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HIV Exposure

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181. HIV Exposure and Formula Feeding Predict Under-2 Mortality in HIV-Uninfected Children, Botswana. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV Exposure and Formula Feeding Predict Under-2 Mortality in HIV-Uninfected Children, Botswana. To prospectively assess rates and detailed predictors of morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed uninfected children and HIV-unexposed children in Botswana in a more recent era.We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their children in the prospective observational Tshipidi study at 2 sites (1 city and 1 village) in Botswana from May 2010-July 2012. Live-born children (...) , and congenital anomaly were also associated with mortality (in separate analyses), but maternal socioeconomic factors, depression, substance use, and social support were not significant predictors.The strongest predictors of 24-month mortality among children in Botswana were HIV exposure and formula feeding, although the relative contribution of these factors to child health could not be separated.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of Pediatrics

182. Association between exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the incidence of hypertension in HIV-positive persons: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the incidence of hypertension in HIV-positive persons: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Previous studies have suggested that hypertension in HIV-positive individuals is associated primarily with traditional risk factors such as older age, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. However, controversy remains as to whether exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs poses additional risk, and we investigated (...) this question in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort.The incidence of hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) > 140 and/or diastolic BP > 90 mmHg and/or initiation of antihypertensive treatment] was determined overall and in strata defined by demographic, metabolic and HIV-related factors, including cumulative exposure to each individual ARV drug. Predictors of hypertension were identified using uni- and multivariable Poisson regression models.Of 33 278 included persons

2018 HIV medicine

183. The cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women at high risk of HIV infection in Brazil. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women at high risk of HIV infection in Brazil. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Brazil experience high rates of HIV infection. We examined the clinical and economic outcomes of implementing a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme in these populations.We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-International model of HIV prevention (...) and treatment to evaluate two strategies: the current standard of care (SOC) in Brazil, including universal ART access (No PrEP strategy); and the current SOC plus daily tenofovir/emtracitabine PrEP (PrEP strategy) until age 50. Mean age (31 years, SD 8.4 years), age-stratified annual HIV incidence (age ≤ 40 years: 4.3/100 PY; age > 40 years: 1.0/100 PY), PrEP effectiveness (43% HIV incidence reduction) and PrEP drug costs ($23/month) were from Brazil-based sources. The analysis focused on direct medical

2018 Journal of the International AIDS Society

184. Detection of new HIV infections in a multicentre HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis trial. (Abstract)

Detection of new HIV infections in a multicentre HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis trial. Monthly specimens collected from FEM-PrEP-a Phase III trial [1] were investigated for the detection of acute HIV (AHI) infection.To evaluate the efficiency of the study-specific HIV algorithm in detecting AHI, and the performance of each of the serological and molecular tests used in diagnosing new infections, and their contribution to narrowing the window period.A total of 83 pre-seroconversion (...) specimens from 61 seroconverters from the FEM-PrEP trial were further analyzed in a sub-study. During the trial, HIV seroconversion was diagnosed on site using a testing algorithm with simple/rapid tests (SRTs) and confirmed with a gold standard testing algorithm (see short communication: Fig. 1). The infection date was determined more accurately by the use of standard ELISAs and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT) in a look-back procedure. For this sub-study, the international central laboratory

2018 Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

185. Interventions to enhance pre-exposure (PrEP) adherence for HIV prevention by those at risk of of HIV.

Interventions to enhance pre-exposure (PrEP) adherence for HIV prevention by those at risk of of HIV. Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files

2020 PROSPERO

186. Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (...) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Aka: Human Immunodeficiency Virus , HIV Infection , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology: Global Statistics: WHO HIV : 36.7 M people worldwide (2015) Africa alone accounts for 25.5 M cases Women account for 50% of cases worldwide Children (age<15) account for 1.8 Million cases worldwide HIV : 2.1 M people worldwide (2015) Children (age <15) account for 150,000 new cases per year AIDS AIDS Deaths 1.1 M, of which 110,000 were

2015 FP Notebook

187. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention preferences among young adult African American men who have sex with men. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention preferences among young adult African American men who have sex with men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP uptake and adherence remain low and product preferences are unknown, especially among young African American MSM who are most at-risk. We conducted 26 qualitative interviews from 2014-2016 among young adult HIV-negative African American MSM regarding PrEP product (...) preferences in Missouri. While the pill and injectable were most liked of all modalities, about a quarter preferred rectal products or patches. Most participants preferred a long-acting injectable (LAI) to daily oral pills due to better medication adherence and a dislike for taking pills. Many participants preferred daily oral pills to on-demand oral PrEP due to the inability to predict sex and the perception that insufficient time or medication would not achieve HIV protection with on-demand. A fear

2018 PLoS ONE

188. No change in health-related quality of life for at-risk U.S. women and men starting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Findings from HPTN 069/ACTG A5305. Full Text available with Trip Pro

No change in health-related quality of life for at-risk U.S. women and men starting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Findings from HPTN 069/ACTG A5305. Tenofovir (TDF)-containing PrEP is effective for HIV prevention, but its effect on health-related quality of life (QOL) is unknown. Using data from HPTN 069/ACTG A5305, a randomized study of potential PrEP regimens comparing maraviroc alone, or together with TDF or emtricitabine (FTC), to TDF + FTC (control), we evaluated the impact (...) of these regimens on QOL in at-risk HIV-uninfected U.S. women and men.QOL was measured at baseline (before starting medications) and every 8 weeks through week 48 using the EQ-5D-3L. Responses were converted to a scale from 0.0 (death) to 1.0 (perfect health), using published valuation weights. Mean scores were compared between groups at each time point using nonparametric testing. Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for potential confounders.We analyzed 186 women (median age 35 years, 65% black

2018 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

189. Antiretroviral exposure and comorbidities in an aging HIV-infected population: The challenge of geriatric patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antiretroviral exposure and comorbidities in an aging HIV-infected population: The challenge of geriatric patients. As HIV-infected adults on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) are expected to have close to normal lifespans, they will increasingly develop age-related comorbidities. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare in the French Dat'AIDS cohort, the HIV geriatric population, aged 75 years and over, to the elderly one, aged from 50 to 74 years. As of Dec 2015 (...) , 16,436 subjects (43.8% of the French Dat'AIDS cohort) were aged from 50 to 74 (elderly group) and 572 subjects (1.5%) were aged 75 and over (geriatric group). Durations of HIV infection and of ART were slightly but significantly different, median at 19 and 18 years, and 15 and 16 years in the elderly and geriatric group, respectively. The geriatric group was more frequently at CDC stage C and had a lower nadir CD4. This group had been more exposed to first generation protease inhibitors and thymidine

2018 PLoS ONE

190. HIV testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, familiarity, and attitudes among gay and bisexual men in the United States: A national probability sample of three birth cohorts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, familiarity, and attitudes among gay and bisexual men in the United States: A national probability sample of three birth cohorts. This study examined HIV testing and use, familiarity, and attitudes toward pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in the United States. A national probability sample (N = 470) of three age cohorts (18-25, 34-41, and 52-59 years) completed a survey between March, 2016 and March, 2017 (...) . Most men did not meet CDC recommendations for HIV testing, and 25.2% of men in the younger cohort had never tested. Only 4.1% used PrEP across cohorts. Visiting an LGBT clinic and searching for LGBT resources online were associated with PrEP use. Men in the middle cohort were more familiar with PrEP (79%) than men in the younger (52%) and older (57%) cohorts. Bisexual and non-urban men were less familiar with PrEP. Attitudes were positive among most men (68.4%) familiar with PrEP. Findings suggest

2018 PLoS ONE

191. Phase I trial of pod-intravaginal rings delivering antiretroviral agents for HIV-1 prevention: Rectal drug exposure from vaginal dosing with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and maraviroc. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phase I trial of pod-intravaginal rings delivering antiretroviral agents for HIV-1 prevention: Rectal drug exposure from vaginal dosing with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and maraviroc. Intravaginal rings (IVRs) can deliver antiretroviral (ARV) agents for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), theoretically overcoming adherence concerns associated with frequent dosing. However, topical vaginal ARV drug delivery has not simultaneously led to sufficient rectal drug exposure (...) to likely protect from HIV infection as a result of receptive anal intercourse (RAI). Unprotected RAI has a higher risk of infection per sex act and, for women, also can be associated with vaginal exposure during a single sexual encounter, especially in higher-risk subsets of women. The physiologically inflamed, activated, immune-cell dense colorectal mucosa is increasingly appreciated as the sexual compartment with highly significant risk; this risk is increased in the setting of co-infections. Ex vivo

2018 PLoS ONE

192. Knowledge and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in Berlin - A multicentre, cross-sectional survey. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Knowledge and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in Berlin - A multicentre, cross-sectional survey. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has likely contributed to large decreases in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several major cities. Berlin has seen a smaller decline, and affordable PrEP has been accessible through formal channels in Germany only since autumn 2017. We aimed to investigate knowledge and use of PrEP among MSM in Berlin (...) , and factors predictive of a desire to use PrEP and history of PrEP use.Multicentre, paper-based, self-administered survey of adult MSM whose HIV status was negative or unknown at time of participation. Data were collected from 1 October 2017 to 2 April 2018.473 of 875 questionnaires were returned (response rate 54.1%; mean age 37.4 years, range 18-79). 90.0% of participants were aware of PrEP and, of these, 48.2% felt well informed about it. Among the 17.2% of participants reporting PrEP use, 59.3

2018 PLoS ONE

193. Improving the impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in small urban centers among men who have sex with men: An agent-based modelling study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improving the impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in small urban centers among men who have sex with men: An agent-based modelling study. Identifying prescribing strategies that improve the efficiency of PrEP should increase its impact at the population level. This study identifies PrEP allocation criteria that most effectively reduce 10-year HIV incidence by 25%, in accordance with the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy's goal for the proportionate reduction in new diagnoses.We (...) used a discrete-time stochastic agent-based model to simulate several PrEP engagement strategies. The model represented MSM aged 15-74 in Rhode Island and was calibrated to statewide prevalence from 2009-2014. We simulated HIV transmission in the absence of PrEP and compared the following PrEP engagement scenarios: 1) allocation to the current patient population; 2) random allocation; 3) allocation to MSM with greater than 5 sexual partners in one year; 4) allocation to MSM with greater than 10

2018 PLoS ONE

194. Prevalence of actual uptake and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of actual uptake and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong, China. This study was to investigate the prevalence of actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), willingness to use daily oral PrEP under two cost scenarios, and potential issues related to PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV negative/unknown sero-status in Hong Kong, China. Factors associated with the two measures (...) , significant factors of these two measures of willingness included: (1) number of correct responses to knowledge on PrEP, (2) perceived risk of HIV infection in the next six months, and (3) constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: positive and negative attitudes toward PrEP, perceived their significant others would support them take PrEP (perceived subjective norm), perceived number of local MSM who were willing to take PrEP (perceived descriptive norm), and confidence in using PrEP under the two

2018 PLoS ONE

195. Midwest pharmacists' familiarity, experience, and willingness to provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midwest pharmacists' familiarity, experience, and willingness to provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV. Pharmacist provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) through collaborative practice agreements with physicians could expand access to people at risk for HIV. We characterized pharmacists' familiarity with and willingness to provide PrEP services in Nebraska and Iowa.An invitation to complete an 18-question survey was emailed to 1,140 pharmacists in Nebraska and Iowa in June (...) (p = .005) were less likely to be familiar with PrEP. Overall, 54% indicated they were fairly or very likely to provide PrEP services as part of a collaborative practice agreement and after additional training. While familiarity with PrEP use or guidelines did not affect respondents' willingness to provide PrEP, respondents were more likely to provide PrEP with prior experience counseling HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (OR 2.43; p = 0.023) or PrEP (OR 4.67; p = 0.013

2018 PLoS ONE

196. Serodiscordant partnerships and opportunities for pre-exposure prophylaxis among partners of women and men living with HIV in St. Petersburg, Russia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serodiscordant partnerships and opportunities for pre-exposure prophylaxis among partners of women and men living with HIV in St. Petersburg, Russia. To describe the frequency of being partnered and having an HIV-negative partner, and whether this differed by gender, among a cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) who have ever injected drugs; to describe awareness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and perceived partner interest in PrEP.Secondary analyses of an observational cohort study (...) of PLWH who have ever injected drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia.Primary outcomes were 1) being partnered and 2) being in a serodiscordant partnership. The main independent variable was gender. Multivariable GEE logistic regression models were fit for binary outcomes, adjusted for age, income, education, and recent opioid use. Descriptive analyses were performed for partners' HIV status, substance use, sex risk behaviors, and awareness of PrEP for a subset of participants.At baseline, 50% (147/296

2018 PLoS ONE

197. Dopamine and its receptors play a role in the modulation of CCR5 expression in innate immune cells following exposure to Methamphetamine: Implications to HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dopamine and its receptors play a role in the modulation of CCR5 expression in innate immune cells following exposure to Methamphetamine: Implications to HIV infection. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects cells in the Central Nervous System (CNS), where the access of antiretrovirals and antibodies that can kill the virus may be challenging. As a result of the early HIV entry in the brain, infected individuals develop inflammation and neurological deficits at various levels, which (...) are aggravated by drugs of abuse. In the non-human primate model of HIV, we have previously shown that drugs of abuse such as Methamphetamine (Meth) increase brain viral load in correlation with a higher number of CCR5-expressing myeloid cells. CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that may be involved in increasing inflammation, but also, it is a co-receptor for viral entry into target cells. CCR5-expressing myeloid cells are the main targets of HIV in the CNS. Thus, the identification of factors and mechanisms

2018 PLoS ONE

198. Understanding willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Understanding willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in China. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM's willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China.Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited (...) , and the possibility of taking PrEP only during particular periods of life when the risk of HIV exposure might be highest.

2018 PLoS ONE

199. Development of a repeat-exposure penile SHIV infection model in macaques to evaluate biomedical preventions against HIV. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of a repeat-exposure penile SHIV infection model in macaques to evaluate biomedical preventions against HIV. Penile acquisition of HIV infection contributes substantially to the global epidemic. Our goal was to establish a preclinical macaque model of penile HIV infection for evaluating the efficacy of new HIV prevention modalities. Rhesus macaques were challenged once or twice weekly with consistent doses of SHIVsf162P3 (a chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus containing HIV (...) the prepuce pouch (200 TCID50) and urethra (16 TCID50) resulted in infection of 100% (10/10) animals following a median of 2.5 virus exposures (range, 1-12). We describe the first rhesus macaque repeat-exposure SHIV challenge model of penile HIV acquisition. Utilization of the model should further our understanding of penile HIV infection and facilitate the development of new HIV prevention strategies for men.

2018 PLoS ONE

200. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP?d for the future of HIV prevention?

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP?d for the future of HIV prevention? Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). ACFP is a provincial, professional voluntary organization, representing more than 4,400 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students in Alberta. Established over fifty years ago, the ACFP strives for excellence in family practice through advocacy, continuing medical education and primary care research (...) . www.acfp.ca August 29, 2016 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Are you PrEP’d for the future of HIV prevention? Clinical Question: In patients at higher risk of contracting HIV, can daily antiviral therapy prevent infection? Bottom-line: Tenofovir/emtricitabine (PrEP) once daily reduces the risk of HIV by ~50%, preventing infection for ~1 in 50 per year. A year of therapy costs ~$12,000 and ~1 in 34 develop nausea/vomiting due to the drug. Evidence: • PrEP is tenofovir 300 mg (TDF) +/- emtricitabine 200 mg

2016 Tools for Practice

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