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101. Better Antiretroviral Central Nervous System Penetration is Not Associated with Reduced Chronic Pain in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Better Antiretroviral Central Nervous System Penetration is Not Associated with Reduced Chronic Pain in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus To determine if better antiretroviral (ARV) central nervous system (CNS) penetration is associated with reduced rates of chronic pain in people living with HIV (PLWH).Chronic pain remains prevalent in PLWH despite widespread ARV use. Mechanisms underlying this prevalence remain unknown, though neuroinflammation from persistent CNS HIV infection (...) and maladaptive plastic changes in the CNS have been implicated. Here we hypothesize that better CNS ARV penetration, measured using the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness (CPE) score, would decrease rates of chronic pain.We interviewed 254 consecutive adults from an HIV clinic in Chiang Mai, Thailand. We collected data on demographics, HIV history, ARV use, and pain characteristics. Patients were evaluated for depression using a Thai two question Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Modified CPE score

2016 Anti-infective agents

102. Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants Perinatal HIV infection and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may increase the risk for hearing loss. We examined 1,435 infants enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network, a prospective study of the safety of in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposures. We determined the proportion of perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (...) (HEU) newborns who were referred for additional hearing testing, and evaluated the association between in utero ARV exposures and newborn hearing screening results. Using a nested case-control design, we also examined congenital CMV infection in infants with and without screening referral. Congenital CMV infection was determined based on CMV DNA detection using a nested PCR assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained within 14 days of birth. Among the 1,435 infants (70% black, 31% Hispanic

2016 Journal of AIDS and immune research

103. UCLA1 aptamer inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C primary isolates in macrophages and selection of resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

UCLA1 aptamer inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C primary isolates in macrophages and selection of resistance We have previously shown that the aptamer, UCLA1, is able to inhibit HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by binding to residues in gp120. In this study we examined whether UCLA1 was effective against HIV-1 subtype C isolates in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Of 4 macrophage-tropic isolates tested, 3 were inhibited by UCLA1 (...) in the C2 region and P369L within the CD4 and CoR binding complex. A second isolate showed a 3-fold increase in IC80 (118 nM) but failed to show any genetic changes. Collectively, these data show that UCLA1 can efficiently block HIV-1 infection in MDMs and PBMCs with escape mutations arising in some isolates after prolonged exposure to the aptamer. This supports the further development of the UCLA1 aptamer as a HIV-1 entry inhibitor.

2016 Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

104. Educating the Primary Care Clinician on Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Educating the Primary Care Clinician on Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 27270360 2018 03 06 2018 11 13 2168-6114 176 7 2016 07 01 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Educating the Primary Care Clinician on Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Teachable Moment. 890-1 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2225 Lu Paul Matthew PM Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York. Shearer Lee S LS (...) Intern Med 101589534 2168-6106 0 Anti-HIV Agents AIM IM Anti-HIV Agents administration & dosage HIV Infections prevention & control HIV Seropositivity Humans Male Patient Education as Topic Physicians, Primary Care standards Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis methods Risk Assessment Young Adult Disclosures: Drs. Lu and Shearer have nothing to disclose. Dr. Edelman was funded as a Yale-Drug Abuse, Addiction, and HIV Research Scholar (K12DA033312-03) during the preparation of this manuscript. 2016 6 9 6 0 2016 6

2016 JAMA Internal Medicine

105. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Other Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexual and Reproductive Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Other Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexual and Reproductive Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and questioning youth represent a diverse population who are affected by many sexual health inequities, including increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To provide comprehensive sexual health care for LGBT youth, providers should set the stage (...) with a nonjudgmental, respectful tone. Providers should be competent in recognizing symptoms of STIs and HIV and aware of the most up-to-date screening guidelines for LGBT youth. Sexual health visits should also focus on prevention, including safer sex practices, HIV pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis, family planning, and immunization for hepatitis and human papillomavirus.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 Pediatric Clinics Of North America

106. Protective hybrid coating containing silver, copper and zinc cations effective against human immunodeficiency virus and other enveloped viruses Full Text available with Trip Pro

silver, copper and zinc cations that was previously shown to be effective against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hybrid coatings containing silver, copper and zinc cations were prepared through radical polymerization via sol-gel method and applied on glass slides or into the wells of polymethylmethacrylate plates. A 10 μl droplet of several viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), influenza, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus (...) Protective hybrid coating containing silver, copper and zinc cations effective against human immunodeficiency virus and other enveloped viruses Healthcare-acquired infections by pathogenic microorganisms including viruses represent significant health concern worldwide. Next to direct transmission from person-to-person also indirect transmission from contaminated surfaces is well documented and important route of infections. Here, we tested antiviral properties of hybrid coating containing

2016 BMC microbiology

107. Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly (...) . The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration.Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent

2016 Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

108. Prevalence of significant liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients exposed to Didanosine: A cross sectional study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of significant liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients exposed to Didanosine: A cross sectional study To identify significant liver disease [including nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH)] in asymptomatic Didanosine (DDI) exposed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients.Patients without known liver disease and with > 6 mo previous DDI use had liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). Those with alanine transaminase (ALT) above (...) upper limit normal and/or TE > 7.65 kPa underwent ultrasound scan (U/S). Patients with: (1) abnormal U/S; or (2) elevated ALT plus TE > 7.65 kPa; or (3) TE > 9.4 kPa were offered trans-jugular liver biopsy (TJLB) with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) assessment.Ninety-nine patients were recruited, median age 50 years (range 31-70), 81% male and 70% men who have sex with men. Ninety-five percent with VL < 50 copies on antiretroviral therapy with median CD4 count 639 IU/L. Median DDI exposure

2016 World journal of hepatology

109. Tobacco Smoking Is Not Associated With Accelerated Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis C Coinfection: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tobacco Smoking Is Not Associated With Accelerated Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis C Coinfection: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis Background.  Tobacco smoking has been shown to be an independent risk factor for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in some cross-sectional studies. No longitudinal study has confirmed this relationship, and the effect of tobacco exposure on liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected individuals (...) is unknown. Methods.  The study population consisted of participants from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort study (CTN 222), a multicenter longitudinal study of HIV-HCV coinfected individuals from 2003 to 2014. Data were analyzed for all participants who did not have significant fibrosis or end-stage liver disease (ESLD) at baseline. The association between time-updated tobacco exposure (ever vs nonsmokers and pack-years) and progression to significant liver fibrosis (defined as an aspartate-to-platelet

2016 Open forum infectious diseases

110. Psychosocial adjustment in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus infected or exposed children - a Retrospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Psychosocial adjustment in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus infected or exposed children - a Retrospective Cohort Study. To determine whether perinatal HIV infection and exposure adversely affected psychosocial adjustment (PA) between 6 and 18 years of life (i.e. during school-age and adolescence).We enrolled 58 perinatally HIV-infected, 56 HIV-exposed uninfected and 54 unexposed controls from Kampala, Uganda. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months of age using a DNA (...) by perinatal HIV status. Likewise, the distress and depressive symptom levels were comparable for HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children.Perinatal HIV infection predicted higher distress and depressive symptoms, while HIV-affected status (infection/exposure) predicted low self-esteem and diminished positive outlook in the long term. However, HIV-affected status had no impact on hopelessness, suggesting that psychosocial interventions as an integral component of HIV care for infected children

2016 Journal of the International AIDS Society

111. Integrating Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Into Women's Health Care in the United States. (Abstract)

Integrating Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Into Women's Health Care in the United States. Women comprise one in five new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses in the United States. Trials and implementation projects demonstrate preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is effective in women. Preexposure prophylaxis is a method of preventing HIV acquisition by having an HIV-negative individual take antiretroviral medication before exposure. The U.S (...) . Food and Drug Administration approved daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate coformulated with emtricitabine as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in 2012. Preexposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on adherence for effectiveness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends offering preexposure prophylaxis to individuals at significant risk of infection and estimates 468,000 women in the United States are eligible for preexposure prophylaxis. Although variable individual

2016 Obstetrics and Gynecology

112. Study to Evaluate the Safety Tolerability and Acceptability of Long Acting Injections of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Integrase Inhibitor, GSK1265744, in HIV Uninfected Men (ECLAIR)

Study to Evaluate the Safety Tolerability and Acceptability of Long Acting Injections of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Integrase Inhibitor, GSK1265744, in HIV Uninfected Men (ECLAIR) Study to Evaluate the Safety Tolerability and Acceptability of Long Acting Injections of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Integrase Inhibitor, GSK1265744, in HIV Uninfected Men (ECLAIR) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting (...) registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study to Evaluate the Safety Tolerability and Acceptability of Long Acting Injections of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Integrase Inhibitor, GSK1265744, in HIV Uninfected Men (ECLAIR) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study

2014 Clinical Trials

113. Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis

who may have been occupationally or sexually exposed to HIV. Once exposed to HIV, there may be a brief period before the infection is established, during which ART may successfully prevent viral replication. Pinto LA, Landay AL, Berzofsky JA, et al. Immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in healthcare workers occupationally exposed to HIV-contaminated blood. Am J Med. 1997;102:21-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9845492?tool=bestpractice.com Spira AI, Marx PA, Patterson BK, et (...) al. Cellular targets of infection and route of viral dissemination after an intravaginal inoculation of simian immunodeficiency virus into rhesus macaques. J Exp Med. 1996;183:215-225. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2192425/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8551225?tool=bestpractice.com PEP should be given as soon as possible following exposure; a 28-day course of treatment is recommended. Fisher M, Briggs E, Cresswell F, et al. UK guideline for the use of post-exposure prophylaxis

2018 BMJ Best Practice

114. A randomised controlled trial of a telephone administered brief HIV risk reduction intervention amongst men who have sex with men prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual exposure in the UK: Project PEPSE. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomised controlled trial of a telephone administered brief HIV risk reduction intervention amongst men who have sex with men prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual exposure in the UK: Project PEPSE. In western countries, men who have sex with men (MSM) are most affected by HIV and increasingly likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour. MSM who experience a potential sexual exposure to HIV (PEPSE) and receive a preventative regimen of anti-HIV treatment (...) are at particularly high risk of acquiring HIV and could potentially benefit from targeted risk reduction behavioural interventions such as motivational interviewing (MI).The aim of this trial was to examine the impact of augmented MI (MI plus information provision and behavioural skills building), over and above routine care, on reducing risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEPSE. Secondary aims of the research were to examine whether the intervention reduced sexually transmitted infections (STI) and further

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

115. Gender Reassignment Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Report of Two Cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gender Reassignment Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Report of Two Cases It is believed that surgery on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is dangerous and should be avoided due to the possibility of postoperative infection of the patients or HIV occupational transmission to the medical staff. We discuss here the preparations and measures needed to conduct surgery safely on HIV-positive patients, based on our experience. We performed sex (...) was performed during their perioperative course. Neither of the patients had postoperative complications, and none of the medical staff experienced accidental exposure. Both patients had satisfactory surgery outcomes without complications. HIV-positive patients can undergo surgery safely without increased risk of postoperative complications or HIV transmission to the staff through the proper use of antibiotics, active antiretroviral therapy, and supplemental protective measures with post-exposure

2015 Archives of plastic surgery

116. Regimen Switch to Dolutegravir + Rilpivirine From Current Antiretroviral Regimen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected and Virologically Suppressed Adults (SWORD-2)

is to determine if virologically suppressed, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected adults on an antiretroviral regimen (including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs] plus a third agent) remain suppressed upon switching to a two-drug regimen with dolutegravir (DTG) + rilpivirine (RPV). The study will primarily assess the non-inferiority antiviral activity of switching to DTG + RPV once daily compared to continuation of current antiretroviral regimen (CAR) up to Week 48 (...) of Participants With Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) <50 Copies/Milliliter (c/mL) at Week 48 Using Snapshot Algorithm [ Time Frame: Week 48. ] Percentage of participants with plasma HIV 1 RNA < 50 c/mL at Week 48 using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) snapshot algorithm was assessed to demonstrate the non-inferior antiviral activity of switching to DTG+RPV once daily compared to continuation of CAR over 48 weeks in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral therapy (ART

2015 Clinical Trials

117. Regimen Switch to Dolutegravir + Rilpivirine From Current Antiretroviral Regimen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected and Virologically Suppressed Adults (SWORD-1)

is to determine if virologically suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected adults on an antiretroviral regimen (including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs] plus a third agent) remain suppressed upon switching to a two-drug regimen with dolutegravir (DTG) + rilpivirine (RPV). The study will primarily assess the non-inferiority antiviral activity of switching to DTG + RPV once daily compared to continuation of current antiretroviral regimen (CAR) up to Week 48 (...) of Participants With Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) <50 Copies/Milliliter (c/mL) at Week 48 Using Snapshot Algorithm [ Time Frame: Week 48 ] Percentage of participants with plasma HIV 1 RNA < 50 c/mL at Week 48 using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) snapshot algorithm was assessed to demonstrate the non-inferior antiviral activity of switching to DTG + RPV once daily compared to continuation of CAR over 48 weeks in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral therapy (ART

2015 Clinical Trials

118. High-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity is improved by treatment with antiretroviral therapy in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity is improved by treatment with antiretroviral therapy in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection. Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages may be inhibited by HIV and contribute to increased CVD. Human studies have not investigated longitudinal effects of HIV (...) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on cholesterol efflux.Subjects with acute HIV infection were randomized to ART or not. Cholesterol efflux capacity was determined ex vivo after exposure of murine macrophages to apolipoprotein B-depleted patient sera obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks.After 12 weeks, HIV RNA decreased most in subjects randomized to ART. Available data on cholesterol demonstrated that efflux capacity from Abca1(+/+) macrophages was increased most by sera obtained from ART-treated subjects

2015 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

119. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths and opportunistic infectious diseases. This has resulted in prolonged survival of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this improvement in survival has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD (...) ) and end-stage renal disease. CKD is now epidemic among HIV-infected populations in both Western and Eastern countries. Risk factors associated with CKD in HIV-infected populations include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, a low CD4 cell count, and a high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD

2015 World journal of nephrology

120. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration HIV Nef acts as an anti-autophagic maturation factor through interaction with beclin-1 (BECN1). We report that exposure of macrophages to infectious or non-infectious purified HIV induces toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and BECN1 dependent dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB and that this correlates with an increase in autophagy markers. RNA interference for ATG13, TFEB, TLR8 (...) , the interaction between HIV and TLR8 serves as a signal for autophagy induction that is dependent upon the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB. During permissive infection, Nef binds BECN1 resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) activation, TFEB phosphorylation and cytosolic sequestration, and the inhibition of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus modulating TFEB localization and helps to explain how HIV modulates autophagy to promote its own replication

2015 PLoS pathogens

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