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81. Methods, system errors, and demographic differences in participant errors using daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) to measure sexual risk behavior in a RCT of HIV self-test use. (PubMed)

Methods, system errors, and demographic differences in participant errors using daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) to measure sexual risk behavior in a RCT of HIV self-test use. Assessment of sexual risk behavior is crucial to HIV prevention trials. Currently, there are no biomarkers or objective measures to detect and characterize sexual risk behavior; therefore, we must rely on self-reports. Self-report accuracy may be improved (...) by collecting data in real-time. Our objective was to demonstrate how a text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) system can collect daily sexual risk behavior data.During the course of a 2-arm randomized controlled trial, confidential daily SMS-CASI was used to assess sexual risk behavior over three months for participants using only condoms in the control condition and using condoms and HIV self-tests to test themselves and their non-monogamous sexual partner

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2019 mHealth Controlled trial quality: uncertain

82. Variations in Testing for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Across Gender Identity Among Transgender Youth. (PubMed)

Variations in Testing for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Across Gender Identity Among Transgender Youth. Purpose: Transgender youth are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but their rates of screening are unknown. This study sought to quantify HIV and other STI testing levels and to examine variations in testing levels across three categories of gender identity: transgender men, transgender women, and nonbinary (...) individuals. Methods: Between June 2017 and June 2018, 186 transgender youth aged 15-24 years were recruited into a randomized trial of home HIV testing supplemented with telehealth-based counseling. Information on sociodemographics, health care utilization, sexual activity, stress and resilience, and history of HIV and other STI testing was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression models were formulated to identify variations in testing for HIV and other STIs across gender identities. Results: Twenty

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2019 Transgender health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

83. Time period for HIV testing (HIV window period)

Time period for HIV testing (HIV window period) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document

2014 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

84. Demographic Characteristics Associated with Access to HAART, HIV Care and HIV Viral Load Testing

Demographic Characteristics Associated with Access to HAART, HIV Care and HIV Viral Load Testing Rapid Review #62: November 2012 Demographic characteristics associated with access to HAART, HIV care and HIV viral load testing Questions 1. In Canada, is access to HAART/ARV therapy associated with demographic characteristics of PHAs? 2. In Canada, is access to HIV viral load testing, or HIV medical care in keeping with established guidelines and standards, associated with demographic (...) the barriers to accessing HAART given the financial barriers that some may face in accessing treatment. ? The demographic factors associated with adherence to HAART have been studied more fully and may be more applicable to the Canadian context where, theoretically, everyone has access to HAART. ? There are a large number of people with HIV who do not undergo viral load testing or CD4 cell count monitoring according to established guidelines, but most people access HIV care within one month of initial

2013 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

85. Telephone communication of HIV testing results for improving knowledge of HIV infection status. (PubMed)

Telephone communication of HIV testing results for improving knowledge of HIV infection status. This is one of three Cochrane reviews that examine the role of the telephone in HIV/AIDS services. Both in developed and developing countries there is a large proportion of people who do not know they are infected with HIV. Knowledge of one's own HIV serostatus is necessary to access HIV support, care and treatment and to prevent acquisition or further transmission of HIV. Using telephones instead (...) of face-to-face or other means of HIV test results delivery could lead to more people receiving their HIV test results.To assess the effectiveness of telephone use for delivery of HIV test results and post-test counselling.To evaluate the effectiveness of delivering HIV test results by telephone, we were interested in whether they can increase the proportion of people who receive their HIV test results and the number of people knowing their HIV status.We searched The Cochrane Central Register

2013 Cochrane

86. HIV testing guidelines for children of HIV positive parents and/or siblings in the UK and Ireland

HIV testing guidelines for children of HIV positive parents and/or siblings in the UK and Ireland application/msword

2014 The Children's HIV Association

87. New HIV testing technologies in the context of a concentrated epidemic and evolving HIV prevention: qualitative research on HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Yangon, Myanmar. (PubMed)

New HIV testing technologies in the context of a concentrated epidemic and evolving HIV prevention: qualitative research on HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Yangon, Myanmar. Global effort to increase early diagnosis and engagement in HIV care emphasize the importance of developing novel approaches to reaching those missed by traditional methods. Such needs are particularly great for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women (TW), and other (...) populations who face stigma. Myanmar's HIV epidemic is concentrated among key populations and the revised National Strategy aims to reduce late diagnosis and barriers to care to curb HIV incidence among these groups. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may be one method to improve testing and diagnosis among key populations, by placing HIV testing and disclosure within the individual's control.Formative, qualitative research including in-depth interviews with adult MSM (N = 12) and TW (N = 13) and focus group

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2017 Journal of the International AIDS Society

88. HIV testing self-efficacy is associated with higher HIV testing frequency and perceived likelihood to self-test among gay and bisexual men. (PubMed)

HIV testing self-efficacy is associated with higher HIV testing frequency and perceived likelihood to self-test among gay and bisexual men. Background Regular testing of individuals at higher-risk of HIV is central to current prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which confidence in one's perceived ability to undertake various aspects of HIV testing and self-testing (self-efficacy) affected HIV testing outcomes. We assessed factors, including self (...) -efficacy, associated with HIV testing frequency and the likelihood to self-test among gay and bisexual men (GBM).Participants were HIV-negative GBM at an increased risk of HIV (more than five partners or condomless anal intercourse in the previous 3 months) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HIV self-testing. The baseline questionnaire captured data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, HIV and/or sexually transmissible infection testing history, sexual behaviour, beliefs and attitudes

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2017 Sexual Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

89. Factors associated with uptake of home-based HIV counselling and testing and HIV care services among identified HIV-positive persons in Masaka, Uganda (PubMed)

Factors associated with uptake of home-based HIV counselling and testing and HIV care services among identified HIV-positive persons in Masaka, Uganda We investigated uptake of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) and HIV care services post-HBHCT in order to inform the design of future HBHCT programmes. We used data from an open-label cluster-randomised controlled trial which had demonstrated the effectiveness of a post-HBHCT counselling intervention in increasing linkage to HIV care (...) services were adjusted for trial arm allocation. Of 13,455 adults offered HBHCT, 12,100 (89.9%) accepted. HBHCT uptake was higher among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.36] than women, and decreased with increasing age. Of 551 (4.6%) persons who tested HIV-positive, 205 (37.2%) were in care. Of those not in care, 302 (87.3%) were enrolled in the trial and of these, 42.1% linked to care, 35.4% received CD4 counts, and 29.8% initiated ART at 6 months post-HBHCT

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2018 AIDS care Controlled trial quality: predicted high

90. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments. (PubMed)

Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments. Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses (...) of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs).This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine

91. ‘If I had not taken it [HIVST kit] home, my husband would not have come to the facility to test for HIV’: HIV self-testing perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda (PubMed)

‘If I had not taken it [HIVST kit] home, my husband would not have come to the facility to test for HIV’: HIV self-testing perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda HIV self-testing (HIVST) can improve HIV-testing rates in 'hard-to-reach' populations, including men. We explored HIVST perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda.This (...) that would arouse male partners' inquisitiveness or waited for 'opportune' moments when their husbands were likely to be more receptive. A few (three) women lied about the purpose of the test kit (testing for syphilis and other illnesses) while one woman stealthily took a mucosal swab from the husband. Most men initially doubted the ability of oral HIVST kits to test for HIV, but this did not stop them from using them. Both men and women perceived HIVST as an opportunity to learn about each other's HIV

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2018 Global health action

92. HIV Self-Testing in Lusaka Province, Zambia: Acceptability, Comprehension of Testing Instructions, and Individual Preferences for Self-Test Kit Distribution in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents and Adults (PubMed)

HIV Self-Testing in Lusaka Province, Zambia: Acceptability, Comprehension of Testing Instructions, and Individual Preferences for Self-Test Kit Distribution in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents and Adults We assessed attitudes and preferences toward HIV self-testing (HIVST) among Zambian adolescents and adults. We conducted a population-based survey of individuals aged 16-49 years old in Lusaka Province, Zambia. HIVST was shown to participants through a short video on oral fluid-based (...) self-testing. In addition to demographics, HIV risk perceptions, and HIV testing history, we assessed participants' acceptability and concerns regarding HIVST. Using a discrete choice experiment, we investigated preferences for the location of self-test pickup, availability of counseling, and cost. After reviewing an instructional sheet or an additional video, we assessed participants' understanding of self-test performance. Among 1617 participants, 647 (40.0%) were male, 269 (16.6%) were

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2018 AIDS research and human retroviruses

93. Reliability of HIV rapid diagnostic tests for self-testing compared with testing by health-care workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed)

Reliability of HIV rapid diagnostic tests for self-testing compared with testing by health-care workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis The ability of individuals to use HIV self-tests correctly is debated. To inform the 2016 WHO recommendation on HIV self-testing, we assessed the reliability and performance of HIV rapid diagnostic tests when used by self-testers.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PopLine, and Embase, conference abstracts, and additional (...) grey literature between Jan 1, 1995, and April 30, 2016, for observational and experimental studies reporting on HIV self-testing performance. We excluded studies evaluating home specimen collection because patients did not interpret their own test results. We extracted data independently, using standardised extraction forms. Outcomes of interest were agreement between self-testers and health-care workers, sensitivity, and specificity. We calculated κ to establish the level of agreement and pooled

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2018 The lancet. HIV

94. HIV Testing After a First Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test: A Role for Nucleic Acid Testing? (PubMed)

HIV Testing After a First Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test: A Role for Nucleic Acid Testing? We developed an open-access, Excel-based model simulating currently recommended and alternative algorithms for adult HIV testing as a preliminary investigation of trade-offs between accuracy and costs. Despite higher costs, simpler HIV testing algorithms incorporating point of care nucleic acid testing may improve outcomes and thus merit additional research and field testing.

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2018 Open forum infectious diseases

95. Predictors of early childhood HIV testing among children of sex workers living with HIV in Cameroon. (PubMed)

Predictors of early childhood HIV testing among children of sex workers living with HIV in Cameroon. Despite recent progress, there exist gaps in the prevention of vertical HIV transmission program access and uptake in Cameroon. Female sex workers (FSW), many of whom are mothers, are disproportionately affected by HIV and have specific barriers to HIV testing and treatment access. Testing for HIV-exposed infants is crucial in monitoring for incident infection and timely intervention. This study (...) explores the level of early childhood testing and also associations between antenatal care (ANC) attendance and other factors and early childhood HIV testing among FSW in Cameroon.FSW were recruited to participate in an integrated biobehavioral survey in Cameroon between December 2015 and October 2016. Women were included in these analyses if they were living with HIV and had at least one living child. Both univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to look at predictors of a child

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2019 BMC Public Health

96. Prospective cohort study examining cervical cancer screening methods in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Cambodian Women: a comparison of human papilloma virus testing, visualization with acetic acid and digital colposcopy. (PubMed)

Prospective cohort study examining cervical cancer screening methods in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Cambodian Women: a comparison of human papilloma virus testing, visualization with acetic acid and digital colposcopy. Logistical and economic issues make traditional cytology-based cervical cancer screening challenging in developing countries. Alternative, cost-effective, screening strategies must be developed to screen millions of women in resource-poor countries such as Cambodia.A (...) prospective cohort study during which all women underwent four cervical cancer screening methods: (1) self-sampled human papilloma virus (HPV) testing (careHPV system), (2) clinician-collected HPV testing, (3) visualization with acetic acid (VIA) and (4) digital colposcopy (DC) with the Enhanced Visual Assessment System (EVA).A referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.Two hundred and fifty Cambodian women (129 HIV+, 121 HIV-). Subjects were recruited from the National Center for HIV/AIDS Dermatology

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2019 BMJ open

97. The HIV diagnostic assistant-early findings from a novel HIV testing cadre in Malawi. (PubMed)

The HIV diagnostic assistant-early findings from a novel HIV testing cadre in Malawi. In 2015, Malawi piloted the HIV Diagnostic Assistant (HDA), a cadre of lay health worker focused primarily on HIV testing services. Our objective is to measure the effect of HDA deployment on country-level HIV testing measures.Interrupted time series analysis of routinely collected data to assess immediate change in absolute numbers and longitudinal changes in trends.Data from all HDA sites was divided (...) into two periods: pre-deployment (October 2013 to June 2015) and post-deployment (July 2015 to December 2017). Monthly rates of several key HIV testing measures were evaluated: HIV testing, including all tests done, new positives, and confirmatory testing. Syphilis testing at ANC, early infant diagnosis were also assessed.The number of patients tested for HIV per month increased after HDA deployment across all gender, age, and testing subgroups. The number of tests immediately increased by 35,588 (p

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2019 AIDS

98. Missed opportunities for HIV testing in people diagnosed with HIV, Estonia, 2014 to 2015. (PubMed)

Missed opportunities for HIV testing in people diagnosed with HIV, Estonia, 2014 to 2015. Studies of missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV have shown that patients with undiagnosed HIV often present to healthcare settings numerous times before eventually receiving their diagnosis.The aim of the study was to assess missed opportunities for HIV testing among people newly diagnosed with HIV.In this observational retrospective study, we collected data from the Estonian Health Board (...) % had been tested for HIV and 31% had at least one ICD-10 code for an HIV indicator condition on at least one of their treatment invoices. In 390 cases of HIV indicator conditions, only 5% were tested for HIV. Of all new HIV cases aged 20–49 years from high-incidence regions (defined as priority groups in national testing guidance), 18% had been tested.The HIV testing rate in the 2 years before an HIV diagnosis was very low, even in the presence of an HIV indicator condition. This emphasises

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2019 Euro Surveillance

99. The Cost-effectiveness of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and HIV Testing Strategies in High-risk Groups in India. (PubMed)

The Cost-effectiveness of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and HIV Testing Strategies in High-risk Groups in India. The HIV epidemic in India is concentrated in 3.1M men who have sex with men (MSM) and 1.1M people who inject drugs (PWID), with mean incidence 0.9-1.4/100 person-years. We examined the cost-effectiveness of both pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV testing strategies at different frequencies for MSM and PWID in India.We populated an HIV microsimulation model with India-specific (...) data and examined seven strategies for MSM/PWID, including: status quo; one-time HIV test at model onset; routine HIV testing every 3, 6, or 12 months; and PrEP with HIV testing every 3 months (the WHO-recommended monitoring frequency) or every 6 months. We projected clinical and economic outcomes for MSM and PWID who are HIV-uninfected or infected but undetected. We used a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$1,950, the 2017 Indian per capita GDP, to define cost-effectiveness.HIV testing alone

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2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

100. An Early Infant HIV Risk Score for Targeted HIV Testing at Birth. (PubMed)

An Early Infant HIV Risk Score for Targeted HIV Testing at Birth. Early HIV testing is needed for treatment success in young infants, but universal testing is expensive. In this study, we examined the feasibility of early infant HIV risk scores for targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and early HIV diagnosis.A cross-sectional cohort of newborns exposed to HIV was enrolled and PCR tested within 72 hours. We quantified associations between HIV infection and clinical and laboratory (...) (24.55%) and 13 of 31 (40.63%) newborns who are PCR-negative and -positive, respectively (P = .0329). A total of 204 of 1689 (12.08%) were growth restricted or small for gestational age, and 6 of 37 (16.22%) were PCR-positive. Symptomatic newborns frequently tested positive (P = .0042). The HIV PCR positivity rate was 2.2% (37 of 1703). Two-risk (combined 3-drug antiretroviral therapy [cART] duration, VL), 3-risk (cART duration, VL, symptomatic newborn), and 4-risk (cART duration, VL, symptomatic

2019 Pediatrics

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