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HIV Test

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55901. High rates of HIV in surgical patients in Soweto, South Africa: impact on resource utilisation and recommendations for HIV testing. (Abstract)

High rates of HIV in surgical patients in Soweto, South Africa: impact on resource utilisation and recommendations for HIV testing. Interactions between HIV and surgical diseases are relatively poorly described in high HIV prevalence settings. We report HIV prevalence and its associations in a prospective study of adults admitted to surgical units in Soweto, South Africa. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV was offered to surgical inpatients. Research nurses interviewed participants (...) at enrolment and doctors reviewed records after discharge. In HIV-infected participants, CD4 counts and viral loads were ascertained. Of 1000 participants, 537 consented to VCT, of whom 176 (32.8%, 95% CI 28.8-36.9%) tested HIV positive. A history of tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-6.2) or sexually transmitted infection (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.2) was associated with HIV infection. Diagnoses of cutaneous abscesses (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.1) and anorectal sepsis (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-9.0

2007 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

55902. HIV communication between husbands and wives: effects on husband HIV testing in northern Thailand. (Abstract)

HIV communication between husbands and wives: effects on husband HIV testing in northern Thailand. In northern Thailand, where substantial male-to-female transmission of HIV has occurred in stable partnerships, the relationships between counseling, communication, and HIV-preventive behaviors in married couples have not been well studied. In a study of HIV incidence among women in northern Thailand, each participant was advised to learn her husband's HIV-infection status and was asked to bring (...) him for an interview at the final 12-month follow-up visit. Of the 337 men interviewed, 58% reported having ever had an HIV test. More men reported testing following their wives' enrollment: 12% in the year prior to enrollment vs 22% during the 1-year study (p < 0.001). In the univariate analysis, men's HIV testing during the 6 months before being interviewed was associated with communication about HIV testing with their wife and extra marital sex with non-FSW while married. Testing following

2007 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

55903. A Theory Based HIV Prevention Video For Rapid HIV Testing: A Randomized Trial

A Theory Based HIV Prevention Video For Rapid HIV Testing: A Randomized Trial A Theory Based HIV Prevention Video For Rapid HIV Testing: A Randomized Trial - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . A Theory Based HIV Prevention Video For Rapid HIV Testing: A Randomized Trial The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00250549 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : November 8, 2005 Last Update Posted : December 10, 2014 Sponsor: North Bronx Healthcare Network Information provided

2005 Clinical Trials

55904. Voluntary HIV Counseling, Testing, and Medication for Pregnant Women to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission

Voluntary HIV Counseling, Testing, and Medication for Pregnant Women to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Voluntary HIV Counseling, Testing, and Medication for Pregnant Women to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Voluntary HIV Counseling, Testing, and Medication for Pregnant Women to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00084045 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : June 7, 2004 Last

2004 Clinical Trials

55905. Self-testing for HIV: a new option for HIV prevention? (Abstract)

Self-testing for HIV: a new option for HIV prevention? Self-testing has the potential to be an innovative component to community-wide HIV-prevention strategies. This testing method could serve populations who do not have access to standard voluntary counselling and testing services or because of privacy concerns, stigma, transport costs, or other barriers do not use facility-based, standard HIV testing. This paper reviews recent research on the acceptability, feasibility, and cost of rapid (...) testing and home-specimen collection for HIV, and suggests that self-testing may be another important strategy for diagnosing HIV infection. Several research questions are posed that should be answered before self-testing is realised.

2004 Lancet infectious diseases

55906. Voluntary HIV counseling and testing acceptance, sexual risk behavior and HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda. (Abstract)

Voluntary HIV counseling and testing acceptance, sexual risk behavior and HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda. To assess the acceptance of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) and the effects of VCT on sexual risk behavior and HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda.In a rural cohort, 10 694 consenting adults were interviewed, provided blood for HIV testing and were offered free VCT by community resident counselors. The proportions receiving VCT and the adjusted risk ratio (adj. RR) of VCT acceptance (...) were estimated by log binomial regression. Risk behaviors and HIV incidence per 100 person-years (PY) in HIV-negative acceptors and non-acceptors of VCT were assessed prospectively.Although 93% initially requested HIV results, 62.2% subsequently accepted VCT. VCT acceptance was lower among persons with no prior VCT [Adj. RR = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.90], individuals with primary education (adj. RR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99) or higher (adj. RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.97

2005 AIDS

55907. Targeted screening for primary HIV infection through pooled HIV-RNA testing in men who have sex with men. (Abstract)

Targeted screening for primary HIV infection through pooled HIV-RNA testing in men who have sex with men. HIV-RNA testing may identify individuals with primary HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM) having HIV testing through Public Health, Seattle and King County were screened for primary infection through pooled RNA testing. Eighty-one out of 3525 specimens (2.3%) had detectable antibody and RNA, and seven out of 3439 antibody-negative specimens (0.2%) had HIV RNA. Targeted screening (...) for primary infection through pooled RNA testing in MSM is a useful addition to HIV case finding.

2005 AIDS

55908. The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. (Abstract)

The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. HIV dementia is an important neurological complication of advanced HIV infection. The use of a cross-cultural screening test to detect HIV dementia within the international community is critical for diagnosing this condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new screening test for HIV dementia, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in cohorts from the US (...) (P < 0.001). Using the cut-off of < or = 10, the sensitivity and specificity for HIV dementia with the IHDS were 80% and 57% respectively in the US cohort, and 80% and 55% respectively in the Uganda cohort.The IHDS may be a useful screening test to identify individuals at risk for HIV dementia in both the industrialized world and the developing world. Full neuropsychological testing should then be performed to confirm a diagnosis of HIV dementia.

2005 AIDS

55909. HIV incidence and HIV testing behavior in men who have sex with men: using three incidence sources, The Netherlands, 1984-2005. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV incidence and HIV testing behavior in men who have sex with men: using three incidence sources, The Netherlands, 1984-2005. In The Netherlands, the western part, including Rotterdam and Amsterdam harbors the majority of the known HIV-infected population, of whom men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise the largest transmission category. Given a general rise in sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risky sexual behavior, we examine the HIV incidence among MSM in the Netherlands with data (...) from three different sources.To describe the HIV epidemic among MSM we use: a prospective cohort study in Rotterdam (ROHOCO: 1998-2003, n = 265) and another in Amsterdam (ACS: 1984-2005, n = 1498]) plus an anonymous HIV surveillance study (Amsterdam STI clinic: 1991-2004, n = 3733) in which HIV-positive MSM were tested with a less-sensitive HIV assay. We evaluated calendar trends in HIV incidence, also focusing on age effects.Since the start of the HIV epidemic in the early 1980s, incidence has

2007 AIDS

55910. Acceptability of perinatal rapid point-of-care HIV testing in an area of low HIV prevalence in the UK. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acceptability of perinatal rapid point-of-care HIV testing in an area of low HIV prevalence in the UK. To determine the uptake of current antenatal HIV testing, the prevalence of risk factors for HIV in pregnant women and the acceptability of the rapid point-of-care HIV test (RPOCT) among pregnant women and their midwives.A retrospective review of 717 notes to determine current HIV screening practices and a cross-sectional survey using a self-completed questionnaire for pregnant women (...) and midwives.The antenatal clinic (ANC) and postnatal wards (PNW) at a university teaching hospital in the West Midlands.486 women attending the ANC or admitted to the PNW during a fortnight in May-June 2006. 72 midwives on the delivery ward completed a second questionnaire.The questionnaire showed that 90.4% of those offered the standard HIV test accepted it, with 7.2% having at least one risk factor for HIV. Over half of the decliners perceived themselves as not at risk. 85.2% would accept the rapid test

2007 Archives of Disease in Childhood

55911. Date of first positive HIV test: reliability of information collected for HIV/AIDS surveillance in the United States. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Date of first positive HIV test: reliability of information collected for HIV/AIDS surveillance in the United States. This study examined the reliability of the first positive HIV test date reported in the U.S. HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS). This date is essential to determine case counts for resource allocation for HIV treatment and prevention efforts.The dates of first positive HIV tests reported by individuals with HIV in an interview survey conducted in 16 states (n=16,394, interviewed (...) 1995-2002) were compared with the dates of HIV diagnosis reported to HARS. The percentage of agreement for the year of diagnosis and the weighed kappa (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated.Self-reported year of diagnosis agreed with the year of diagnosis in HARS for 56% of date pairs (k=0.69; 95% CI 0.68, 0.70); 30% reported an earlier diagnosis year. Agreement differed by sex, age, race, exposure, and reason or place of testing (p<.01). Lower agreement was found when the self

2005 Public Health Reports

55912. Should We Include Connection Domain Mutations of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in HIV Resistance Testing? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Should We Include Connection Domain Mutations of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in HIV Resistance Testing? 18052605 2008 01 10 2018 11 13 1549-1676 4 12 2007 Dec PLoS medicine PLoS Med. Should we include connection domain mutations of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in HIV resistance testing. e346 Götte Matthias M Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. matthias.gotte@mcgill.ca eng Comment Journal Article United States PLoS Med 101231360 1549-1277 0 (...) Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors 4B9XT59T7S Zidovudine 99DK7FVK1H Nevirapine EC 2.7.7.- reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1 EC 2.7.7.49 HIV Reverse Transcriptase IM PLoS Med. 2007 Dec;4(12):e335 18052601 Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral genetics Genetic Testing Genotype HIV Infections diagnosis drug therapy virology HIV Reverse Transcriptase antagonists & inhibitors chemistry genetics metabolism HIV-1 drug effects enzymology genetics Humans Mutation Nevirapine therapeutic use Patient

2007 PLoS medicine

55913. Uptake of HIV and syphilis testing of pregnant women and their male partners in a programme for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Uganda Full Text available with Trip Pro

Uptake of HIV and syphilis testing of pregnant women and their male partners in a programme for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Uganda To describe uptake of HIV and syphilis testing in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in Uganda.Analysis of data from routine HIV and syphilis testing at Entebbe Hospital antenatal services.A total of 20,738 women attended antenatal services. Exactly 62.8% of women, but only 1.8% of their male partners, accepted testing (...) for HIV; 82.2% of women, but only 1.1% of their male partners accepted syphilis testing. Partners of women with positive HIV results were more likely to come for subsequent testing. Of 200 couples whose partners accepted HIV-testing within 30 days of one another, 19 (9.5%) were HIV-discordant, representing 65.5% of couples with at least one partner HIV-positive. HIV prevalence was 12.6% for women and 10.8% for men; syphilis prevalence was 4.0% for women and 6.2% for men.Uptake of HIV and syphilis

2008 Tropical Medicine & International Health

55914. Cost-Effectiveness of Finding New HIV Diagnoses Using Rapid HIV Testing in Community-Based Organizations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-Effectiveness of Finding New HIV Diagnoses Using Rapid HIV Testing in Community-Based Organizations We assessed the cost-effectiveness of determining new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses using rapid HIV testing performed by community-based organizations (CBOs) in Kansas City, Missouri, and Detroit, Michigan.The CBOs performed rapid HIV testing during April 2004 through March 2006. In Kansas City, testing was performed in a clinic and in outreach settings. In Detroit, testing (...) was performed in outreach settings only. Both CBOs used mobile testing vans. Measures of effectiveness were the number of HIV tests performed and the number of people notified of new HIV diagnoses, based on rapid tests. We retrospectively collected program costs, including those for personnel, test kits, mobile vans, and facility space.The CBO in Kansas City tested a mean of 855 people a year in its clinic and 703 people a year in outreach settings. The number of people notified of new HIV diagnoses was 19

2008 Public Health Reports

55915. Implementing Rapid HIV Testing in Outreach and Community Settings: Results from an Advancing HIV Prevention Demonstration Project Conducted in Seven U.S. Cities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implementing Rapid HIV Testing in Outreach and Community Settings: Results from an Advancing HIV Prevention Demonstration Project Conducted in Seven U.S. Cities The goals of this project were to assess the feasibility of conducting rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in outreach and community settings to increase knowledge of HIV serostatus among groups disproportionately affected by HIV and to identify effective nonclinical venues for recruiting people in the targeted (...) populations.Community-based organizations (CBOs) in seven U.S. cities conducted rapid HIV testing in outreach and community settings, including public parks, homeless shelters, and bars. People with reactive preliminary positive test results received confirmatory testing, and people confirmed to be HIV-positive were referred to health-care and prevention services.A total of 23,900 people received rapid HIV testing. Of the 267 people (1.1%) with newly diagnosed HIV infection, 75% received their confirmatory test

2008 Public Health Reports

55916. Nature, decay, and spiraling of the effects of fear-inducing arguments and HIV counseling and testing: a meta-analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-prevention interventions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nature, decay, and spiraling of the effects of fear-inducing arguments and HIV counseling and testing: a meta-analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-prevention interventions. To examine the long-term efficacy of both fear-inducing arguments and HIV counseling and testing at encouraging and maintaining knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention, as well as condom use.Analyses were conducted with a sample of 150 treatment groups and 34 controls and included measures of change (...) at an immediate follow-up and a delayed follow-up.The main outcome measures were perceived risk of HIV infection, knowledge about HIV, and condom use.Results indicated that receiving fear-inducing arguments increased perceptions of risk at the immediate follow-up but decreased knowledge and condom use, whereas resolving fear via HIV counseling and testing decreased perceptions of risk and increased knowledge and condom use at both the immediate and delayed follow-ups. The effects on perceived risk [corrected

2007 Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

55917. A randomized controlled trial of genotypic HIV drug resistance testing in HIV-1-infected children: the PERA (PENTA 8) trial. (Abstract)

A randomized controlled trial of genotypic HIV drug resistance testing in HIV-1-infected children: the PERA (PENTA 8) trial. To evaluate the longer-term utility of genotypic resistance testing in HIV-1-infected children with virological failure.Children aged 3 months-18 years switching antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV-1 RNA > 2,000 copies/ml were randomized between genotypic testing (Virtual Phenotype) and no testing at baseline and subsequent virological failures. Children were followed (...) to at least 96 weeks.One hundred and seventy eligible children, from 24 clinical centres in six countries, were randomized to resistance testing (n = 87) or no testing (n = 83) between June 2000-July 2003. At baseline, mean HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ T-cell percentage were 4.7 log10 copies/ml and 20%, respectively. Children had taken ART for a mean of 5 years; 24% had received all three classes, 53% nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)+protease inhibitors (PIs), 9% NRTIs+non-nucleoside reverse

2006 Antiviral therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55918. Uptake and acceptability of antenatal HIV testing: randomised controlled trial of different methods of offering the test. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Uptake and acceptability of antenatal HIV testing: randomised controlled trial of different methods of offering the test. To determine the uptake and acceptability of different methods of a universal offer of voluntary HIV testing to pregnant women.Randomised controlled trial involving four combinations of written and verbal communication, followed by the direct offer of a test. The control group received no information and no direct offer of a test, although testing was available (...) on request.Hospital antenatal clinic covering most of the population of the city of Edinburgh.3024 pregnant women booking at the clinic over a 10 month period.Uptake of HIV testing and women's knowledge, satisfaction, and anxiety.Uptake rates were 6% for those in the control group and 35% for those directly offered the test. Neither the style of leaflet nor the length of discussion had an effect on uptake. Significant independent predictors of uptake were a direct test offer; the midwife seen; and being unmarried

1998 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55919. Real-time, universal screening for acute HIV infection in a routine HIV counseling and testing population. (Abstract)

Real-time, universal screening for acute HIV infection in a routine HIV counseling and testing population. Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cannot be diagnosed by routine antibody tests and is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. However, HIV nucleic acid-based testing is widely used to screen for antibody-negative acute infection among low-risk blood donors.To assess the feasibility of screening in high-volume laboratories for acute and long-term HIV infection in a routine (...) HIV testing population, in which HIV infection prevalence is low, using specimen pooling and HIV RNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests.Clinical diagnostic performance evaluation at a state-funded public health virology and serology laboratory.A total of 8505 consecutive individuals presenting for routine HIV counseling and testing during a total of 20 business days to simulate a month of testing in August and December 2001 at 110 publicly funded testing sites in North

2002 JAMA

55920. Cost-effectiveness of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in reducing sexual transmission of HIV-1 in Kenya and Tanzania. (Abstract)

Cost-effectiveness of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in reducing sexual transmission of HIV-1 in Kenya and Tanzania. Access to HIV-1 voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is severely limited in less-developed countries. We undertook a multisite trial of HIV-1 VCT to assess its impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness in less-developed country settings.The cost-effectiveness of HIV-1 VCT was estimated for a hypothetical cohort of 10000 people seeking VCT in urban east Africa. Outcomes (...) were modelled based on results from a randomised controlled trial of HIV-1 VCT in Tanzania and Kenya. Our main outcome measures included programme cost, number of HIV-1 infections averted, cost per HIV-1 infection averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved. We also modelled the impact of targeting VCT by HIV-1 prevalence of the client population, and the proportion of clients who receive VCT as a couple compared with as individuals. Sensitivity analysis was done on all model

2000 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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