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HIV Test

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121. Telephone communication of HIV testing results for improving knowledge of HIV infection status. (PubMed)

Telephone communication of HIV testing results for improving knowledge of HIV infection status. This is one of three Cochrane reviews that examine the role of the telephone in HIV/AIDS services. Both in developed and developing countries there is a large proportion of people who do not know they are infected with HIV. Knowledge of one's own HIV serostatus is necessary to access HIV support, care and treatment and to prevent acquisition or further transmission of HIV. Using telephones instead (...) of face-to-face or other means of HIV test results delivery could lead to more people receiving their HIV test results.To assess the effectiveness of telephone use for delivery of HIV test results and post-test counselling.To evaluate the effectiveness of delivering HIV test results by telephone, we were interested in whether they can increase the proportion of people who receive their HIV test results and the number of people knowing their HIV status.We searched The Cochrane Central Register

2013 Cochrane

122. Reaching the 'first 90': Gaps in coverage of HIV testing among people living with HIV in 16 African countries. (PubMed)

Reaching the 'first 90': Gaps in coverage of HIV testing among people living with HIV in 16 African countries. UNAIDS has recently proposed a set of three ambitious targets that, if achieved, are predicted to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The targets, known as 90-90-90, call for 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their status, 90% of PLHIV to receive antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of those on antiretroviral therapy to achieve viral suppression by the year 2020. We examine the first (...) of these targets, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world most affected by HIV, to measure the proportion of PLHIV estimated to know their HIV status, and to identify background and behavioral characteristics significantly associated with gaps in ever testing among PLHIV.We analyze cross-sectional population-based data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) fielded since 2010 in 16 sub-Saharan African countries where voluntary serological testing

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2017 PLoS ONE

123. Specimen origin, type and testing laboratory are linked to longer turnaround times for HIV viral load testing in Malawi. (PubMed)

Specimen origin, type and testing laboratory are linked to longer turnaround times for HIV viral load testing in Malawi. Efforts to reach UNAIDS' treatment and viral suppression targets have increased demand for viral load (VL) testing and strained existing laboratory networks, affecting turnaround time. Longer VL turnaround times delay both initiation of formal adherence counseling and switches to second-line therapy for persons failing treatment and contribute to poorer health outcomes.We (...) utilized descriptive statistics and logistic regression to analyze VL testing data collected in Malawi between January 2013 and March 2016. The primary outcomes assessed were greater-than-median pretest phase turnaround time (days elapsed from specimen collection to receipt at the laboratory) and greater-than-median test phase turnaround time (days from receipt to testing).The median number of days between specimen collection and testing increased 3-fold between 2013 (8 days, interquartile range (IQR

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2017 PLoS ONE

124. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of non-invasive HIV self-testing kit using oral fluid in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Evaluation of diagnostic performance of non-invasive HIV self-testing kit using oral fluid in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is critical for early linkage to treatment and care services. However, there is a substantial gap in HIV testing, particularly in resource limited settings due to low accessibility of HIV testing sites, inconvenient testing hours, and concerns about loss of confidentiality. Thus, adopting new (...) strategies such as HIV self-testing (HIVST) could overcome these barriers and increases HIV testing uptake.The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of non-invasive HIVST kit using oral fluid for HIV diagnosis. This study also aimed to assess the ability of clients in interpretation of OraQuick HIVST results.Between December 2017 and February 2018, a total of 400 study participants were enrolled into the study to assess a diagnostic accuracy of Oral fluid-based HIVST kit (OraQuick

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2019 PLoS ONE

125. Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) who use mobile geo-social networking applications in Greater Tokyo. (PubMed)

Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) who use mobile geo-social networking applications in Greater Tokyo. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for 78% of all Japanese male HIV cases in 2016. Over 30% of newly identified HIV infections in Japan are diagnosed as AIDS annually, suggesting a large proportion of people living with HIV were unaware of their own (...) infection status. An estimated two-thirds of Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM) are not attached to the gay community, and previous studies have largely sampled gay venues, thus, previous studies have likely failed to reach many men in this population. This study therefore examined HIV testing prevalence and correlates among MSM in Greater Tokyo who use gay mobile geo-social networking applications (gay mobile apps), which have been found to increase access to MSM not traditionally accessible

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2019 PLoS ONE

126. Factors predictive of successful retention in care among HIV-infected men in a universal test-and-treat setting in Uganda and Kenya: A mixed methods analysis. (PubMed)

Factors predictive of successful retention in care among HIV-infected men in a universal test-and-treat setting in Uganda and Kenya: A mixed methods analysis. Previous research indicates clinical outcomes among HIV-infected men in sub-Saharan Africa are sub-optimal. The SEARCH test and treat trial (NCT01864603) intervention included antiretroviral care delivery designed to address known barriers to HIV-care among men by decreasing clinic visit frequency and providing flexible, patient-centered (...) care with retention support. We sought to understand facilitators and barriers to retention in care in this universal treatment setting through quantitative and qualitative data analysis.We used a convergent mixed methods study design to evaluate retention in HIV care among adults (age > = 15) during the first year of the SEARCH (NCT01864603) test and treat trial. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate predictors of retention in care. Longitudinal qualitative data from n = 190

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2019 PLoS ONE

127. Correction: Adoption of routine virologic testing and predictors of virologic failure among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in western Kenya. (PubMed)

Correction: Adoption of routine virologic testing and predictors of virologic failure among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in western Kenya. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200242.].

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2019 PLoS ONE

128. Economic and public health impact of decentralized HIV viral load testing: A modelling study in Kenya. (PubMed)

Economic and public health impact of decentralized HIV viral load testing: A modelling study in Kenya. Kenya has the world's 4th largest HIV burden. Various strategies to control the epidemic have been implemented, including the implementation of viral load (VL) testing to monitor HIV patients on ARVs. Like many resource limited settings, Kenya's healthcare system faces serious challenges in effectively providing quality health services to its population. Increased investments to strengthen (...) the country's capacity to diagnose, monitor and treat diseases, particularly HIV and TB, continue to be made but are still inadequate in the face of global health goals like the UNAIDS 90:90:90 which require scaling up of VL tests amid existing constraints. In Kenya, there is an increase in the demand for VL tests amidst these existing constraints. The GeneXpert system is a diagnostic point-of-care technology that can quantify, amongst others, HIV VL. Currently, GeneXpert technology is widely distributed

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2019 PLoS ONE

129. PhyloPi: An affordable, purpose built phylogenetic pipeline for the HIV drug resistance testing facility. (PubMed)

PhyloPi: An affordable, purpose built phylogenetic pipeline for the HIV drug resistance testing facility. Phylogenetic analysis plays a crucial role in quality control in the HIV drug resistance testing laboratory. If previous patient sequence data is available sample swaps can be detected and investigated. As Antiretroviral treatment coverage is increasing in many developing countries, so is the need for HIV drug resistance testing. In countries with multiple languages, transcription errors (...) are easily made with patient identifiers. Here a self-contained blastn integrated phylogenetic pipeline can be especially useful. Even though our pipeline can run on any unix based system, a Raspberry Pi 3 is used here as a very affordable and integrated solution.The computational capability of this single board computer is demonstrated as well as the utility thereof in the HIV drug resistance laboratory. Benchmarking analysis against a large public database shows excellent time performance with minimal

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2019 PLoS ONE

130. Health care users’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV self-testing at selected gateway clinics at eThekwini district, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa (PubMed)

Health care users’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV self-testing at selected gateway clinics at eThekwini district, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa Progress in promoting knowledge of HIV status has been made globally, but half of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their HIV status. It is argued the new innovative HIV self-testing strategy could increase the uptake of HIV testing among the people. The aim of the study was to assess outpatients' health care user's (...) knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards HIV self-testing (HIVST) at selected Gateway clinics at eThekwini District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The objectives of the study were to determine health care users' knowledge of HIVST, assess health care users' attitudes and perceptions towards HIVST and establish if there is any relationship between knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of health care users towards HIVST. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive design was used to determine

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2018 SAHARA J : journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance

131. External quality assessment for HIV rapid tests: challenges and opportunities in Haiti (PubMed)

External quality assessment for HIV rapid tests: challenges and opportunities in Haiti HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are instrumental in scaling-up HIV testing services (HTS) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). HIV misdiagnosis is a growing concern in the era of expanded and decentralised access to HTS. External quality assurance (EQA) programme including proficiency testing (PT) for HIV RDTs is a priority to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the patients' result (...) in PT programs. In more than half of the lab enrolled in the PT programme in Haiti, the panels are always tested by the most experienced technician, defying the purpose of the program which is to evaluate the performance of the technician performing the test daily. EQA programme in Haiti and other LMICs are usually not tailored to address community HIV testing challenges. With decreased funding and absence of government financial commitment to HIV RDTs EQA programmes, more innovative and cost

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2018 BMJ global health

132. Correction: Political instability and supply-side barriers undermine the potential for high participation in HIV testing for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Guinea-Bissau: A retrospective cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Correction: Political instability and supply-side barriers undermine the potential for high participation in HIV testing for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Guinea-Bissau: A retrospective cross-sectional study. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199819.].

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2019 PLoS ONE

133. Feasibility and robustness of an oral HIV self-test in a rural community in South-Africa: An observational diagnostic study. (PubMed)

Feasibility and robustness of an oral HIV self-test in a rural community in South-Africa: An observational diagnostic study. HIV-self-testing (HIVST) could be a strategy to get more people tested for HIV in resource limited settings. One of the prerequisites of a successful HIVST programme is the availability of an easy to use, valid HIV-test which is robust against field conditions and procedural errors by untrained lay users.The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the ability (...) of untrained persons to correctly interpret the OraQuick HIV Self-Test results with oral fluid compared with results obtained by trained users using the matched lot OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test and blinded to the results of the Self-Test. Sensitivity of the OraQuick HIV Self-Test in untrained users was 101 in 102 (99.02%; 95%CI = 93.88-99.95%)-and specificity- 1,241 in 1,241 (100.0%; 95%CI = 99.62-100.0%). Forty-eight Self-Tests were excluded in the accuracy analysis (due to a result read

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2019 PLoS ONE

134. HIV infection is an independent risk factor for decreased 6-minute walk test distance. (PubMed)

HIV infection is an independent risk factor for decreased 6-minute walk test distance. Ambulatory function predicts morbidity and mortality and may be influenced by cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from a high prevalence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities that may contribute to higher risk of ambulatory dysfunction as measured by 6-minute walk test distance (6-MWD). We investigated the effect of HIV on 6-MWD.PLWH and HIV-uninfected individuals were enrolled (...) from 2 clinical centers and completed a 6-MWD, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results of 6-MWD were compared between PLWH and uninfected individuals after adjusting for confounders. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine predictors of 6-MWD.Mean 6-MWD in PLWH was 431 meters versus 462 in 130 HIV-uninfected individuals (p = 0.0001). Older age, lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% or lower forced

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2019 PLoS ONE

135. Harambee!: A pilot mixed methods study of integrated residential HIV testing among African-born individuals in the Seattle area. (PubMed)

Harambee!: A pilot mixed methods study of integrated residential HIV testing among African-born individuals in the Seattle area. African-born individuals in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV yet have low HIV testing rates. We conducted a mixed methods study to assess the uptake and feasibility of a novel strategy for integrating HIV testing into residential health fairs among African-born individuals in Seattle, WA.From April to May 2018, we held six health fairs at three (...) apartment complexes with high numbers of African-born residents. Fairs included free point-of-care screening for glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, blood pressure, and HIV, as well as social services and health education. The health fairs were hosted in apartment complex common areas with HIV testing conducted in private rooms. Health fair participants completed a series of questionnaires to evaluate demographics, access to health services, and HIV testing history. We conducted 18 key informant

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2019 PLoS ONE

136. Methods, outcomes, and costs of a 2.5 year comprehensive facility-and community-based HIV testing intervention in Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014-2017. (PubMed)

Methods, outcomes, and costs of a 2.5 year comprehensive facility-and community-based HIV testing intervention in Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014-2017. To diagnose ≥90% HIV-infected residents (diagnostic coverage), the Bukoba Combination Prevention Evaluation (BCPE) implemented provider-initiated (PITC), home- (HBHTC), and venue-based (VBHTC) HIV testing and counseling (HTC) intervention in Bukoba Municipal Council, a mixed urban and rural lake zone community of 150,000 residents (...) in Tanzania. This paper describes the methods, outcomes, and incremental costs of these HTC interventions. PITC was implemented in outpatient department clinics in all eight public and three faith-based health facilities. In clinics, lay counselors routinely screened and referred eligible patients for HIV testing conducted by HTC-dedicated healthcare workers. In all 14 wards, community teams offered HTC to eligible persons encountered at 31,293 home visits and at 79 male- and youth-frequented venues. HTC

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2019 PLoS ONE

137. Performance of non-laboratory staff for diagnostic testing and specimen collection in HIV programs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Performance of non-laboratory staff for diagnostic testing and specimen collection in HIV programs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In most high HIV burden countries, many HIV patients do not have reliable access to required diagnostic laboratory tests. Task shifting of clinical tasks to lower cadres of health care workers and lay counselors has been successful in scaling up treatment for HIV and may also be an effective strategy in expanding access to essential diagnostic testing.We (...) screened major electronic databases between 1 January 2005 to 26 August 2018 to identify studies assessing ease of use and accuracy of task shifting of HIV-related diagnostic testing and/or specimen collection to non-laboratory health staff. Two independent reviewers screened all titles and abstracts for studies that analyzed diagnostic accuracy, patient impact, ease-of-use, or cost-effectiveness. Studies were assessed for quality, bias, and applicability following the QUADAS-2 framework. We generated

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2019 PLoS ONE

138. Integrating hypertension screening at the time of voluntary HIV testing among adults in South Africa. (PubMed)

Integrating hypertension screening at the time of voluntary HIV testing among adults in South Africa. Guidelines recommend integrating hypertension screening for HIV-infected adults, but blood pressure measurements may be dynamic around the time of HIV testing.We measured a seated resting blood pressure in adults (≥18 years) prior to HIV testing, and again after receiving HIV test results, in an ambulatory HIV clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We assessed sociodemographics, smoking, body (...) mass index, diabetes, substance abuse, and anxiety/depression. We used blood pressure categories defined by the Seventh Joint National Committee (JNC 7) classifications, which includes normal, pre-hypertension, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension.Among 5,428 adults, mean age was 31 years, 51% were male, and 35% tested HIV-positive. Before HIV testing, 47% (2,634) had a normal blood pressure, 40% (2,225) had prehypertension, and 10% (569) had stage 1 or 2 hypertension. HIV-infected adults

2019 PLoS ONE

139. Systematic review of the performance and clinical utility of point of care HIV-1 RNA testing for diagnosis and care. (PubMed)

Systematic review of the performance and clinical utility of point of care HIV-1 RNA testing for diagnosis and care. Point of-care (POC) HIV-1 RNA tests which are accurate and easy to use with limited infrastructure are needed in resource-limited settings (RLS). We systematically reviewed evidence of POC test performance compared to laboratory-based HIV-1 RNA assays and the potential utility of these tests for diagnosis and care in RLS.Studies published up to July 2018 were identified (...) by a search of PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies evaluating the use of POC HIV-1 RNA testing for early infant diagnosis (EID), acute HIV infection (AHI) diagnosis, or viral load monitoring (VL), compared to centralized testing, were included. Separate search strategies were used for each testing objective.197 abstracts were screened and 34 full-text articles were assessed, of which 32 met inclusion criteria. Thirty studies evaluated

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2019 PLoS ONE

140. Are policy initiatives aligned to meet UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets impacting HIV testing and linkages to care? Evidence from a systematic review. (PubMed)

Are policy initiatives aligned to meet UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets impacting HIV testing and linkages to care? Evidence from a systematic review. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Fast-Track initiative seeks to eliminate AIDS as a health threat by 2030, with its focus on UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Effective policies and programs, if scaled nationally, have the potential to generate a greater impact on HIV control, yet a synthesis of successful HIV policies/programs aligned (...) on policies. Break up by income: three (38%) from high income, one (12%) from middle income and four (50%) from low income. Break up by outcomes reported: 36% (4/11) focused on HIV testing, 46% (5/11) on antiretroviral therapy initiation, and 18% (2/11) on viral suppression. Across studies, UNAIDS targets were met in high-income countries, where policies and guidelines were adhered to, whereas in low and middle-income countries, non-adherence led to failure to reach the targets. Targets were also met when

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2019 PLoS ONE

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