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55481. Monocyte derived dendritic cells from HIV-1 infected individuals partially reconstitute CD4 T-cell responses. (Abstract)

Monocyte derived dendritic cells from HIV-1 infected individuals partially reconstitute CD4 T-cell responses. The study tests the hypothesis that monocyte derived dendritic cells from HIV-1 infected individuals are normal and can restore impaired CD4 T-cell antigen specific responses.Monocyte derived dendritic cells were isolated from individuals at three different stages of HIV-1 infection with a wide spectrum of viral load and CD4 T-cell counts, and from healthy volunteers. The cell surface (...) phenotype and allogeneic stimulatory potential of these dendritic cells was documented. CD4 T-cell responses to HIV p24, tetanus toxoid and purified protein derivative were measured using either unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or purified dendritic cell/T-cell cultures.Dendritic cells from all three HIV-1 infected groups did not differ from each other or from healthy volunteers in terms of cell surface phenotype or allogeneic stimulatory potential using T cells from healthy volunteers

2006 AIDS

55482. Medically assisted procreation and transmission of hepatitis C virus: absence of HCV RNA in purified sperm fraction in HIV co-infected patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medically assisted procreation and transmission of hepatitis C virus: absence of HCV RNA in purified sperm fraction in HIV co-infected patients. The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in medically assisted procreation (MAP) is debated and some researchers have proposed to exclude MAP for HCV-positive infertile patients. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of viral RNA in the final preparation of density gradient semen fractions collected from men with chronic HCV (...) and HIV co-infection participating in a MAP program, and to assess whether HIV co-infection influences the rate of the presence of HCV RNA in the semen.The study was based on a cohort of 170 HCV-infected male patients (93 HIV co-infected) participating in a MAP program in a French center. Semen samples were subjected to standard MAP sperm preparation, using density-gradient centrifugation with 40 and 90% layers. All aliquots were tested with a commercially available HCV RNA assay (Roche Monitor

2006 AIDS

55483. Comparative potency of three antiretroviral therapy regimes in primary HIV infection. (Abstract)

) < 50 copies HIV RNA/ml. One hundred and five patients identified with PHI according to the definition: HIV antibody negative with positive HIV DNA (n = 22), HIV antibody positive with a documented negative test within the previous 6 months (n = 53), low-level incident 'detuned' assay (n = 10) or an evolving HIV-antibody test (n = 20) were recruited. Ninety of 105 individuals chose to take a short course of ART at PHI whereas 15 of 105 declined therapy. Seventy-nine of 90 were included for analysis (...) Comparative potency of three antiretroviral therapy regimes in primary HIV infection. Virally mediated destruction of HIV-specific CD4+ T-cells in primary HIV infection (PHI) may be abrogated by potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) started in acute infection. To best achieve the most rapid reduction in primary viraemia we compared three different ART regimens in PHI.A sequential, unblinded, non-randomized prospective cohort study. The primary endpoint was time to achieve plasma viral load (pVL

2006 AIDS

55484. Residual viraemia in subjects with chronic HIV infection and viral load < 50 copies/ml: the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (Abstract)

was based on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in 66%, a protease inhibitor in 26% and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 7%. Viraemia levels were measured using a modified ultrasensitive Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor test able to quantify plasma HIV RNA to a lower limit of 2.5 copies /ml; proviral DNA was measured with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression analysis were utilized to test for associations (...) Residual viraemia in subjects with chronic HIV infection and viral load < 50 copies/ml: the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To determine factors associated with < 2.5 copies/ml plasma HIV RNA in subjects treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and with viraemia < 50 copies/ml.Cross-sectional analysis of 84 HIV-positive patients taking HAART with plasma HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml for at least 6 months and no history of virological failure.Current HAART therapy

2005 AIDS

55485. The effects of maternal helminth and malaria infections on mother-to-child HIV transmission. (Abstract)

, and intestinal helminthes in mothers and tested for HIV antibodies in 12-24 month-old offspring of HIV-positive women. We related these findings to the presence of cord blood lymphocyte activation and cytokine production in response to helminth antigens.HIV-positive women (n = 83, 8.9% of all women tested) were 2-fold more likely to have peripheral blood and/or placental malaria (P < 0.025) and a 2.1-fold greater likelihood of lymphatic filariasis infection (P < 0.001) compared to location-and-parity matched (...) The effects of maternal helminth and malaria infections on mother-to-child HIV transmission. To investigate the effect of helminth and/or malaria infection on the risk of HIV infection in pregnant women and its transmission to their offspring.A retrospective cohort study of pregnant Kenyan women and their offspring from term, uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (n = 936) with a nested case-control study.We determined the presence of HIV, malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis

2005 AIDS

55486. The stromal derived factor-1 mutated allele (SDF1-3'A) is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. (Abstract)

The stromal derived factor-1 mutated allele (SDF1-3'A) is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected patients have higher rates of subclinical atherosclerosis. The chemokine stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is the natural ligand for the CXCR4 HIV co-receptor, is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques, and the plasma concentration is lower in individuals homozygous for the mutant allele (SDF1-3'A). We tested the influence of SDF1-3 (...) 'A on atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.We performed carotid ultrasonography and determined the SDF1-3'A DNA polymorphism in 183 HIV-infected patients. Classical cardiovascular risk factors and antiretroviral therapy were also recorded. From these patients, we selected a group of 134 patients taking protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy and in whom the lipid profile over an 18-month follow-up was collated.We found atherosclerosis in 113 (61.7%) and a lower number of patients with the SDF-1 mutated

2005 AIDS

55487. Sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk behaviour among women who have sex with women. (Abstract)

Sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk behaviour among women who have sex with women. To analyse the epidemiological aspects of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women who have sex with women (WSW) in São Paulo, Brazil.A cross-sectional study with interviews and analysis of clinical and gynaecological tests in women, by means of a convenience sample. Characteristics were gathered according to age, sociobehavioural profile, reproductive life and sexuality.The study included 145 women (...) . They started sexual activity at an average age of 16.9 years, and 23.4% of them had had heterosexual relations during the preceding year, with a relatively low frequency of condom use. In sexual relations with women, 54.5% used condoms when they shared sex toys. A previous STD was reported by 38% of them. The following STD were diagnosed: trichomonas (3.8%), bacterial vaginosis (33.8%), fungi (25.6%), Chlamydia (1.8%), hepatitis B (7%), hepatitis C (2.1%), abnormal Pap smear (7.7%), human papillomavirus

2005 AIDS

55488. Integrated hepatitis C virus treatment: addressing comorbid substance use disorders and HIV infection. (Abstract)

Integrated hepatitis C virus treatment: addressing comorbid substance use disorders and HIV infection. To examine hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV testing patterns within the Northwest Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN 20).Using a comprehensive VISN 20 database, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 293,445 veterans.32.8% of patients were tested for HCV, 5.5% were tested for HIV, and 4.3% were co-tested. Of those tested, 12.3% were HCV positive, 5.4% were HIV positive, and 1.6 (...) % were co-infected. 79.1% of HIV-positive patients were tested for HCV, 29.2% of whom tested positive. 34.8% of HCV-positive patients were tested for HIV, 4.9% of whom tested positive. Of those tested, HCV-positive patients were significantly more likely than HCV-negative patients to test positive for HIV; HIV-positive patients were no more likely to test positive for HCV than HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients with substance use disorders (SUD) were significantly more likely to test HCV

2005 AIDS

55489. Effects of hepatic function and hepatitis C virus on the nervous system assessment of advanced-stage HIV-infected individuals. (Abstract)

Effects of hepatic function and hepatitis C virus on the nervous system assessment of advanced-stage HIV-infected individuals. To examine the effects of liver function and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serostatus on neurological, neuropsychological, and psychiatric abnormalities in an advanced-stage HIV-infected cohort.A correlational analysis of baseline data accumulated on 137 participants in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank, a longitudinal study of HIV-infected individuals.Patients underwent a battery (...) of neuropsychological tests, a semi-structured psychiatric interview, and a neurological examination. The resulting diagnostic data were correlated with biochemical indices of hepatic function and HCV serostatus.Biochemical indices of liver function correlated with motor dysfunction determined by neurological evaluation, but not with neuropsychological or psychiatric disorders. Discrete neurological diagnostic entities showed no relationship with biochemical indices, with one exception: patients with cryptococcal

2005 AIDS

55490. Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990-2001. (Abstract)

Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990-2001. To assess trends in HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV/HCV infection among injecting drug users (IDU) from 1990 to 2001 in New York City. The 1990-2001 time period included a very large expansion of syringe exchange in New York City, from 250,000 to 3,000,000 syringes exchanged annually.Cross-sectional seroprevalence surveys of IDU entering drug abuse treatment in New York City (...) , with sample sizes for HCV of 72 in 1990-1991 and 412 in 2000-2001. A structured risk behavior questionnaire was administered, and HIV and HCV testing were conducted. HCV testing was performed on de-linked stored serum samples.Over the 1990-2001 period, HIV prevalence declined from 54 to 13%. HCV prevalence declined from 80 to 59% among HIV-seronegative individuals, and from 90 to 63% overall. The estimated HCV incidence in 2000-2001 among new injectors was 18 per 100 person-years at risk.The large-scale

2005 AIDS

55491. Provider assessment of eligibility for hepatitis C treatment in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed persons. (Abstract)

Provider assessment of eligibility for hepatitis C treatment in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed persons. To characterize the group of providers delivering medical care to HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infected homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco and to assess factors affecting provider decisions to initiate HCV treatment in this population.The Research in Access to Care for the Homeless (REACH) cohort is a representative sample of HIV-infected homeless (...) and marginally housed individuals identified from single room occupancy hotels, homeless shelters and free lunch programs in San Francisco. Primary care providers (PCP) for active, HIV/HCV co-infected REACH cohort participants were administered face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. REACH participants were administered quarterly face-to-face structured interviews.52/62 (83.9%) providers were interviewed regarding 133/155 (85.8%) active, HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Providers classified 94/133 (70.7

2005 AIDS

55492. Hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection in people with severe mental illness and substance use disorders. (Abstract)

-infection in a large, multisite sample of SMI clients.We conducted a re-analysis of data on prevalence and correlates of blood-borne infections in a multisite sample of SMI clients.In 1997-1998, 755 SMI clients were tested for HIV, hepatitis B virus and HCV, and assessed for demographic, illness-related and other behavioral risk factors for blood-borne infections. The prevalence and correlates of co-infection were examined, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviors of individuals with HCV (...) Hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection in people with severe mental illness and substance use disorders. The 5-7% of adults in the United States with severe mental illness (SMI), especially the 50% who are 'dually diagnosed' with co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD), are at an elevated risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, little is known about HIV/HCV co-infection in this population. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of HIV, hepatitis C, and HIV/HCV co

2005 AIDS

55493. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV in correctional populations: a review of epidemiology and prevention. (Abstract)

Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV in correctional populations: a review of epidemiology and prevention. The 2 million persons incarcerated in US prisons and jails are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, with prevalences of infection two to ten times higher than in the general population. Infections are largely due to sex- and drug-related risk behaviors practised outside the correctional setting, although transmission of these infections has (...) also been documented inside jails and prisons. Public health strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality from these infections should include hepatitis B vaccination, HCV and HIV testing and counseling, medical management of infected persons, and substance abuse treatment in incarcerated populations.

2005 AIDS

55494. Health disparities among African-American and Hispanic drug injectors--HIV, AIDS, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus: a review. (Abstract)

Health disparities among African-American and Hispanic drug injectors--HIV, AIDS, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus: a review. Disparities in healthcare access, medical outcomes, and specific chronic diseases have been documented for African-American and Hispanic individuals in comparison with non-Hispanic whites. What may be less well known are those health disparities related to common blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Several studies (...) have shown that African-American and Hispanic injection drug users (IDU) have higher prevalence rates of these blood-borne pathogens, in addition to higher prevalence rates of HIV infection and AIDS cases. These blood-borne pathogens may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality among African-American and Hispanic IDU, and perhaps also that of their sexual partners. This article reviews some of what is currently known about the epidemiology of HIV, AIDS, HBV, and HCV among African

2005 AIDS

55495. The neuropsychological and neurological impact of hepatitis C virus co-infection in HIV-infected subjects. (Abstract)

The neuropsychological and neurological impact of hepatitis C virus co-infection in HIV-infected subjects. To evaluate the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infection on neuropsychological performance and neurological status in HIV/HCV treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals we conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from an HIV therapy trial.HCV status was determined by the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. Neuropsychological function was evaluated by Trailmaking tests (...) use and lower educational level. The HCV-positive group had a significantly lower neuropsychological performance overall. Multivariate modeling supported an association between HCV infection status with test performance in the Digit Symbol Task and mood parameters even when controlling for potentially confounding variables. Marginal differences were noted with respect to symptom questionnaire scores and global sleep. No differences were noted with respect to anxiety.The findings suggest that HCV

2005 AIDS

55496. Lessons learned in the conduct, validation, and interpretation of national population based HIV surveys. (Abstract)

Lessons learned in the conduct, validation, and interpretation of national population based HIV surveys. In the past few years several countries have conducted national population-based HIV surveys. Survey methods, levels of participation bias from absence or refusal and lessons learned conducting such surveys are compared in four national population surveys: Mali, Kenya, Peru and Zambia. In Mali, Zambia, and Kenya, HIV testing of adult women and men was included in the national-level (...) demographic and health surveys carried out regularly in these countries, whereas in Peru the national HIV survey targeted young people in 24 cities with populations over 50 000.The household response rate was above 90% in all countries, but some individuals were absent for interviews. HIV testing rates were between 70 and 79% of those eligible, with higher test rates for women. Three critical questions in this type of survey need to be answered: who did the surveys miss; how much it matters that they were

2005 AIDS

55497. Genotypes at chromosome 22q12-13 are associated with HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status in Italians. (Abstract)

deletion of the CCR5 gene.Based on our mapping in chromosome 15 of a gene controlling the production of neutralizing antibodies in a mouse retrovirus infection, we genotyped 42 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected Italians at polymorphic loci in the syntenic segment of human chromosome 22, and compared them with 49 HIV-1-infected and 47 uninfected healthy control individuals by a closed testing procedure.A significant association was found between chromosome 22q12-13 genotypes and a putative dominant locus (...) Genotypes at chromosome 22q12-13 are associated with HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status in Italians. Despite multiple and repeated exposures to HIV-1, some individuals possess no detectable HIV genome and show T-cell memory responses to the viral antigens. HIV-1-reactive mucosal IgA detected in such uninfected individuals suggests their possible immune resistance against HIV. We tested if the above HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status was associated with genetic markers other than a homozygous

2005 AIDS

55498. Multiple drug class-wide resistance associated with poorer survival after treatment failure in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. (Abstract)

Multiple drug class-wide resistance associated with poorer survival after treatment failure in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the effect of drug class-wide resistance (CWR) on survival in HIV-infected individuals who underwent genotypic resistance test after antiretroviral failure.Observational, longitudinal cohort study.HIV-infected individuals experiencing treatment failure were enrolled at first genotypic resistance test. End-points were death for any cause, AIDS-related (...) and 35.9%, respectively, for new AIDS event/death. In a multivariate Cox's model, higher HIV RNA level, previous AIDS and detection of three CWR (hazard ratio, 5.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-16.24) were all significantly associated with increased risk of death, while higher CD4 cell count and use of a new boosted protease inhibitor drug after identifying genotypic resistance were associated with reduced risk. Detection of three CWR was also significantly associated with higher risk of AIDS-related

2005 AIDS

55499. Reduced interleukin-8 response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages from adults with HIV/AIDS. (Abstract)

macrophages in vitro. Cell supernatant fluid was collected from unstimulated cells, and cells challenged with bacteria for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. Cytokine production (interleukins 1beta, 6 and 8) was measured in all fluids using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.All the cytokines tested increased over time in both HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. Interleukin-8 release was significantly lower in HIV-infected than in non-HIV-infected subjects (P = 0.02).Reduced interleukin-8 production may result (...) Reduced interleukin-8 response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages from adults with HIV/AIDS. HIV-infected adults are highly susceptible to pneumococcal disease.To examine if alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected subjects exhibited a failure of cytokine production in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro.Case-control comparison of alveolar macrophages from 11 HIV-infected and 13 non-infected adults.Type 1 opsonized S. pneumoniae were used to challenge the alveolar

2005 AIDS

55500. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in England and Wales 1990 to 2003: evidence for increased transmission in recent years. (Abstract)

prevalence in England and Wales declined from 5.9% in 1990 to 0.6% in 1996 and then remained stable until 1999, after which it increased to 1.4% in 2003. Few HIV infections were detected among short-term injectors between 1994 and 1999, but in recent years prevalence among this group has increased. Other factors associated with higher odds of HIV infection were being recruited in London and from community settings, and ever having had a voluntary confidential HIV test. Incidence estimated through a force (...) HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in England and Wales 1990 to 2003: evidence for increased transmission in recent years. To describe trends in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in England and Wales between 1990 and 2003.Analysis of surveillance data from voluntary unlinked anonymous cross-sectional surveys collecting oral fluid samples and behavioural information from injecting drug users recruited from both drug agency (n = 24,304) and community settings (n = 3628).HIV

2005 AIDS

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