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21. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase HIV Testing Demand Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya Through Announcing the Availability of HIV Self-testing Via Text Message. (PubMed)

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase HIV Testing Demand Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya Through Announcing the Availability of HIV Self-testing Via Text Message. We assessed whether informing female sex workers about the availability of HIV self-testing at clinics in Kenya using text messages would increase HIV testing rates. We selected a sample of 2196 female sex workers registered in an electronic health record system who were irregular HIV testers and randomized them to be sent (...) a text message announcing the availability of (1) HIV self-test kits sent three times (intervention), (2) general HIV testing sent three times (enhanced standard of care [SOC]), or (3) general HIV testing sent one time (traditional SOC). Participants in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to test for HIV during 2-month follow-up compared to those in the enhanced SOC (OR 1.9, p = 0.001). There was no difference in HIV testing between those in the enhanced SOC and the traditional SOC

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2019 AIDS and behavior

22. Re-reading of OraQuick HIV-1/2 rapid antibody test results: quality assurance implications for HIV self-testing programmes. (PubMed)

Re-reading of OraQuick HIV-1/2 rapid antibody test results: quality assurance implications for HIV self-testing programmes. Scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) will play a key role in meeting the United Nation's 90-90-90 targets. Delayed re-reading of used HIVST devices has been used by early implementation studies to validate the performance of self-test kits and to estimate HIV positivity among self-testers. We investigated the stability of results on used devices under controlled conditions (...) to assess its potential as a quality assurance approach for HIVST scale-up.444 OraQuick® HIV-1/2 rapid antibody tests were conducted using commercial plasma from two HIV-positive donors and HIV-negative plasma (high-reactive n = 148, weak-reactive n = 148 and non-reactive n = 148) and incubated them for six months under four conditions (combinations of high and low temperatures and humidity). Devices were re-read daily for one week, weekly for one subsequent month and then once a month by independent

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2019 Journal of the International AIDS Society

23. Community-led HIV testing services including HIV self-testing and assisted partner notification services in Vietnam: lessons from a pilot study in a concentrated epidemic setting. (PubMed)

Community-led HIV testing services including HIV self-testing and assisted partner notification services in Vietnam: lessons from a pilot study in a concentrated epidemic setting. The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated in key populations and their partners - people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, sex workers and partners of people living with HIV. These groups have poor access to and uptake of conventional HIV testing services (HTS). To address this gap, lay provider- and self (...) by peer educators. Both in-person and social network methods were used to mobilize key populations to test for HIV and offer HTS to partners of people living with HIV. Client-level data, including demographic information and self-reported risk behaviour, were collected on site by peer educators.Between January 2017 and May 2018, 3978 persons from key populations were tested through community-led HTS; 66.7% were first-time testers. Of the 3978 clients, 3086 received HTS from a lay provider and 892 self

2019 Journal of the International AIDS Society

24. Community-led delivery of HIV self-testing to improve HIV testing, ART initiation and broader social outcomes in rural Malawi: study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial. (PubMed)

Community-led delivery of HIV self-testing to improve HIV testing, ART initiation and broader social outcomes in rural Malawi: study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial. Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical public health issue. The highest HIV testing gaps are in men, adolescents 15-19 years old, and adults 40 years and older. Community-based HIV testing services (HTS) can contribute to increased testing coverage and early HIV diagnosis, with HIV self-testing (HIVST) strategies (...) showing promise. Community-based strategies, however, are resource intensive, costly and not widely implemented. A community-led approach to health interventions involves supporting communities to plan and implement solutions to improve their health. This trial aims to determine if community-led delivery of HIVST can improve HIV testing uptake, ART initiation, and broader social outcomes in rural Malawi.The trial uses a parallel arm, cluster-randomised design with group village heads (GVH

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

25. The acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in high-income countries

The acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in high-income countries The acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in high-income countries | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in high-income countries The acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in high-income countries , , Question What (...) is the acceptability (views) and uptake (use) of self-testing of HIV among men who have sex with men? Key take-home messages Men who have sex with men from high-income countries appear to be willing to use HIV self-tests (1-5). The main benefits of HIV self-tests are convenience and privacy (1, 6-8). The main barriers are concerns about administering the test, concerns about test accuracy, the lack of personal or professional support during testing (1, 6, 8) and cost (6, 7, 9, 10). When given a choice of different

2017 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

26. Technical specifications series for submission to WHO prequalification: diagnostic assessment: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) rapid diagnostic tests for professional use and/or self-testing

Technical specifications series for submission to WHO prequalification: diagnostic assessment: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) rapid diagnostic tests for professional use and/or self-testing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (‎HIV)‎ rapid diagnostic tests for professional use and/or self-testing JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Human Immunodeficiency Virus (‎HIV (...) )‎ rapid diagnostic tests for professional use and/or self-testing View/ Open Rights View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization . (‎2016)‎. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (‎HIV)‎ rapid diagnostic tests for professional use and/or self-testing. World Health Organization. . License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO Relation Technical specifications series for submission to WHO prequalification: diagnostic assessment, TSS-1 Description 26 p. ISBN 9789241511742 Collections Language English

2016 WHO

27. Self-testing kits increase overall HIV testing uptake in men who have sex with men

Self-testing kits increase overall HIV testing uptake in men who have sex with men Self-testing kits increase overall HIV testing uptake in men who have sex with men Discover Portal Discover Portal Self-testing kits increase overall HIV testing uptake in men who have sex with men Published on 6 February 2018 doi: Frequency of HIV testing in men who have sex with men may be increased by one additional test in a six month period when self-testing kits are used. Self-testing kits allow people (...) and support following an HIV diagnosis are of great importance and should include partner notification. Self-testing kits are available in the UK online from and are recommended by Public Health England. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? An estimated 89,400 people in the UK are living with HIV according to 2016 figures. The annual rate of new diagnoses is starting to decline, falling from 6,286 in 2015 to 5,164 in 2016. Over half of cases are in men who have sex with men (MSM

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

28. Increasing HIV testing engagement through provision of home HIV self-testing kits for patients who decline testing in the emergency department: a pilot randomisation study. (PubMed)

Increasing HIV testing engagement through provision of home HIV self-testing kits for patients who decline testing in the emergency department: a pilot randomisation study. Up to 60% of patients decline routine HIV testing offer in US emergency departments (EDs). The objective of this study is to determine whether the provision of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kit would increase engagement of HIV testing among these HIV test 'Decliners'.Patients who declined a test offered in an ED-based triage (...) nurse-driven HIV screening programme were enrolled and randomised to either the HIVST or the control group. The patients in the HIVST group received HIVST kits to take home, were encouraged to report test results to an established internet-based STI/HIV testing recruitment website 'I Want the Kit' (IWTK) and received five referral cards for their peers to request HIVST kits from IWTK. The control group received pamphlets about publicly available HIV testing sites. HIV testing from both groups after

2018 Sexually transmitted infections

29. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based lay distribution of HIV self-tests in increasing uptake of HIV testing among adults in rural Malawi and rural and peri-urban Zambia: protocol for STAR (self-testing for Africa) cluster randomized (PubMed)

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based lay distribution of HIV self-tests in increasing uptake of HIV testing among adults in rural Malawi and rural and peri-urban Zambia: protocol for STAR (self-testing for Africa) cluster randomized Knowledge of HIV status remains below target in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among men and adolescents. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a novel approach that enables unique distribution strategies, with potential to be highly decentralised (...) and to provide complementary coverage to facility-based testing approaches. However, substantial gaps in evidence remain on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIVST, particularly in rural settings, and on approaches to facilitate linkage to confirmatory HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services. This protocol describes two cluster-randomized trials (CRT) included within the UNITAID/PSI HIV Self-Testing Africa (STAR) project.Two independent CRTs were designed around existing reproductive health

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2018 BMC Public Health

30. How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda (PubMed)

How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior (...) to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90-17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74-13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06-15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month

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2017 AIDS and behavior

31. HIV self-testing at the workplace

HIV self-testing at the workplace POLICY BRIEF HIV TESTING SERVICES HIV SELF-TESTING AT THE WORKPLACE NOVEMBER 2018 Despite considerable scale-up of HIV testing services, many people are left behind, particularly men, adolescents, young women, and members of key populations 1 . Without further scale-up of strategies that make HIV testing services more convenient and appealing to those in need, it will be difficult to reach the United Nations 90–90–90 targets for 2020 – the first of which (...) is diagnosing 90% of all people with HIV. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a testing option recommended by WHO that can be used to reach as-yet undiagnosed populations. According to the latest reports 2 , 59 countries have adopted HIVST policies as of June 2018, and many others are developing them. Photos clockwise: Re-Action, South Africa; Re-Action, South Africa; ILO; Sibanye-Stillwater, South Africa. 1 The WHO defines key populations as groups who, due to specific higher-risk behaviours and barriers

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

32. Targeted HIV testing for male partners of HIV-positive pregnant women in a high prevalence setting in Nigeria. (PubMed)

Targeted HIV testing for male partners of HIV-positive pregnant women in a high prevalence setting in Nigeria. Partner HIV testing during pregnancy has remained abysmally low in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Nigeria. Males rarely attend antenatal clinics with their female partners, limiting the few opportunities available to offer them HIV testing. In this study, we evaluated the scale-up of the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), a community-driven evidenced-based intervention (...) to increase HIV testing among pregnant women and their male partners. Our objectives were to determine the: (1) male partner participation rate; (2) prevalence of HIV among male partners of pregnant women; (3) factors associated with HIV positivity among male partners of HIV-positive pregnant women.We reviewed program data of expectant parents enrolled in HBI in Benue State, north-central Nigeria. During HBI, trained lay health workers provided educational and counseling sessions, and offered free onsite

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2019 PLoS ONE

33. HIV index testing to improve HIV positivity rate and linkage to care and treatment of sexual partners, adolescents and children of PLHIV in Lesotho. (PubMed)

HIV index testing to improve HIV positivity rate and linkage to care and treatment of sexual partners, adolescents and children of PLHIV in Lesotho. Despite years of HIV testing and other interventions, Lesotho continues to experience an incredibly high HIV burden. Prevalence of HIV among children ages 0-14 years is at 2.1% and 25.6% among adults ages 15-59 years. Among adults living with HIV, 77.2% know their status, 90.2% of those with known HIV positive status are currently receiving ART (...) and 88.3% are virally suppressed. In order to identify adults, adolescents and children at high risk of HIV infection, Population Services International (PSI)/Lesotho with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) introduced the HIV Index testing model in 2015. PLHIV recruited for index testing, were accessed through health facilities and community testing at PSI New Start channels in five districts. Consenting index clients received home visits for HIV testing

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2019 PLoS ONE

34. Linkage to care of HIV positive clients in a community based HIV counselling and testing programme: A success story of non-governmental organisations in a South African district. (PubMed)

Linkage to care of HIV positive clients in a community based HIV counselling and testing programme: A success story of non-governmental organisations in a South African district. Although current data projects South Africa potentially meeting the UN target to test 90% of all people living with HIV by 2020, linking them to HIV care remains a big challenge. In an effort to increase linkage to care (LTC) of HIV positive clients an innovative collaborative intervention between two non-governmental (...) organisations was developed and implemented between 2016 and 2017. This paper investigated the outcome of this collaborative intervention.We used a mixed methods approach to assess the outcome of the innovative relationship. This was done by analysing routine programmatic quantitative data on LTC between 2015 and 2017 and qualitatively interviewing five programme managers, four programme implementers and five HIV positive clients on their perceived success/failure factors. Qualitative data were analysed

2019 PLoS ONE

35. HIV testing and the HIV care continuum among sub-Saharan African men who have sex with men and transgender women screened for participation in HPTN 075. (PubMed)

HIV testing and the HIV care continuum among sub-Saharan African men who have sex with men and transgender women screened for participation in HPTN 075. Throughout the world, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection compared to heterosexual men. Little is known about awareness of HIV infection and other gaps in the HIV care continuum for MSM, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This information is urgently needed to address the HIV epidemic in this population (...) , 601 MSM and TW were tested for HIV infection and asked about prior HIV testing, HIV status, engagement in care, and HIV treatment. Viral load testing and retrospective antiretroviral (ARV) drug testing were performed for HIV-infected participants. Most participants (92.2%) had a prior HIV test; 42.1% were last tested >6 months earlier. HIV prevalence was 30.4%. HIV infection was associated with older age and identifying as female or transgender; 43.7% of the HIV-infected participants were newly

2019 PLoS ONE

36. "Self-testing sounds more private, rather than going to the clinic and everybody will find out": Facilitators and barriers regarding HIV testing among men who purchase sex in Bali, Indonesia. (PubMed)

"Self-testing sounds more private, rather than going to the clinic and everybody will find out": Facilitators and barriers regarding HIV testing among men who purchase sex in Bali, Indonesia. In many Asian countries, men who purchase sex account for the largest single network of people which often face elevated HIV risk in relation to the general population. However, high proportions of these men have never undertaken HIV testing. We assessed barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing among (...) men who purchase sex in Indonesia, including the acceptability of HIV self-testing. A qualitative study was conducted during December 2016-January 2017 at fourteen sex-work venues and one voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) clinic in Bali. Interviews were conducted with men who purchase sex exploring the men's views on HIV testing. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Twenty-nine men participated in the study. The themes that emerged regarding the barriers to HIV testing included

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2019 PLoS ONE

37. Investigating the addition of oral HIV self-tests among populations with high testing coverage - Do they add value? Lessons from a study in Khayelitsha, South Africa. (PubMed)

Investigating the addition of oral HIV self-tests among populations with high testing coverage - Do they add value? Lessons from a study in Khayelitsha, South Africa. HIV self-testing (HIVST) offers a useful addition to HIV testing services and enables individuals to test privately. Despite recommendations to the contrary, repeat HIV testing is frequent among people already on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and there are concerns that oral self-testing might lead to false negative results (...) -reporting a negative HIVST result, 19 (4.7%) were already known to be HIV positive; of the 27 self-reporting positive, 12 (44%) were known HIV positive. Overall, records showed 57/639 (8.9%) were HIV positive of whom 39/57 (68.4%) had previously-diagnosed infection and 18/57 (31.6%) newly-diagnosed infection. Of the 428 participants who self-reported a result, 366 (85.5%) reported by SMS.HIVST can improve HIV testing uptake and linkage to care. SMS is acceptable for reporting HIVST results but negative

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2019 PLoS ONE

38. Effectiveness of symptom-based diagnostic HIV testing versus targeted and blanket provider-initiated testing and counseling among children and adolescents in Cameroon. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of symptom-based diagnostic HIV testing versus targeted and blanket provider-initiated testing and counseling among children and adolescents in Cameroon. The concurrent implementation of targeted (tPITC) and blanket provider-initiated testing and counselling (bPITC) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for HIV case-finding in generalized HIV epidemics. This study assessed the effectiveness of this intervention compared to symptom-based diagnostic HIV testing (DHT (...) ) in terms of HIV testing uptake, case detection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollment among children and adolescents in Cameroon, where estimated HIV prevalence is relatively low at 3.7%.In three hospitals where DHT was the standard practice before, tPITC and bPITC were implemented by inviting HIV-positive parents in care at the ART clinics to have their biological children (6 weeks-19 years) tested for HIV (tPITC). Concurrently, at the outpatient departments, similarly-age children/adolescents

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2019 PLoS ONE

39. Post-test adverse psychological effects and coping mechanisms amongst HIV self-tested individuals living in couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi. (PubMed)

Post-test adverse psychological effects and coping mechanisms amongst HIV self-tested individuals living in couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi. Mandatory face-to-face counselling is necessary during HIV testing but difficult to implement within the context of HIV self-testing. We investigated adverse psychological effects and coping mechanisms following HIV-positive and HIV-discordant test results amongst self-tested individuals living in couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi.Qualitative data from (...) 35 in-depth interviews with self-tested individuals living in couples for more than 3 months were collected and analysed using thematic content analysis.Adverse psychological effects seemed to mostly occur among individuals learning for the first-time that they were HIV-positive or living in HIV-discordant relationship. Irrespective of test outcomes, women living in couples expressed difficulty making important decisions about the future of their relationships while men seemed to shoulder

2019 PLoS ONE

40. Home-based intervention to test and start (HITS) protocol: a cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV-related mortality in men and HIV incidence in women through increased coverage of HIV treatment. (PubMed)

Home-based intervention to test and start (HITS) protocol: a cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV-related mortality in men and HIV incidence in women through increased coverage of HIV treatment. To realize the full benefits of treatment as prevention in many hyperendemic African contexts, there is an urgent need to increase uptake of HIV testing and HIV treatment among men to reduce the rate of HIV transmission to (particularly young) women. This trial aims to evaluate the effect (...) of two interventions - micro-incentives and a tablet-based male-targeted HIV decision support application - on increasing home-based HIV testing and linkage to HIV care among men with the ultimate aim of reducing HIV-related mortality in men and HIV incidence in young women.This is a cluster randomized trial of 45 communities (clusters) in a rural area in the uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa (2018-2021). The study is built upon the Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI)'s HIV

2019 BMC Public Health

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