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81. Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care Providers’ Attitudes Toward the Use of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Youth Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care Providers’ Attitudes Toward the Use of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Youth Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention is currently indicated for use in adults in the United States and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents. However, implementation of PrEP use among minors may present unique barriers. We conducted 15 individual, semi-structured interviews among US clinicians caring for HIV-infected (...) and at-risk youth. The theory-driven interview guide assessed demographics, perceived role of oral PrEP in HIV prevention among adolescents, perceived barriers to and facilitating factors for use of PrEP in adolescents, and clinician-reported likelihood of prescribing PrEP. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Overall, clinicians viewed PrEP as a time-limited intervention that is one part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention among adolescents. Perceived barriers to prescribing

2016 AIDS patient care and STDs

82. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Background.  A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug (...) resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods.  We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results.  Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay

2016 Open forum infectious diseases

83. Pre-exposure prophylaxis: a useful tool to prevent human immunodeficiency virus infection? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-exposure prophylaxis: a useful tool to prevent human immunodeficiency virus infection? The aim of preventive measures against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as men having sex with men (MSM), and to reduce the risk that a given individual will contract or spread the virus. Male and female condoms, post-exposure prophylaxis and circumcision are preventive methods currently recognized (...) or promoted worldwide. Although modest success has been reported in a phase-III vaccine trial, other methods are being evaluated, such as vaginal and rectal microbicides, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Herein, we discuss results from prevention trials, especially those focusing on PrEP and particularly on recent results from 'on-demand' PrEP regimens. The efficacy of PrEP (rates of 0%-86%) is strongly correlated with adherence and plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals. Adverse events are rare

2016 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

84. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study. Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy.Institution-based unmatched case-control study design (...) of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64-4.76), and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52-4.76) were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis.Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV

2016 BMC Public Health

85. National Multicenter Trial Evaluating Two Treatments in Patients With Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

National Multicenter Trial Evaluating Two Treatments in Patients With Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection National Multicenter Trial Evaluating Two Treatments in Patients With Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. National Multicenter Trial Evaluating Two Treatments in Patients With Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection (OPTIPRIM-2) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02987530 Recruitment

2016 Clinical Trials

86. Co-adaptation Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) Cellular Immunity

Co-adaptation Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) Cellular Immunity Co-adaptation Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) Cellular Immunity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Co-adaptation Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) Cellular Immunity ("ImmunoCo27") The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02886416 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted

2016 Clinical Trials

87. Safety and Efficacy Study of Vaccine Schedule With Ad26.Mos.HIV and MVA-Mosaic in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

Safety and Efficacy Study of Vaccine Schedule With Ad26.Mos.HIV and MVA-Mosaic in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Safety and Efficacy Study of Vaccine Schedule With Ad26.Mos.HIV and MVA-Mosaic in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You (...) have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Safety and Efficacy Study of Vaccine Schedule With Ad26.Mos.HIV and MVA-Mosaic in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02919306

2016 Clinical Trials

88. HIV in pregnancy: Identification of intrapartum and perinatal HIV exposures

HIV in pregnancy: Identification of intrapartum and perinatal HIV exposures The benefits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in pregnancy, when combined with appropriate maternal antiretroviral therapy and intrapartum and postnatal prophylaxis, are well established. The vertical rate of transmission of HIV in North America is now well below 2%. Efforts must continue to ensure that these benefits are sustained. Women who have received little or no prenatal care and those who present (...) for delivery with unknown HIV status need immediate testing. As more infants are exposed to antiretroviral agents, strategies need to be implemented to ensure adequate follow-up of these infants. Issues relating to the identification of HIV-exposed infants are highlighted. Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus; Infant; Intrapartum transmission; Pregnancy; Screening

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

89. Increased pericardial fat accumulation is associated with increased intramyocardial lipid content and duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy exposure in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increased pericardial fat accumulation is associated with increased intramyocardial lipid content and duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy exposure in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance The aim of the current study was to examine whether the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV is associated with changes in pericardial fat and myocardial lipid content measured by cardiovascular magnetic (...) resonance (CMR).In this prospective case-control study, we compared 27 HIV seropositive (+) male subjects receiving HAART to 22 control male subjects without HIV matched for age, ethnicity and body mass index. All participants underwent CMR imaging for determination of pericardial fat [as volume at the level of the origin of the left main coronary artery (LM) and at the right ventricular free wall] and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for evaluation of intramyocardial lipid content (% of fat

2015 Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

90. Nephrotoxicity Associated with Concomitant Use of Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir and Tenofovir in a Patient with Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection. (Abstract)

Nephrotoxicity Associated with Concomitant Use of Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir and Tenofovir in a Patient with Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with superior efficacy and safety compared to interferon-based therapies. Despite these improvements, drug interactions with DAAs exist and may be clinically relevant in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients (...) acute tubular necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis. Both LDV-SOF and TDF were discontinued, and the patient's serum creatinine concentration decreased to 1.3 mg/dL over the following 6 weeks. We postulate that this adverse drug reaction may have been secondary to the known interaction between ledipasvir and TDF, which results in increased TDF exposure. Despite knowledge of this interaction, LDV-SOF is commonly prescribed in patients with HIV-HCV coinfection, as patients who received LDV-SOF

2016 Pharmacotherapy

91. Alcohol use disorder and its impact on chronic hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alcohol use disorder and its impact on chronic hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently co-occur. AUD is associated with greater exposure to HCV infection, increased HCV infection persistence, and more extensive liver damage due to interactions between AUD and HCV on immune responses, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Although AUD and HCV infection are associated with increased morbidity (...) and mortality, HCV antiviral therapy is less commonly prescribed in individuals with both conditions. AUD is also common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which negatively impacts proper HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and liver disease. In addition, AUD and HCV infection are also frequent within a proportion of patients with HIV infection, which negatively impacts liver disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding pathological interactions of AUD

2016 World journal of hepatology

92. In Vitro Inhibition of Cytopathic Effect of Influenza Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus by Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Inhibition of Cytopathic Effect of Influenza Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus by Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Although the link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognized, there is a limit to the selection of antiseptics for oral care.Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to influenza virus and cultured in the presence or absence of test reagents: bamboo leaf extract solution (...) HIV adsorption at 1.25% (P < 0.05). The IC50 and CC50 of sodium copper chlorophyllin lay between 50-100 µM and 200-400 µM, respectively. Sodium copper chlorophyllin inhibited HIV adsorption at 2.5 mM (P < 0.05). HIV particles survived after the exposure to 0.5% bamboo leaf extract solution.Sodium copper chlorophyllin exerted antiviral activities against influenza virus and HIV as the major ingredient of bamboo leaf extract solution by blocking adsorption. This mechanism of action is different

2016 Yonago acta medica

93. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related deaths, but data from sub-Saharan Africa are very scanty. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) initiative confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related cancer as a distinct subtype, and we set out to look for serological evidence of its role in a sub-Saharan African patient (...) or inflammation.We therefore conclude that EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions.

2016 The Pan African medical journal

94. Guidance for the use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for the prevention of HIV in British Columbia

care providers caring for persons who have experienced significant exposure to blood and/or body fluids in the work place or community setting. The risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acquisition from a given exposure depends on the likelihood the source has transmissible HIV infection, and the biological risk of HIV transmission based on the exposure that has occurred. This guideline is designed to deal specifically with exposures to HIV and is not applicable to other exposures (...) -arv-guidelines/0 Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network Immunodeficiency Clinic. HIV/HCV Drug Therapy Guide. http://app.hivclinic.ca/ 19 XI REFERENCES 1. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al. for the US Public Health Service Working Group. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34: 875-92 2. Centers for Disease

2020 CPG Infobase

95. Conserved Role of an N-Linked Glycan on the Surface Antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Modulating Virus Sensitivity to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against the Receptor and Coreceptor Binding Sites Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conserved Role of an N-Linked Glycan on the Surface Antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Modulating Virus Sensitivity to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against the Receptor and Coreceptor Binding Sites HIV-1 establishes persistent infection in part due to its ability to evade host immune responses. Occlusion by glycans contributes to masking conserved sites that are targets for some broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Previous work has shown that removal of a highly conserved (...) potential N-linked glycan (PNLG) site at amino acid residue 197 (N7) on the surface antigen gp120 of HIV-1 increases neutralization sensitivity of the mutant virus to CD4 binding site (CD4bs)-directed antibodies compared to its wild-type (WT) counterpart. However, it is not clear if the role of the N7 glycan is conserved among diverse HIV-1 isolates and if other glycans in the conserved regions of HIV-1 Env display similar functions. In this work, we examined the role of PNLGs in the conserved region

2015 Journal of virology

96. What methods have been effective in promoting uptake of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among individuals at high risk of HIV, excluding men who have sex with men

What methods have been effective in promoting uptake of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among individuals at high risk of HIV, excluding men who have sex with men Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing What methods have been effective in promoting uptake of Pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among individuals at high risk of HIV, excluding men who have sex with men (MSM), in developed cities comparable to London Nicola Pearce-Smith March 15 th 2019 What methods have been effective (...) Workers/ or Sex Work/ or Drug Users/ or Adolescent/ or Young Adult/ 7. 5 or 6 8. 4 and 7 What methods have been effective in promoting uptake of PrEP among individuals at high risk of HIV KLS Evidence Briefing March 19th 2019 References 1. Koechlin FM, Fonner VA, Dalglish SL, O'Reilly KR, Baggaley R, Grant RM, et al. 2017. Values and Preferences on the Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Multiple Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Aids Behav 21(5) 1325

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

97. Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines: May 2017. Available from: Accessed November 30, 2018. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, Heneine W, Thomas V, Cheever LW, et al. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology. 2013;34(9):875–92. Hankins C, Macklin R, Warren M. Translating PrEP (...) prophylaxis after sexual or injection-drug exposure to human immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164(1):46–54. Pinkerton SD, Martin JN, Roland ME, Katz MH, Coates TJ, Kahn JO. Cost-effectiveness of HIV postexposure prophylaxis following sexual or injection drug exposure in 96 metropolitan areas in the United States. AIDS. 2004;18(15):2065–73. Herida M, Larsen C, Lot F, Laporte A, Desenclos JC, Hamers FF. Cost-effectiveness of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in France. AIDS. 2006;20

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

98. The efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV

and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis: Updated version, June 13, 2018. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2017;189(47):E1448–e58. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, Heneine W, Thomas V, Cheever LW, et al. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2013;34(9):875–92. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, Srivastava PU, Marcus R (...) after. There was no difference in the rate at which PEP was offered to cases or controls after controlling for HIV transmission risk. However, the odds of HIV seroconversion among health care workers who had received PEP after occupational exposure was reduced by approximately 81%, compared to those who did not receive PEP (4). This study is considered the strongest example of the benefit of PEP in humans (1). Evidence from more recent studies suggests that the administration of antiretroviral

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

99. Better Antiretroviral Central Nervous System Penetration is Not Associated with Reduced Chronic Pain in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Better Antiretroviral Central Nervous System Penetration is Not Associated with Reduced Chronic Pain in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus To determine if better antiretroviral (ARV) central nervous system (CNS) penetration is associated with reduced rates of chronic pain in people living with HIV (PLWH).Chronic pain remains prevalent in PLWH despite widespread ARV use. Mechanisms underlying this prevalence remain unknown, though neuroinflammation from persistent CNS HIV infection (...) and maladaptive plastic changes in the CNS have been implicated. Here we hypothesize that better CNS ARV penetration, measured using the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness (CPE) score, would decrease rates of chronic pain.We interviewed 254 consecutive adults from an HIV clinic in Chiang Mai, Thailand. We collected data on demographics, HIV history, ARV use, and pain characteristics. Patients were evaluated for depression using a Thai two question Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Modified CPE score

2016 Anti-infective agents

100. Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Newborn Hearing Screenings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Infants Perinatal HIV infection and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may increase the risk for hearing loss. We examined 1,435 infants enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network, a prospective study of the safety of in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposures. We determined the proportion of perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (...) (HEU) newborns who were referred for additional hearing testing, and evaluated the association between in utero ARV exposures and newborn hearing screening results. Using a nested case-control design, we also examined congenital CMV infection in infants with and without screening referral. Congenital CMV infection was determined based on CMV DNA detection using a nested PCR assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained within 14 days of birth. Among the 1,435 infants (70% black, 31% Hispanic

2016 Journal of AIDS and immune research

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