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HIV Exposure

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181. A Phase IV Open-label Evaluation of Safety, Tolerability, and Acceptability of a Fixed-dose Formulation of Bictegravir, Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) for Non-occupational Prophylaxis Following Potential Exposure to HIV-1

A Phase IV Open-label Evaluation of Safety, Tolerability, and Acceptability of a Fixed-dose Formulation of Bictegravir, Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) for Non-occupational Prophylaxis Following Potential Exposure to HIV-1 A Phase IV Open-label Evaluation of Safety, Tolerability, and Acceptability of a Fixed-dose Formulation of Bictegravir, Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) for Non-occupational Prophylaxis Following Potential Exposure to HIV-1 - Full Text View (...) Prophylaxis Following Potential Exposure to HIV-1 The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03499483 Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting First Posted : April 17, 2018 Last Update Posted : April 17, 2018 See Sponsor

2018 Clinical Trials

182. Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis.

Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. (PEP2) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2018 Clinical Trials

183. Effect of HIV exposure and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation on immune memory responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis and hepatitis B vaccines. (PubMed)

Effect of HIV exposure and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation on immune memory responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis and hepatitis B vaccines. We evaluated memory responses and antibody persistence to diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, whole-cell-pertussis (DTwP), and Hepatitis-B vaccines in HIV-unexposed, HIV-exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children previously randomized to initiate time-limited ART at 6-10 weeks (ART-Immed) or when clinically/immunologically (...) indicated (ART-Def).All children received DTwP booster at 15-18 months. Antibodies were measured for pertussis-toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, and hepatitis-B prior to booster, 1-2 weeks post-booster and at 24 months of age.Pre-booster antibody GMC were lower in HIV-infected groups than HIV-unexposed children for all epitopes. Post-booster and at 24 months of age, the ART-Def group had lower GMCs and antibody proportion ≥0.1 IU/ml for tetanus-toxoid

2018 Expert review of vaccines

184. Perspectives on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization and related intervention needs among people who inject drugs (PubMed)

Perspectives on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization and related intervention needs among people who inject drugs Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is clinically efficacious and recommended for HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID), but uptake remains low and intervention needs are understudied. To inform the development of PrEP interventions for PWID, we conducted a qualitative study in the Northeastern USA, a region where recent clusters of new HIV (...) infections have been attributed to injection drug use.We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 HIV-uninfected PWID (hereafter, "participants") and 12 clinical and social service providers (professional "key informants") in Boston, MA, and Providence, RI, in 2017. Trained interviewers used semi-structured interviews to explore PrEP acceptability and perceived barriers to use. Thematic analysis of coded data identified multilevel barriers to PrEP use among PWID and related intervention strategies.Among

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2018 Harm Reduction Journal

185. Exploring the Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among High-Risk People Who Use Drugs in Treatment (PubMed)

Exploring the Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among High-Risk People Who Use Drugs in Treatment Introduction: Despite unequivocal evidence supporting the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), its scale-up has been gradual overall, and nearly absent among people who use drugs (PWUD). In the present study, we implemented the use of PrEP, as a part of an integrated HIV prevention approach, and explored the experiences and attitudes related to PrEP use among PWUD (...) . Methods: Between September 2016 and July 2017, we recruited 40 HIV-uninfected, methadone-maintained people, who reported HIV-risk behaviors, and were currently taking PrEP. We conducted both quantitative and in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews that primarily focused on experiences, attitudes, acceptability, disclosure status, risk compensation-related attitudes, and barriers related to PrEP adherence. Results: Results showed that participants were highly satisfied and perceived PrEP

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2018 Frontiers in public health

186. A modeling study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men: travel, pre-exposure prophylaxis and elimination (PubMed)

A modeling study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men: travel, pre-exposure prophylaxis and elimination UNAIDS has identified the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) as a priority for elimination. Incidence is close to the elimination threshold of one new infection per year per 1,000 individuals. However, surveillance data show that HIV strains are being imported into Denmark, mainly due to travel. We use a transmission model to predict (from 2018 to 2030 (...) ) the impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on incidence. Our model reflects the current epidemic and diagnosis rates in the Danish MSM community. We conduct a sensitivity analysis based on 20,000 simulations, and assume that PrEP coverage could range from zero to 50% and diagnosis rates increase up to three-fold. We predict that incidence will fall below the elimination threshold, even without the introduction of PrEP, reaching 0.87 (median, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.65-1.23) new infections per 1,000

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2018 Scientific reports

187. Dysregulation of Neuronal Cholesterol Homeostasis upon Exposure to HIV-1 Tat and Cocaine Revealed by RNA-Sequencing (PubMed)

Dysregulation of Neuronal Cholesterol Homeostasis upon Exposure to HIV-1 Tat and Cocaine Revealed by RNA-Sequencing HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-1-infected cells and can enter non-permissive cells including neurons. Tat disrupts neuronal homeostasis and may contribute to the neuropathogenesis in people living with HIV (PLWH). The use of cocaine by PLWH exacerbates neuronal dysfunction. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which Tat and cocaine facilitate alterations in neuronal (...) homeostatic processes. Bioinformatic interrogation of the results from RNA deep sequencing of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Tat alone indicated the dysregulation of several genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Following exposure to Tat and cocaine, the activation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes led to increased levels of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in rat neurons. Results from lipid metabolism arrays validated upregulation of several processes implicated in the biogenesis

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2018 Scientific reports

188. “Losing the Phobia:” Understanding How HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Facilitates Bridging the Serodivide Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (PubMed)

“Losing the Phobia:” Understanding How HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Facilitates Bridging the Serodivide Among Men Who Have Sex With Men The use of HIV serostatus information has played a pivotal role in partner selection norms. A phenomenon known as serosorting is the practice of selecting a partner based on a perception that they are of the same HIV status in order to avoid transmission from one partner to the other. An understudied aspect of serosorting is that it has a divisive effect (...) -one accepts or rejects a potential partner based on a singular characteristic, the partner's HIV status, and thus excludes all others. This division has been formally referred to as the HIV serodivide. In this study, we explored partner selection strategies among a group of HIV-negative, young men who have sex with men (n = 29) enrolled in a PrEP demonstration project in Northern California. We found that trends in serosorting were in fact shifting, and that a new and opposite phenomenon

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2018 Frontiers in public health

189. Peroxynitrite Exposure of CXCL12 Impairs Monocyte, Lymphocyte and Endothelial Cell Chemotaxis, Lymphocyte Extravasation in vivo and Anti-HIV-1 Activity (PubMed)

Peroxynitrite Exposure of CXCL12 Impairs Monocyte, Lymphocyte and Endothelial Cell Chemotaxis, Lymphocyte Extravasation in vivo and Anti-HIV-1 Activity CXCL12 is a chemotactic cytokine that attracts many different cell types for homeostasis and during inflammation. Under stress conditions, macrophages and granulocytes produce factors such as peroxynitrite as a consequence of their oxidative response. After short incubations of CXCL12 with peroxynitrite, the gradual nitration of Tyr7, Tyr61 (...) serine protease CD26. In vivo, the effects were more pronounced compared to native CXCL12. Nitration of any Tyr residue drastically lowered lymphocyte extravasation to joints compared to native CXCL12. Finally, the anti-HIV-1 activity of [3-NT7]CXCL12 and [3-NT7/61]CXCL12 was reduced, whereas CXCL12 and [3-NT61]CXCL12 were equally potent. In conclusion, nitration of CXCL12 occurs readily upon contact with peroxynitrite and specifically nitration of Tyr7 fully reduces its in vitro and in vivo

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

190. Feasibility of vitamin D supplementation interventions to mitigate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis-related bone mineral density loss: a cross-sectional survey (PubMed)

Feasibility of vitamin D supplementation interventions to mitigate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis-related bone mineral density loss: a cross-sectional survey Daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) causes subclinical decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We surveyed PrEP users to assess feasibility for a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation to mitigate TDF-induced BMD loss.We recruited participants using or starting PrEP in Toronto

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2018 Patient preference and adherence

191. Building effective multilevel HIV prevention partnerships with Black men who have sex with men: experience from HPTN 073, a pre‐exposure prophylaxis study in three US cities (PubMed)

Building effective multilevel HIV prevention partnerships with Black men who have sex with men: experience from HPTN 073, a pre‐exposure prophylaxis study in three US cities 30334600 2019 02 20 1758-2652 21 Suppl 7 2018 Oct Journal of the International AIDS Society J Int AIDS Soc Building effective multilevel HIV prevention partnerships with Black men who have sex with men: experience from HPTN 073, a pre-exposure prophylaxis study in three US cities. e25180 10.1002/jia2.25180 Wheeler Darrell (...) School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA. Magnus Manya M Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA. Beauchamp Geetha G Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research & Prevention (SCHARP), Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division (VIDD), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Shoptaw Steven S Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine

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2018 Journal of the International AIDS Society

192. Daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine reduced Streptococcus and increased Erysipelotrichaceae in rectal microbiota (PubMed)

Daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine reduced Streptococcus and increased Erysipelotrichaceae in rectal microbiota Daily PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV-1 acquisition, but risks of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) include renal decline and bone mineral density decrease in addition to initial gastrointestinal side effects. We investigated the impact of TDF-FTC on the enteric microbiome using (...) in characterizing PrEP's side effects, which is likely to improve PrEP adherence, and thus HIV-1 prevention.

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2018 Scientific reports

193. A systematic review of adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV - how can we improve uptake and adherence? (PubMed)

A systematic review of adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV - how can we improve uptake and adherence? Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in high risk individuals. However, the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on user adherence, which some previous trials have struggled to optimise particularly in low and middle income settings. This systematic review aims to ascertain the reasons (...) for non-adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis to guide future implementation.We performed structured literature searches of online databases and conference archives between August 8, 2016 and September 16, 2017. In total, 18 prospective randomized control trials and implementation studies investigating oral pre-exposure prophylaxis were reviewed. A structured form was used for data extraction and findings summarized regarding efficacy, effectiveness, adherence and possible reasons for non

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

194. Associations between perceived barriers and benefits of using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and medication adherence among men who have sex with men in Western China. (PubMed)

Associations between perceived barriers and benefits of using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and medication adherence among men who have sex with men in Western China. To investigate the associations between the perceived barriers and benefits of using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis medication, including worries about the side effects, disliking taking drugs, perceived burden of taking medication, positive expectations as to the efficacy of the drugs, favourable doctor-patient relationships (...) , and medication adherence among men who have sex with men (MSM) to provide a target for improving medication adherence and reducing HIV infection among MSM.MSM were recruited in western China from April 2013 to October 2014, administered oral tenofovir (TDF) daily and followed up every 12 weeks for 2 years. At each follow-up, the medication rate was calculated based on the self-reported number of missed doses over 2 weeks, and then, the medication adherence was evaluated. The barriers and benefits perceived

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

195. Neurodevelopmental outcomes and in utero antiretroviral exposure in HIV-exposed uninfected children. (PubMed)

Neurodevelopmental outcomes and in utero antiretroviral exposure in HIV-exposed uninfected children. To assess and compare neurodevelopmental disorders in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children in British Columbia, Canada. To determine associations between these outcomes and in-utero exposure to antiretroviral drugs.Retrospective controlled cohort study.Data were collected on 446 HEU children and 1323 HUU children (matched ∼1 : 3 for age, sex, and geocode) born (...) ; P = 0.011] after adjusting for maternal substance use and/or smoking (children born after April 2000). Regardless of antiretroviral exposure type (i.e. none, treatment with one or multiple drug classes), HEUs had higher odds of any neurodevelopmental disorders compared with matched HUUs; however, there was no evidence suggesting any specific classes of antiretroviral drugs or exposure durations increased their likelihood of neurodevelopmental disorders.The results suggest no adverse associations

2018 AIDS

196. Behavioral Health and Adult Milestones in Young Adults With Perinatal HIV Infection or Exposure. (PubMed)

Behavioral Health and Adult Milestones in Young Adults With Perinatal HIV Infection or Exposure. Young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIVYAs) are at risk for poor biomedical and behavioral health outcomes. Few studies offer a comprehensive overview of the functioning of this population in young adulthood and the role of HIV.Data come from the Child and Adolescent Self-Awareness and Health Study, a longitudinal behavioral health cohort study of PHIVYAs and perinatally (...) HIV-exposed but uninfected young adults (PHEUYAs) who are compared on psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning, sexual and substance use behaviors, health and reproductive outcomes, and young adult milestones.Overall, 27% of participants met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, including mood (11%), anxiety (22%), and substance use (28%), with no HIV status differences. PHIVYAs performed worse on 2 neurocognitive tests. There were no HIV status differences in condomless sex (41%) or pregnancies

2018 Pediatrics

197. Increasing prevalence of self-reported HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in published surveys - a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Increasing prevalence of self-reported HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in published surveys - a systematic review and meta-analysis. : When combining results from all published surveys, about one in nine global study participants (10.7%) reported ever using preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by 2017, a significant increase since US FDA approval in 2012 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6/year, P < 0.00001]. Moreover, nearly one in six US-based study participants (17.3%) and nearly one in four MSM who

2018 AIDS

198. Daily or on demand oral TDF/FTC for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: experience from an hospital-based clinic in France. (PubMed)

Daily or on demand oral TDF/FTC for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: experience from an hospital-based clinic in France. On Demand oral TDF/FTC has been approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in France following the results of clinical studies but data are limited on real-world experience.A single center, open-label, prospective cohort study that recruited people at high risk of HIV infection in Paris.Subjects were enrolled in a single hospital-based (...) outpatient clinic and were proposed to start PrEP with daily or on demand TDF/FTC. At baseline and every 3 months thereafter subjects were tested for HIV and creatinine plasma levels and data on sexual behavior, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and tolerability were collected.From November 10, 2015 to April 30, 2017, 1069 subjects were screened and 1049 (98.1%) started PrEP. Median age was 36 years, 99.4% were MSM with a median number of partners of 10, and 793 (75.6%) opted for on demand

2018 AIDS

199. Comparison of SMS self-reported adherence with other adherence measures in a demonstration project of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in Kenya and Uganda. (PubMed)

Comparison of SMS self-reported adherence with other adherence measures in a demonstration project of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in Kenya and Uganda. Short messaging service (SMS) can collect adherence data on a frequent basis and is relatively anonymous, and therefore could potentially reduce recall and social desirability biases prevalent in other self-reported measures.We compared SMS self-reported adherence with three self-reported adherence questions (rating of ability to adhere (...) , frequency of doses taken, percentage of doses taken) and two objective adherence measures [electronic adherence monitoring (EAM) and plasma tenofovir levels] using data from HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples enrolled in a preexposure prophylaxis demonstration project in Kenya and Uganda.Of 373 enrolled participants, 256 (69%) were male and median age at enrolment was 29 years (26, 35). Fifty-two percent were from Kenya and median education at enrolment was 10 years (7,12). Overall, median

2018 AIDS

200. Public Health Detailing for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. (PubMed)

Public Health Detailing for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. Despite the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP remains underutilized, often due to clinician factors. Academic or public health detailing is a process by which university and/or government groups employ the marketing practices of pharmaceutical companies to improve clinical practice. We describe the novel application of detailing to increase PrEP prescribing and related care in New York

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

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