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and treatment outcomes of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in inmates from Central Brazil. In 2013, 3,363 inmates from 12 prisons in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were recruited, and 1,614 remained incarcerated after 1 year. The inmates were interviewed, and blood samples (...) were collected for serological testing for Treponema pallidum and HIV infections. Inmates infected with T. pallidum or HIV within the first year were assessed for treatment using prison medical record data, based on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test results, HIV-1 viral load, and CD4 counts. Acquired syphilis was identified in 5.8% (N = 95) of the inmates and 74% (N = 70) of them demonstrated poor treatment outcomes after 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed that not reporting a stable

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

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