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HIV Exposure

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121. Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil)

Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil) Pre-e Pre-exposure proph xposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high ylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: T risk: T ruvada ( ruvada (emtricitabine/tenofo emtricitabine/tenofovir disopro vir disoproxil) xil) Evidence summary Published: 5 October 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/esnm78 pathways K Ke ey points from the e y points from the evidence vidence The content of this evidence summary was up (...) -to-date in October 2016. See summaries of product characteristics (SPCs), British national formulary (BNF) or the MHRA or NICE websites for up-to-date information. Summary This evidence summary reviewed 4 randomised trials of Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil 200 mg/245 mg) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV in either HIV-negative men or transgender women who have sex with men, or HIV-negative individuals in a heterosexual partnership with a person already infected with HIV

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

122. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (Joint NICE and Public Health England guideline)

that they have another test once they are past the window period. [2011, amended 2016] [2011, amended 2016] 1.2.6 Recommend annual testing to people in groups or communities with a high rate of HIV, and more frequently if they are at high risk of exposure (in line with Public Health England's HIV in the UK: situation report 2015). For example: men who have sex with men should have HIV and sexually transmitted infection tests at least annually, and every 3 months if they are having unprotected sex with new (...) exposure to HIV infection and when a test will give an accurate result. The window period is 1 month for a fourth-generation test and 3 months for older tests. [1] Antenatal HIV testing is covered by the UK National Screening Committee and is outside the remit of this guideline. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (NG60) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 14

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

123. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in Malaysia: Findings from an online survey. (PubMed)

Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in Malaysia: Findings from an online survey. We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia.An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown

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2017 PLoS ONE

124. Plasma nevirapine concentrations predict virological and adherence failure in Kenyan HIV-1 infected patients with extensive antiretroviral treatment exposure. (PubMed)

Plasma nevirapine concentrations predict virological and adherence failure in Kenyan HIV-1 infected patients with extensive antiretroviral treatment exposure. Treatment failure is a key challenge in the management of HIV-1 infection. We conducted a mixed-model survey of plasma nevirapine (NVP) concentrations (cNVP) and viral load in order to examine associations with treatment and adherence outcomes among Kenyan patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood plasma was collected at 1 (...) plasma concentrations of NVP and that of other ART drugs into routine ART management of HIV-1 patients.

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2017 PLoS ONE

125. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation. (PubMed)

Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

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2017 PLoS ONE

126. Alterations in cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elvitegravir in response to ethanol exposure in HIV-1 infected monocytic (U1) cells. (PubMed)

Alterations in cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elvitegravir in response to ethanol exposure in HIV-1 infected monocytic (U1) cells. Ethanol consumption is negatively associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and general health in HIV positive individuals. Previously, we demonstrated ethanol-mediated alterations to metabolism of elvitegravir (EVG) in human liver microsomes. In the current study, we investigated ethanol influence on the pharmacokinetic (...) and pharmacodynamic interactions of EVG in HIV infected monocytic (U1) cells. U1 cells were treated with 5 μM EVG, 2 μM Cobicistat (COBI), a booster drug, and 20 mM ethanol for up to 24 hours. EVG, HIV p24 levels, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, MRP1, and MDR1 protein expressions were measured. Presence of ethanol demonstrated a significant effect on the total exposures of both EVG and EVG in combination with COBI. Ethanol also increased the HIV replication despite the presence of drugs

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2017 PLoS ONE

127. Impact of lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents in Madrid, Spain during 2000-2014. (PubMed)

Impact of lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents in Madrid, Spain during 2000-2014. The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain.Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r (...) exposed to LPV/r during 2000-2014 in first (group 1), second (group 2) or more line-therapies (group 3). Patients were mainly Spaniards (81.9%), perinatally infected (96.5%) with subtype-B (65.3%) and HIV-diagnosed before year 2000 (67.8%). The mean age at first LPV/r exposure was 9.7 years. After protease-inhibitor exposure, viral suppression was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. Viral suppression occurred in 87.5%, 68.6% and 64.8% patients from groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among the 64

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2017 PLoS ONE

128. An Analysis of the Last Clinical Encounter before Outpatient Mortality among Children with HIV Infection and Exposure in Lilongwe, Malawi. (PubMed)

An Analysis of the Last Clinical Encounter before Outpatient Mortality among Children with HIV Infection and Exposure in Lilongwe, Malawi. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting.This (...) retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi. We compared clinical indicators documented from the final outpatient encounter for patients who died in the outpatient setting versus those who were alive after their penultimate clinical encounter.Of the 8,546 patients who were attended to over a 10-year

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2017 PLoS ONE

129. High Willingness to Use HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Transgender Women in Argentina (PubMed)

High Willingness to Use HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Transgender Women in Argentina Purpose: In Argentina, transgender women face a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection (34%). Although not currently approved in Argentina, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may offer a potential effective HIV prevention tool for this population. In this study, we assessed the willingness to use PrEP among transgender women in Argentina. Methods: Data were drawn from a nationwide cross-sectional (...) survey conducted among transgender women in 2013. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with willingness to use PrEP among transgender women with negative or unknown HIV status. Results: This study included 337 transgender women (278 HIV negative and 59 with unknown HIV status), most of whom had a history of sex work involvement (81.8%). Overall, 301 (89.3%) expressed willingness to use PrEP. In a multivariable analysis, having casual sexual

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2016 Transgender health

130. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV GUIDELINE ON WHEN TO START ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND ON PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV SEPTEMBER 2015 GUIDELINESThis early-release guideline will form part of the updated WHO consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection due to be published in 2016.GUIDELINE ON WHEN TO START ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND ON PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV SEPTEMBER (...) 2015WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. 1.HIV Infections – drug therapy. 2.Anti-Retroviral Agents – administration and dosage. 3.Anti-Retroviral agents – therapeutic use. 4.Time-to-Treatment. 5.Guideline. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 150956 5 (NLM classification: WC 503.2) © World Health Organization 2015 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

131. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors in a U.S. Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples (PubMed)

HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors in a U.S. Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is an underutilized biomedical option for HIV prevention. Few studies have assessed male couples' knowledge of and willingness to use nPEP.Cross-sectional dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples were used to describe HIV-negative, partnered (...) difference between primary partners and with higher scores on measures of couples' investment in their relationship.Efforts should be made to increase male couples' awareness of nPEP and how to access nPEP. Uptake of nPEP has the potential to help avert new HIV infections among male couples.

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2016 LGBT health

132. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for women and infants prevents vaginal and oral HIV transmission in a preclinical model of HIV infection. (PubMed)

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for women and infants prevents vaginal and oral HIV transmission in a preclinical model of HIV infection. Approximately 1.5 million HIV-positive women become pregnant annually. Without treatment, up to 45% will transmit HIV to their infants, primarily through breastfeeding. These numbers highlight that HIV acquisition is a major health concern for women and children globally. They also emphasize the urgent need for novel approaches to prevent HIV acquisition (...) transmission was evaluated using highly relevant transmitted/founder viruses in BLT mice.Strong HIV inhibitory activity in serum, cervicovaginal secretions and saliva obtained from animals after a single oral dose of 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (10 mg/kg) demonstrated efficient drug penetration into relevant mucosal sites. A single daily oral dose of 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine resulted in efficient prevention of vaginal and oral HIV transmission after multiple high-dose exposures

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2016 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

133. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Screening and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Screening and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) © 2014 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington. All rights reserved. 1 HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Screening and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Guideline Background 2 Screening Recommendations HIV Test Ordering and Consent 2 Indications for Periodic HIV Screening 3 Referrals 3 Follow-up and Monitoring 4 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) 4 Evidence Summary 5 References 6 Guideline Development Process (...) 15 through 64) One time Adolescents and adults at increased risk Use clinical judgment: • For patients with frequent exposure to HIV risks, every 3–6 months • For patients with occasional exposure to HIV risks, consider screening at least annually (See the “Indications for Periodic HIV Screening” section on page 3.) Pregnant women • At first prenatal visit for each pregnancy • For women at high risk of STIs, consider also testing in 3 rd trimester (For women presenting in labor without prior

2013 Kaiser Permanente Clinical Guidelines

134. Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA): HIV post-exposure prophylaxis regimen

Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA): HIV post-exposure prophylaxis regimen EAGA guidance on HIV post-exposure prophylaxis - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. or Search Guidance EAGA guidance on HIV post-exposure prophylaxis Updated guidance on occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) from the UK Chief Medical Officers' Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA). Published 19 September 2008 Last updated 29 April 2015 — From: Documents If you use assistive technology (...) September 2014 Added an update on the change to recommended regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) 24 January 2014 Updated advice regarding the need for PEP following occupational injuries resulting from needles, syringes and other sharp instruments contaminated with HIV. 19 September 2008 First published. Explore the topic Is this page useful? Thank you for your feedback Help us improve GOV.UK Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card

2014 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

135. The British HIV Association/British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Position Statement on pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK

The British HIV Association/British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Position Statement on pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK 404 - Oops, can't find that 404 THE PAGE WAS NOT FOUND

2012 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

136. Brief Report: Frequency of Monitoring Kidney Function in HIV-Uninfected Persons Using Daily Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. (PubMed)

Brief Report: Frequency of Monitoring Kidney Function in HIV-Uninfected Persons Using Daily Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. Wide-scale implementation of oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is now policy in many settings. However, the optimal frequency for monitoring kidney function remains uncertain. We investigated the impact of 6-monthly compared with 3-monthly creatinine clearance (CrCl) monitoring on the identification

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2018 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

137. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men. (PubMed)

PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men. Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake (...) of Year 1 of the trial in March 2018.PrEP Chicago addresses a gap in HIV prevention research and intervention design by utilizing the existing social networks among young Black men who have sex with men as mechanisms for information diffusion, behavioral influence, social support, and empowerment. Therefore, interventions that leverage peer influence processes to facilitate PrEP uptake are promising strategies to improve sexual health engagement and overcome disparities in outcomes among this at-risk

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2018 Clinical trials (London, England)

138. Integrated Bio-behavioral Approach to Improve Adherence to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Reduce HIV Risk in People Who Use Drugs: A Pilot Feasibility Study. (PubMed)

Integrated Bio-behavioral Approach to Improve Adherence to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Reduce HIV Risk in People Who Use Drugs: A Pilot Feasibility Study. This study reports the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the bio-behavioral community-friendly health recovery program-an integrated, HIV prevention intervention to improve pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-risk reduction behaviors among high-risk people who use drugs. We used a within-subjects, pretest (...) -posttest follow-up design to recruit participants, who were HIV-uninfected, methadone-maintained and reported HIV-risk behaviors and had initiated PrEP (n = 40; males: 55%). Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately post-intervention (4 weeks: T4) and 4 weeks post-intervention (T8). Immediately after completing the four weekly intervention groups, participants underwent a post-intervention assessment including in-depth qualitative interviews. Feasibility was high, assessed by participant

2018 AIDS and behavior

139. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine and Kidney Tubular Dysfunction in HIV-Uninfected Individuals. (PubMed)

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine and Kidney Tubular Dysfunction in HIV-Uninfected Individuals. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is becoming increasingly adopted for HIV prevention. Tenofovir can cause proximal tubular damage and chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons, but little is known regarding its nephrotoxic potential among HIV-uninfected persons. In this study, we evaluated (...) the effects of PrEP on urine levels of the following: α1-microglobulin (α1m), a marker of impaired tubular reabsorption; albuminuria, a measure of glomerular injury; and total proteinuria.The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposicion (iPrEx) study randomized HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men to oral TDF/FTC or placebo. The iPrEx open-label extension (iPrEx-OLE) study enrolled former PrEP trial participants to receive open-label TDF/FTC.A cross-sectional analysis compared urine

2018 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

140. Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. (PubMed)

Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between (...) and high proportion (>50%) of infants with at least one DRM independently of ARV exposure. BF recombinants were found in 74%, subtype B in 20%, subtype C in 3% and novel AG and AB recombinants in 3%.PDR in HIV-1-infected children from Argentina is among the highest reported, jeopardizing successful lifelong suppressive ART as well as the efficacy of current PMTCT regimens.© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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