How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

59,643 results for

HIV Test

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

55641. MRN-100, an Iron-based Compound, Possesses Anti-HIV Activity In Vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

MRN-100, an Iron-based Compound, Possesses Anti-HIV Activity In Vitro. We examined the in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and tervalent ferrates. MRN-100 action against HIV-1 (SF strain) was tested in primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) by analyzing p24 antigen production and percent survival of MNC infected with HIV. MRN-100 at a concentration of 10% (v/v) inhibited HIV-1 replication in 11 (...) with MRN-100 caused no significant change in proliferative response of MNC alone or cocultured with different mitogens: PHA and Con-A (activators of T cell function) and PWM (activator of CD4(+) T cell-dependent B cells). We concluded that MRN-100 possesses anti-HIV activity in vitro and without an increase in lymphocyte proliferation, MRN-100 may be a useful agent for treating patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

2008 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

55642. Dose Response Effect of High-Dose Fluconazole for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Southwestern Uganda. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dose Response Effect of High-Dose Fluconazole for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Southwestern Uganda. Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis in many centers in Africa is fluconazole administered at a dosage of 400-800 mg per day. However, higher dosages of fluconazole have been used to treat patients without resulting in serious toxicity. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations suggest that higher dosages might be associated (...) with greater efficacy.Sixty HIV-seropositive, antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with first-episode cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda, were treated with fluconazole: the first 30 patients received 800 mg per day, and the second 30 patients received 1200 mg per day. After 2 weeks, the dosage was reduced to 400 mg per day for an additional 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was rate of clearance of infection, or early fungicidal activity, as determined by serial quantitative cerebrospinal fluid

2008 Clinical Infectious Diseases

55643. Screening African HIV positive patients for imported parasitic infections. (Abstract)

Screening African HIV positive patients for imported parasitic infections. To assess the results of screening for tropical parasitic infections in HIV patients from Africa, presenting to an infectious diseases unit in the UK.A retrospective case note review of patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, newly diagnosed with HIV infection, between March 2001 and November 2007. Data on patient demographics, clinical presentation and laboratory results, including tropical screening tests, were collected.146 (...) patients had notes available for review. 22 different countries were represented. 84 patients were screened, by serology, for schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis and leishmaniasis. 13/122 (10.7%) patients tested had positive schistosomiasis serology and 2/107 (1.9%) had positive strongyloidiasis serology. No patients had positive Leishmania (n = 108) or filaria (n = 97) serology. 3 of 38 (7.9%) had stool samples that were positive for pathogens. Positive schistosomiasis serology

2008 Journal of Infection

55644. Effects of duration of HIV infection and secondary tuberculosis transmission on tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines. (Abstract)

of South African gold miners over 14 years. HIV tests were done in random surveys in 1992-1993, and in clinics. One thousand nine hundred fifty HIV positive men with seroconversion intervals of less than 3 years were identified and linked to medical, demographic and occupational records. They were compared with men who were HIV-negative in a survey, with no later evidence of HIV. Analyses were censored when men were diagnosed with tuberculosis, died or left the mine.Tuberculosis incidence rose soon (...) Effects of duration of HIV infection and secondary tuberculosis transmission on tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines. HIV increases the risk of tuberculosis directly, through immunosuppression, and indirectly, through onward transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the increased caseload. We assess the contribution of these two mechanisms by time since seroconversion to HIV.The incidence of new pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated in a retrospective cohort study

2008 AIDS

55645. Emergence and Persistence of CXCR4-Tropic HIV-1 in a Population of Men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergence and Persistence of CXCR4-Tropic HIV-1 in a Population of Men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We examined the emergence of CXCR4 (i.e., X4) tropism in 67 male human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconverters from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) who were selected to reflect the full spectrum of rates of HIV-1 disease progression. A mean of 10 serial samples per donor were evaluated by a laboratory-validated, commercially available assay to determine phenotypic (...) coreceptor use. A total of 52% of men had dual- or mixed-tropic HIV-1 detected at 1 or more of the time points tested. Use of X4 by HIV-1 was detected more frequently among men who developed AIDS (defined as a CD4(+) T cell count of <200 cells/muL and/or an AIDS-defining illness) < or =11 years after seroconversion than among those who did not (P = .005), as well as among men who exhibited a total T cell count decline (i.e., a CD3(+) inflection point), compared with those who did not (P = .03). For men

2008 Journal of Infectious Diseases

55646. CD4(+) T Cell Count Recovery in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients Is Independent of Class of Antiretroviral Therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

CD4(+) T Cell Count Recovery in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients Is Independent of Class of Antiretroviral Therapy. In recent years, treatment options for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection have changed from nonboosted protease inhibitors (PIs) to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and boosted PI-based antiretroviral drug regimens, but the impact on immunological recovery remains uncertain.During January 1996 through December 2004 [corrected] all patients (...) to 511 cells/muL. In a multivariate analysis, the treatment group did not affect the response of CD4(+) T cells; however, increased age, pretreatment with nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, serological tests positive for hepatitis C virus, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C infection, lower baseline CD4(+) T cell count, and lower baseline HIV-1 RNA level were risk factors for smaller increases in CD4(+) T cell count.CD4(+) T cell recovery was similar in patients receiving

2008 Clinical Infectious Diseases

55647. Clade-specific HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms do not reduce raltegravir and elvitegravir phenotypic susceptibility. (Abstract)

Clade-specific HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms do not reduce raltegravir and elvitegravir phenotypic susceptibility. The contribution of clade-specific polymorphisms in the HIV-1 integrase gene towards integrase inhibitor phenotypic susceptibility was tested on 137 clinical isolates, of which 60 were non-clade B strains. Control Q148R mutant virus showed fold change values of 17.85 +/- 2.77 and 88.94 +/- 9.02 for raltegravir and elvitegravir, respectively, whereas the average fold change (...) for the clinical samples was 0.91 +/- 0.40, and 0.84 +/- 0.37. Phenotypic testing proved that clade-specific integrase polymorphisms do not contribute to reduced susceptibility towards integrase inhibitors.

2008 AIDS

55648. Measuring the public-health impact of candidate HIV vaccines as part of the licensing process. (Abstract)

randomised clinical trials (C-RCTs) following completion of individual-based clinical trials (I-RCTs). Mathematical models of HIV vaccine can be used to take public-health considerations into account during the licensing process and can also help to select promising vaccine candidates for testing in C-RCTs. We also describe community and individual-based measures useful for defining public-health criteria necessary to guide the licensing process. To move forward, it is crucial to reach a consensus (...) Measuring the public-health impact of candidate HIV vaccines as part of the licensing process. The full impact of vaccines against infectious diseases is manifest at both the individual and the community levels. We argue that evaluating the community-level impact of HIV vaccine candidates should be an integral part of the licensing process. We describe a framework for the public-health evaluation of an HIV vaccine, which is based on the interactive use of mathematical models and community

2008 Lancet infectious diseases

55649. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. (Abstract)

. Available reports indicate that programmes in sub-Saharan Africa achieve treatment outcomes similar to those in North America and Europe. However, progress in several areas is required to improve the care of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings emphasise the need for low-cost diagnostic tests that allow for earlier identification of HIV infection in infants living in sub-Saharan Africa, improved access to antiretroviral treatment programmes, including expansion of care into rural (...) Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Assessment of antiretroviral treatment programmes for HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa is important to enable the development of effective care and improve treatment outcomes. We review the effectiveness of paediatric antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa and discuss the implications of these findings for the care and treatment of HIV-infected children in this region

2008 Lancet infectious diseases

55650. Spontaneous Viral Clearance, Viral Load, and Genotype Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in HIV-Infected Patients with Anti-HCV Antibodies in Europe. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spontaneous Viral Clearance, Viral Load, and Genotype Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in HIV-Infected Patients with Anti-HCV Antibodies in Europe. Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population.All HCV antibody (Ab)-positive patients with HIV infection in the EuroSIDA (...) cohort who had stored samples were tested for serum HCV RNA, and HCV genotyping was done for subjects with viremia. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance and HCV genotype 1.Of 1940 HCV Ab-positive patients, 1496 (77%) were serum HCV RNA positive. Injection drug users (IDUs) were less likely to have spontaneously cleared HCV than were homosexual men (20% vs. 39%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.36 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.53]), whereas

2008 Journal of Infectious Diseases

55651. Is screening for fetal anomalies reliable in HIV-infected pregnant women? A multicentre study. (Abstract)

and neural tube defect screening among 214 HIV-infected pregnant women and 856 HIV-negative controls undergoing a first-trimester Down syndrome screening test, and 209 HIV-positive women and 836 HIV-negative controls with a risk evaluation for neural tube defect. The influence of treatment, chronic hepatitis and HIV disease characteristics were also evaluated.Multiples of the median medians for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin were lower in HIV-positive women (...) Is screening for fetal anomalies reliable in HIV-infected pregnant women? A multicentre study. To assess the impact of HIV infection on the reliability of the first-trimester screening for Down syndrome, using free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and fetal nuchal translucency, and of the second-trimester screening for neural tube defects, using alpha-fetoprotein.Multicentre study comparing the multiples of the median of markers for Down syndrome

2008 AIDS

55652. Type-specific human papillomavirus-DNA load in anal infection in HIV-positive men. (Abstract)

Type-specific human papillomavirus-DNA load in anal infection in HIV-positive men. To characterize anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in terms of genotype prevalence and type-specific DNA load in HIV-positive men.HIV-positive men attending the colo-proctological clinic of a University Hospital in Rome were recruited prospectively from November 2004 to July 2007. HIV-negative outpatients attending the same clinic over the same period were used as a control group.Anal brushings were (...) tested for HPV-DNA using polymerase chain reactions and direct sequencing; type-specific HPV-DNA copies were measured in most positive samples. HPV data were correlated with patient HIV status and risk factors.HPV-DNA infection was detected in 81% of HIV-positive men. Almost all homosexual men were HPV-infected. The infection rate in low-risk HPV types was higher than in high-risk types. The spectrum of HPV genotypes was comparable between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Numbers of HPV-DNA copies

2008 AIDS

55653. Population pharmacokinetics of ritonavir-boosted saquinavir regimens in HIV-infected individuals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Population pharmacokinetics of ritonavir-boosted saquinavir regimens in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model in order to describe ritonavir-boosted saquinavir concentrations dosed twice and once daily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from the UK, Uganda and Thailand and to identify factors that may influence saquinavir pharmacokinetics.Pharmacokinetic data from 10 clinical studies were combined. Non (...) -linear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM version V) was applied to determine the saquinavir pharmacokinetic parameters, interindividual/interoccasion variability (IIV/IOV) and residual error. Various covariates potentially related to saquinavir pharmacokinetics were explored, and the final model was validated by means of 95% prediction interval and testing the predictive performance of the model with data not included in the model-building process.Ninety-seven patients were included from the UK (n = 52

2008 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

55654. Intracellular Survival of Leishmania Species That Cause Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Significantly Reduced by HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intracellular Survival of Leishmania Species That Cause Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Significantly Reduced by HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors. Visceral leishmaniasis is now recognized as an opportunistic disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although the usefulness of HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) in antiretroviral regimens is well documented, little is known about their potential impact in the setting of Leishmania/HIV-1 coinfections. We now report (...) that, although selected PIs do not inhibit the growth of Leishmania infantum promastigotes alone in culture, these drugs significantly inhibit the intracellular survival of parasites in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 macrophages and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Furthermore, a field isolate of Leishmania donovani resistant to sodium stibogluconate (SbV), one of the drugs most commonly used to treat leishmaniasis, is equally susceptible to the tested PIs compared

2008 Journal of Infectious Diseases

55655. Validation and comparison of simple noninvasive indexes for predicting liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients: ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validation and comparison of simple noninvasive indexes for predicting liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients: ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort. Although an increasing number of noninvasive fibrosis markers are available in HCV-monoinfected patients, data on the performance of these tests in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients are lacking.To assess the diagnostic performance for predicting hepatic fibrosis stage of four simple and inexpensive noninvasive indexes (FIB-4, APRI, Forns, and platelet count (...) ) in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients.Two hundred consecutive HIV-HCV-coinfected patients from the ANRS-CO3 Aquitaine cohort who underwent liver biopsy were studied. Fibrosis stage was assessed according to Metavir scoring system by a single pathologist unaware of the data of the patients. Diagnostic performances were assessed by measuring the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and the percentage of patients correctly identified (PCI).For predicting significant fibrosis (F

2008 American Journal of Gastroenterology

55656. HIV prevalence and incidence are no longer falling in southwest Uganda: evidence from a rural population cohort 1989-2005. (Abstract)

HIV prevalence and incidence are no longer falling in southwest Uganda: evidence from a rural population cohort 1989-2005. Throughout the 1990s, HIV-1 prevalence and incidence were falling in Uganda. Recently, some researchers have noticed that HIV-1 prevalence is levelling off. We examine prevalence, incidence, and sexual behaviour trends in a rural population cohort in Uganda over 16 years.We report prevalence by survey round and incidence by calendar year from a prospective general (...) population cohort study. Using logistic regression Wald tests, we examined casual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. We examined age at sexual debut by means of life tables.HIV-1 prevalence declined from 8.5% in 1990/1991 to 6.2% in 1999/2000, and thereafter rose to 7.7% in 2004/2005. Incidence (per 1000 person-years at risk) fell from 7.5 in 1990 to 4.1 in 1998, and thereafter increased to 5.0 by 2004. The 2005 incidence estimate reached an all-time low of 2.5, but the preliminary 2006 estimate

2008 AIDS

55657. Galphai protein-dependant extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation is required for HIV-1 reverse transcription. (Abstract)

replication in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In this study, we pursued the identification of the downstream signaling molecules in CCR5-mediated infection. We also questioned whether CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains induce the same signaling mechanism.We analyzed by western blotting the coreceptor-mediated activation of various mitogen-acitvated protein kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase in non-stimulated human peripheral blood (...) mononuclear cells. The involvement of Galphai protein in ERK1/2 activation was tested using pertussis toxin. Using real-time PCR, we studied the role of ERK1/2 in the life cycle of HIV-1.We found that pertussis toxin inhibited the replication of X4 as well as R5 strains. Furthermore, both strains activated a pertussis toxin-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases-1/2 and ERK1/2. The inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by U0126 and PD98059 blocked

2008 AIDS

55658. Syphilis and HIV: a dangerous combination. (Abstract)

Syphilis and HIV: a dangerous combination. HIV and syphilis affect similar patient groups and co-infection is common. All patients presenting with syphilis should be offered HIV testing and all HIV-positive patients should be regularly screened for syphilis. Syphilis agent may enhance the transmission of the other, probably through increased incidence of genital ulcers. Detection and treatment of syphilis can, therefore, help to reduce HIV transmission. Syphilis may present with non-typical (...) features in the HIV-positive patient: there is a higher rate of symptomless primary syphilis and proportionately more HIV-positive patients present with secondary disease. Secondary infection may be more aggressive and there is an increased rate of early neurological and ophthalmic involvement. Diagnosis is generally made with serology but the clinician should be aware of the potential for false-negative serology in both primary and, less commonly, in secondary syphilis. All HIV-positive patients

2004 Lancet infectious diseases

55659. HIV infection, HAART, and endothelial adhesion molecules: current perspectives. (Abstract)

links. Although convincing prospective data are still scarce, it seems timely to elucidate the potential value of non-invasive, inexpensive tests for predicting cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Endothelial function, the most plausible link between infection, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, has been investigated since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Increased concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules, such as those from (...) HIV infection, HAART, and endothelial adhesion molecules: current perspectives. In this review we summarise the data on the effects of HIV infection and its therapy with antiretroviral drugs on adhesion molecules, considered to be potential biomarkers of endothelial cell function. This is a recent area of interest, given the unexpected associations between antiretroviral therapy, metabolic alterations of lipid profile, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the absence of clear pathogenetic

2004 Lancet infectious diseases

55660. Clinical pharmacodynamics of HIV-1 protease inhibitors: use of inhibitory quotients to optimise pharmacotherapy. (Abstract)

Clinical pharmacodynamics of HIV-1 protease inhibitors: use of inhibitory quotients to optimise pharmacotherapy. The introduction of HIV-1 protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 1996 began an era described as that of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In addition, the more recent development and availability of HIV-1 genotypic and phenotypic resistance tests and advances in pharmacological assays that support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) have created (...) tools that may help clinicians to provide more individualised treatment with HIV-1 protease inhibitors. All current treatment guidelines provide fixed doses of protease inhibitors with vague recommendations for the use of TDM in selected clinical situations. In patients with resistance to protease inhibitors, the combined use of resistance tests with TDM provide a mechanism for individualising the clinical pharmacodynamics of protease inhibitors. Current therapeutic approaches seek to include

2006 Lancet infectious diseases

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>