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21. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men and who are at substantial risk of HIV infection - A meta-analysis of data from trials and observational studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. (PubMed)

Incidence of sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men and who are at substantial risk of HIV infection - A meta-analysis of data from trials and observational studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who engage in condomless anal intercourse with casual partners are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but reliable epidemiological data are scarce. Studies on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) enrol MSM who (...) indicate that they engage in behaviour that puts them at high risk of acquiring HIV. Because they also screen for STIs at regular intervals, these studies may serve as a valuable source to estimate incidence rates of STIs in this subpopulation of MSM.We systematically searched for trials and observational studies of PrEP in MSM that reported data on the incidence of STIs during the study period. Incidence rates were calculated as events per 100 person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Data

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2018 PLoS ONE

22. The Cost-effectiveness of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and HIV Testing Strategies in High-risk Groups in India. (PubMed)

The Cost-effectiveness of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and HIV Testing Strategies in High-risk Groups in India. The HIV epidemic in India is concentrated in 3.1M men who have sex with men (MSM) and 1.1M people who inject drugs (PWID), with mean incidence 0.9-1.4/100 person-years. We examined the cost-effectiveness of both pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV testing strategies at different frequencies for MSM and PWID in India.We populated an HIV microsimulation model with India-specific (...) data and examined seven strategies for MSM/PWID, including: status quo; one-time HIV test at model onset; routine HIV testing every 3, 6, or 12 months; and PrEP with HIV testing every 3 months (the WHO-recommended monitoring frequency) or every 6 months. We projected clinical and economic outcomes for MSM and PWID who are HIV-uninfected or infected but undetected. We used a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$1,950, the 2017 Indian per capita GDP, to define cost-effectiveness.HIV testing alone

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

23. Effect of in utero exposure to HIV and antiretroviral drugs on growth in HIV-exposed uninfected children: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. (PubMed)

Effect of in utero exposure to HIV and antiretroviral drugs on growth in HIV-exposed uninfected children: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have higher morbidity and mortality compared with HIV unexposed uninfected children. Despite the fact that malnutrition contributes to about half of all infant deaths below 5 years of age in low-income and middle-income countries and that growth impairment has been reported in the HEU population (...) , the spectrum of growth disorders associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure during the in utero and perinatal periods is yet to comprehensively summarised among the global HEU population. This protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aims to critically synthesise data concerning the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting at different ages in the global HEU population.Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus and the Web of Science

2019 BMJ open

24. Understanding the magnitude of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uptake of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis among healthcare workers in a rural district in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Understanding the magnitude of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uptake of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis among healthcare workers in a rural district in Tanzania. Occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids in healthcare settings puts healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is estimated that between 200 and 5000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to HCWs worldwide. Use of post-exposure prophylaxis (...) (PEP) has been documented to reduce the rate of HIV infection from workplace exposures by 81%.To investigate the extent of occupational exposure to HIV infection during the period of 12 months before the survey and to identify factors associated with uptake of PEP services among HCWs.We interviewed 221 HCWs from selected healthcare facilities in Kongwa, Tanzania. Data included occupational exposures to body fluids, knowledge and use of PEP.Sixty (27.1%) of the HCWs had experienced exposures

2017 Journal of Hospital Infection

25. Randomised controlled trial: Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is highly effective in community settings

Randomised controlled trial: Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is highly effective in community settings Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is highly effective in community settings | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username (...) and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is highly effective in community settings Article Text Therapeutics/Prevention Randomised controlled trial

2016 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

26. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP?d for the future of HIV prevention?

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP?d for the future of HIV prevention? Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). ACFP is a provincial, professional voluntary organization, representing more than 4,400 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students in Alberta. Established over fifty years ago, the ACFP strives for excellence in family practice through advocacy, continuing medical education and primary care research (...) . www.acfp.ca August 29, 2016 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP’d for the future of HIV prevention? Clinical Question: In patients at higher risk of contracting HIV, can daily antiviral therapy prevent infection? Bottom-line: Tenofovir/emtricitabine (PrEP) once daily reduces the risk of HIV by ~50%, preventing infection for ~1 in 50 per year. A year of therapy costs ~$12,000 and ~1 in 34 develop nausea/vomiting due to the drug. Evidence: • PrEP is tenofovir 300 mg (TDF) +/- emtricitabine 200 mg

2016 Tools for Practice

27. Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children SUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV (...) INFECTIONSUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTIONWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data : Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

28. Correction: Perceptions of HIV transmission and pre-exposure prophylaxis among health care workers and community members in Rwanda. (PubMed)

Correction: Perceptions of HIV transmission and pre-exposure prophylaxis among health care workers and community members in Rwanda. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207650.].

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2019 PLoS ONE

29. Effects of adolescent exposure to behaviour change interventions on their HIV risk reduction in Northern Malawi: a situation analysis (PubMed)

Effects of adolescent exposure to behaviour change interventions on their HIV risk reduction in Northern Malawi: a situation analysis Understanding adolescents' translation of HIV and AIDS-related behaviour change interventions (BCI) knowledge and skills into expected behavioural outcomes helps us appreciate behaviour change dynamics among young people and informs evidence-based programming. We explored the effects of adolescents' exposure to BCI on their HIV risk reduction in selected schools (...) model isolated sexual experience ([Beta = .727, p = .0001, p < .05]) as having the strongest correlation with the dependent variable - risk reduction. BCI exposure was stepwise excluded ([Beta = -.082, p = .053, p > .05]). There was therefore no evidence against the null hypothesis of no relationship between adolescent exposure to BCI and their HIV risk reduction. Overall there was limited BCI knowledge and skills translation to behavioural risk reduction. The study points to the need to evaluate

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2018 SAHARA J : journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance

30. Renal function and risk factors for renal disease for patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at an inner metropolitan health service. (PubMed)

Renal function and risk factors for renal disease for patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at an inner metropolitan health service. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition. TDF is a known nephrotoxin however, renal dysfunction from TDF is mostly reversible following discontinuation.To describe the renal function, risk factors for renal disease and associated clinical testing practices

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2019 PLoS ONE

31. "I am still negative": Female sex workers' perspectives on uptake and use of daily pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in South Africa. (PubMed)

"I am still negative": Female sex workers' perspectives on uptake and use of daily pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in South Africa. Women remain highly vulnerable to HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, with female sex workers (FSWs) facing some of the highest rates of HIV. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to reduce new infections among populations at highest risk and end-user perspectives of actual use in 'real-world' settings are critical to informing PrEP

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2019 PLoS ONE

32. Barriers to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among African, Caribbean and Black men in Toronto, Canada. (PubMed)

Barriers to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among African, Caribbean and Black men in Toronto, Canada. Single-tablet combination emtricitabine/tenofovir is highly effective as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Scale-up efforts have targeted men who have sex with men (MSM), but patterns of racial disparities in PrEP use have begun to emerge. African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities in Canada and USA are also disproportionately affected by HIV, and there is lack of guidance regarding PrEP (...) implementation in this priority population.ACB men from Toronto, Canada were recruited in community settings by peers. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire. Biological samples were collected and tested for sexually transmitted infections. Willingness to accept PrEP was assessed in relation to actual and self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV, as well as demographic and behavioural variables.424 ACB men were included in the analysis. ACB MSM were more likely to accept PrEP than ACB

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2019 PLoS ONE

33. Effect of HIV-exposure and timing of anti-retroviral treatment on immunogenicity of trivalent live-attenuated polio vaccine in infants. (PubMed)

Effect of HIV-exposure and timing of anti-retroviral treatment on immunogenicity of trivalent live-attenuated polio vaccine in infants. The prevalence of HIV infection in South African pregnant women has been approximately 30% over the past decade; however, there has been a steady decline in mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 8% in 2008 to <2% in 2015. We evaluated the immunogenicity of live-attenuated trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) following the primary vaccination series (doses (...) at birth, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), HIV-infected infants initiated on early anti-retroviral treatment (HIV+/ART+), HIV-infected infants on deferred ART (HIV+/ART-) and HIV-unexposed infants (HU) as the referent group.Serum polio neutralization antibody titres were evaluated to serotype-1, serotype-2 and serotype-3 at 6, 10 and 18 weeks of age. Antibody titres ≥8 were considered seropositive and sero-protective.At 18 weeks of age, following the complete primary series

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2019 PLoS ONE

34. Evaluating the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of dapivirine vaginal ring pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. (PubMed)

Evaluating the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of dapivirine vaginal ring pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Expanded HIV prevention options are needed to increase uptake of HIV prevention among women, especially in generalized epidemics. As the dapivirine vaginal ring moves forward through regulatory review and open-label extension studies, the potential public health impact and cost-effectiveness of this new prevention method are not fully known. We used mathematical (...) modeling to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of the ring in different implementation scenarios alongside scale-up of other HIV prevention interventions. Given the knowledge gaps about key factors influencing the ring's implementation, including potential uptake and delivery costs, we engaged in a stakeholder consultation process to elicit plausible parameter ranges and explored scenarios to identify the possible range of impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness.We used the Goals model to simulate

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2019 PLoS ONE

35. Pregnancy outcomes and infant growth among babies with in utero exposure to tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. (PubMed)

Pregnancy outcomes and infant growth among babies with in utero exposure to tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy.In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV (...) serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy. We compared pregnancy outcomes and one-year infant growth from pregnancies with exposure to PrEP throughout pregnancy to those without any exposure, with data from the placebo arm of a prior efficacy trial of PrEP conducted in the same setting.Outcomes from 30 women who elected to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy were

2018 AIDS

36. Does pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men change risk behaviour? A systematic review

Does pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men change risk behaviour? A systematic review To review the literature regarding PrEP and sexual behaviour change in MSM.Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV has been available since 2012. Even so, pre-exposure prophylaxis has not been widely accepted among healthcare providers and men who have sex with men some of whom are convinced that pre-exposure prophylaxis decreases condom use and increases sexually transmitted (...) . In order to provide effective sexual health services, clinicians need to be knowledgeable about pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention tool.In an era where HIV prevention methods are rapidly improving, strategies for sexually transmitted infection testing, treatment, counselling and prevention remain vital to improve health. All healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to promote sexual health through the dissemination of accurate information.© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2018 EvidenceUpdates

37. Awareness, discussion and non-prescribed use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Italy: a Nationwide, cross-sectional study among patients on antiretrovirals and their treating HIV physicians. (PubMed)

Awareness, discussion and non-prescribed use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Italy: a Nationwide, cross-sectional study among patients on antiretrovirals and their treating HIV physicians. Before Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) was officially recommended and made available, a few surveys among gay and bisexual men, and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), identified an informal use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for PrEP among HIV-negative individuals. Before (...) PrEP availability in Italy, we aimed to assess whether PLWHA in Italy shared their ARVs with HIV-negative individuals, whether they knew people who were on PrEP, and describe the level of awareness and discussion on this preventive measure among them and people in their close circle.Two anonymous questionnaires investigating personal characteristics and PrEP awareness, knowledge, and experience were proposed to HIV specialists and their patients on ARVs in a one-week, cross-sectional survey

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2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

38. HIV criminalization exacerbates subpar diagnosis and treatment across the US: response to the ‘Association of HIV diagnosis rates and laws criminalizing HIV exposure in the United States’ (PubMed)

HIV criminalization exacerbates subpar diagnosis and treatment across the US: response to the ‘Association of HIV diagnosis rates and laws criminalizing HIV exposure in the United States’ 29068837 2018 10 30 2018 11 13 1473-5571 31 17 2017 11 13 AIDS (London, England) AIDS HIV criminalization exacerbates subpar diagnosis and treatment across the United States: response to the 'Association of HIV diagnosis rates and laws criminalizing HIV exposure in the United States'. 2437-2439 10.1097/QAD (...) NIH HHS United States U01 GM105627 GM NIGMS NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Comment England AIDS 8710219 0269-9370 IM X AIDS. 2017 Jun 19;31(10):1483-1488 28398957 HIV Infections Humans Sexual Behavior United States 2017 10 26 6 0 2017 10 27 6 0 2018 10 31 6 0 ppublish 29068837 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001636 00002030-201711130-00017 PMC5679436 NIHMS905467 AIDS Behav. 2014 Jun;18(6):997-1006 24633716 AIDS Behav. 2006 Sep;10(5):451-61 16804750 Yale J Health

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2017 AIDS (London, England)

39. Detection of new HIV infections in a multicentre HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis trial. (PubMed)

Detection of new HIV infections in a multicentre HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis trial. Monthly specimens collected from FEM-PrEP-a Phase III trial [1] were investigated for the detection of acute HIV (AHI) infection.To evaluate the efficiency of the study-specific HIV algorithm in detecting AHI, and the performance of each of the serological and molecular tests used in diagnosing new infections, and their contribution to narrowing the window period.A total of 83 pre-seroconversion (...) specimens from 61 seroconverters from the FEM-PrEP trial were further analyzed in a sub-study. During the trial, HIV seroconversion was diagnosed on site using a testing algorithm with simple/rapid tests (SRTs) and confirmed with a gold standard testing algorithm (see short communication: Fig. 1). The infection date was determined more accurately by the use of standard ELISAs and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT) in a look-back procedure. For this sub-study, the international central laboratory

2018 Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology

40. Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: clinical guidelines. Update April 2018 (PubMed)

Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: clinical guidelines. Update April 2018 Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM (...) are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women

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2018 Journal of virus eradication

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