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HIV Course

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16961. PolyI.polyC12U-mediated inhibition of loss of alloantigen responsiveness viral replication in human CD4+ T cell clones exposed to human immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PolyI.polyC12U-mediated inhibition of loss of alloantigen responsiveness viral replication in human CD4+ T cell clones exposed to human immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Two alloreactive human CD4+ T cell clones, recognizing HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR1 determinants, lost their specific proliferative capacity after infection with HIV. This system was used to explore the effect of polyI.polyC12U on HIV replication and immune suppression. The mismatched double-stranded RNA blocked HIV-associated (...) particulate reverse transcriptase activity and viral-mediated cytopathic effects. Also, polyI.polyC12U preserved the alloreactivity of T cell clones after exposure to HIV.PolyI.polyC12U appeared to act at a level subsequent to host cell infection and reverse transcription. It had no effect on the enhancement of gene expression by the HIV transcription unit tatIII. These findings indicate that early in the course of infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes, HIV can directly abrogate proliferation to specific

1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation

16962. Significant Genetic and Antigenic Variability within the env Gene of Systemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group O Populations during the Natural Course of a Heterosexual Infection: a Pilot Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Significant Genetic and Antigenic Variability within the env Gene of Systemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group O Populations during the Natural Course of a Heterosexual Infection: a Pilot Study We assessed the genetic and the antigenic variability within the env gene of peripheral blood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) group O populations during the natural course of a female heterosexual infection. Our data revealed the existence of a significant increase in amino (...) acid sequence variability within the C2-V3 and gp41 regions (P = 0.023 and P < 0.001, respectively) in association with substitutions within neutralizing epitope sequences usually selected for HIV serological assays. These antigenic variations might significantly decrease the sensitivity of classical HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with blood samples of subjects heterosexually infected by HIV-1 group O strains. These findings may be of significant use both to devise diagnostic tools

2007 Journal of clinical microbiology

16963. Elective cesarean delivery plus short-course lamivudine and zidovudine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (Abstract)

Elective cesarean delivery plus short-course lamivudine and zidovudine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of elective cesarean delivery plus a lamivudine-zidovudine prophylaxis regimen on non-breastfeeding mothers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and their infants.Forty-six antiretroviral-naïve, pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were included (...) ) copies/mL (range, -0.16-2.60 log(10) copies/mL), and the CD4(+) cell counts increased from 335 cells/mm(3) (range, 57-974 cells/mm(3)) to 420 cells/mm(3) (range, 84-1,083 cells/mm(3); P=.002). No mother or infant had a serious adverse event. Two infants were infected (4.3%; 95% CI, 0.5%-15.7%); 1 infant had intrapartum infection.Elective cesarean delivery plus short-course lamivudine-zidovudine is safe but does not eliminate mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

2004 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

16964. Evolving characteristics of toxoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1: clinical course and Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolving characteristics of toxoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1: clinical course and Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses. Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most important opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. This study evaluated the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses on the occurrence of TE (...) %) in period 2, and 90% (78%) in period 3 (p <0.0001). In period 3, TE was found to be the first AIDS-defining illness more frequently than in earlier periods (74% vs. 38%, p 0.0002). Persistent neurological deficits caused by TE were present in 37% of the patients. Patients with an acute episode of TE or a TE relapse had significantly lower responses in the T. gondii-specific ELISPOT than patients who discontinued maintenance therapy and were relapse-free (p 0.0044). Survival of HIV patients with TE has

2007 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

16965. Antiretroviral monotherapy in early stage human immunodeficiency virus disease has no detectable effect on virus load in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. (Abstract)

Antiretroviral monotherapy in early stage human immunodeficiency virus disease has no detectable effect on virus load in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Initiation of antiretroviral monotherapy early in the course of infection with human immunodeficiency virus may result in a temporary slowing in the rate of disease progression; however, little is known about the virologic effects of early therapy. Virus load was measured in peripheral blood and lymph nodes from 16 antiretroviral-naive (...) patients with a mean CD4 T lymphocyte count of 659 cells/microliter at baseline and after 8 weeks of either no treatment or zidovudine therapy. CD4 T lymphocyte counts and all virologic parameters examined remained unchanged regardless of zidovudine treatment status. Histopathology and virus distribution within lymph nodes remained constant between baseline and week 8 in each patient, indicating that the virologic and histologic parameters examined in a single lymph node are representative

1996 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16966. Equine infectious anemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus DNA synthesis in vitro: characterization of the endogenous reverse transcriptase reaction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of Nonidet P-40, a nonionic detergent used to make the virion envelope permeable. All components of the reaction were titrated for maximum synthesis of complete minus strands, and a time course under the standardized conditions was determined. Minor subgenomic bands were observed in some cases, and both the size and proportion varied with reaction conditions. Conditions established for full-length EIAV DNA synthesis also allowed full-genome-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA synthesis (...) Equine infectious anemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus DNA synthesis in vitro: characterization of the endogenous reverse transcriptase reaction. The endogenous reverse transcriptase reaction of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been studied, and conditions allowing synthesis of full-length minus-strand DNA have been determined. In contrast to results reported for other retroviruses, synthesis of EIAV full-length minus-strand DNA was not impaired by high concentrations

1991 Journal of virology

16967. Recombinant virus assay: a rapid, phenotypic assay for assessment of drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recombinant virus assay: a rapid, phenotypic assay for assessment of drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Antiviral drug susceptibility assays for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are required to monitor the development of drug resistance during clinical trials and antiretroviral drug therapy. First-generation phenotypic assays possess a number of drawbacks, not least the selection of unrepresentative virus populations during (...) infected patient peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) DNA for subsequent use in the creation of recombinant viruses. Analysis of two patients during the course of zidovudine therapy showed that this approach produced viruses which accurately exhibited the same genotype and phenotype as that of the original infected PBL DNA. The recombinant virus assay can be performed in approximately 3 weeks without the use of donor PBLs and therefore represents a rapid, nonselective procedure for the assay of clinical

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

16968. The consequence of passive administration of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody before challenge of chimpanzees with a primary virus isolate. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The consequence of passive administration of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody before challenge of chimpanzees with a primary virus isolate. The anti-gp41 virus neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2F5 was infused into chimpanzees, which were then given an intravenous challenge with a primary human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) isolate. In two control animals, the infection was established immediately, as evidenced by positive cell-associated DNA (...) at the time of challenge, affects the timing and level of infection and remains influential after it can no longer be detected in the peripheral circulation. It is possible that preexisting, neutralizing antibodies (passively administered or actively elicited) affect the course of acute-phase virus replication in humans. It remains to be established whether these immunologically mediated early effects will influence the course of HIV-1 disease.

1996 Journal of virology

16969. Evidence for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication In Vivo in CD14+ Monocytes and Its Potential Role as a Source of Virus in Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication In Vivo in CD14+ Monocytes and Its Potential Role as a Source of Virus in Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy In vitro studies show that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not replicate in freshly isolated monocytes unless monocytes differentiate to monocyte-derived macrophages. Similarly, HIV-1 may replicate in macrophages in vivo, whereas it is unclear whether blood monocytes are permissive to productive (...) infection with HIV-1. We investigated HIV-1 replication in CD14(+) monocytes and resting and activated CD4(+) T cells by measuring the levels of cell-associated viral DNA and mRNA and the genetic evolution of HIV-1 in seven acutely infected patients whose plasma viremia had been <100 copies/ml for 803 to 1,544 days during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV-1 DNA was detected in CD14(+) monocytes as well as in activated and resting CD4(+) T cells throughout the course of study. While

2002 Journal of virology

16970. Progressive reversion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance mutations in vivo after transmission of a multiply drug-resistant virus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive reversion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance mutations in vivo after transmission of a multiply drug-resistant virus. Evolution and transmission of multiply drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may limit therapeutic options as global treatment efforts expand. However, the stability of these mutants in the absence of drug selection pressure is not known. We performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma virus from a person who acquired HIV-1 (...) that contained multiple reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) mutations. In the absence of therapy, 5 of 12 drug resistance mutations reverted in a stepwise fashion to wild type over the course of 52 weeks. Reversion of the M184V mutation alone did not change viral replicative capacity (RC), but it led to enhanced resistance to zidovudine and tenofovir. However, reversions of a second RT mutation and 3 PR mutations were associated with an increase in viral RC, and this was temporally correlated

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

16971. Testing, referral, and treatment patterns for hepatitis C virus coinfection in a cohort of veterans with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Testing, referral, and treatment patterns for hepatitis C virus coinfection in a cohort of veterans with human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined testing, referral, and treatment of patients with hepatitis C among HIV-infected patients in the Veterans Aging 3-Site Cohort Study by using patient- and provider-completed surveys and laboratory, pharmacy, and administrative records from the Department of Veterans Affairs electronic medical record. Of 881 human immunodeficiency virus (...) -positive patients, 43% were coinfected with hepatitis C virus. Of these, 88 (30%) reported current alcohol consumption. Only one-third were counseled to reduce or stop alcohol consumption. Coinfected patients with indications for hepatitis C treatment had a high rate of contraindications, including both medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Of the 65 patients with indications for hepatitis C therapy and free of contraindications for treatment, only 18% underwent liver biopsy and 3% received IFN

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

16972. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Limited protective effect of the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus. The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2 (...) % of the Scandinavian population) and a rapid disease course. His HIV V3 region contained genotypic features attributable to X4 virus and resembled functionally verified X4 virus and virus from patients treated with a CD4 cell-stimulating drug, tucaresol. Age-related differences in disease progression rate and survival time were seen for CCR5/CCR5 patients. Surprisingly, no protective effect of the CCR5/CCR5Delta32 genotype on disease progression or survival was seen for children but was evident for adults. Age

2003 Journal of Infectious Diseases

16973. Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The Prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The Prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study The frequency of, course of, and factors associated with cardiovascular abnormalities in pediatric HIV are incompletely understood.A baseline echocardiogram (median age, 2.1 years) and 2 years of follow-up every 4 months were obtained as part of a prospective study on 196 vertically HIV-infected children. Age- or body surface area-adjusted z scores were (...) calculated by use of data from normal control subjects. Although 88% had symptomatic HIV infection, only 2 had CHF at enrollment, with a 2-year cumulative incidence of 4.7% (95% CI, 1.5% to 7.9%). All mean cardiac measurements were abnormal at baseline (decreased left ventricular fractional shortening [LV FS] and contractility and increased heart rate and LV dimension, mass, and wall stresses). Most of the abnormal baseline cardiac measurements correlated with depressed CD4 cell count z scores

1998 Circulation

16974. Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Suspected Latent Tuberculous Infection

Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Suspected Latent Tuberculous Infection Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Suspected Latent Tuberculous Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Suspected Latent Tuberculous Infection The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details

1999 Clinical Trials

16975. Preventive Treatment Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection

Preventive Treatment Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection Preventive Treatment Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved (...) Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Preventive Treatment Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our

1999 Clinical Trials

16976. Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection

Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details

1999 Clinical Trials

16977. A Phase I Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Antiviral Effects of Concurrent Administration of Zidovudine (AZT) and 2'3'-Dideoxyinosine (ddI) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

A Phase I Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Antiviral Effects of Concurrent Administration of Zidovudine (AZT) and 2'3'-Dideoxyinosine (ddI) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) A Phase I Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Antiviral Effects of Concurrent Administration of Zidovudine (AZT) and 2'3'-Dideoxyinosine (ddI) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record (...) managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Phase I Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Antiviral Effects of Concurrent Administration of Zidovudine (AZT) and 2'3'-Dideoxyinosine (ddI) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The safety and scientific

1999 Clinical Trials

16978. [The treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The Spanish Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis in HIV+ Patients]. (Abstract)

[The treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The Spanish Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis in HIV+ Patients]. Alfa-interferon (aIFN) is widely recommended for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very common in injecting drug users (IDUs), which in Spain represent the large number of HIV-infected persons. Interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HCV (...) in coinfected patients might accelerate the clinical course of HCV-associated liver disease. The efficacy and safety of aIFN therapy in HIV-infected patients with CHC is not well known.In a multicenter, prospective, open, non randomized and partially controlled study, we compared the efficacy and safety of aIFN therapy in 119 patients with CHC, of whom 90 were HIV-positive and 29 HIV-negative. Interferon was started at 5 mega U tiw for 3 months, followed in responders by 3 megaU tiw for additional 9

1996 Medicina clinica

16979. Design of a prospective study of the pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. (Abstract)

Design of a prospective study of the pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Because no studies have systematically described the pulmonary complications associated with early stages of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases jointly initiated a prospective cohort study in 1987 to describe (...) the incidence and course of lung diseases at all stages of HIV infection. This paper describes the ongoing study and highlights some of its unusual features. Six clinical centers from different geographic areas in the U.S. began enrolling participants in 1988, and the resulting cohort comprises 1353 members. HIV seropositive participants were randomized to "intensive" (pulmonary disease screening and follow-up at 3-month intervals) or "routine" (6-month follow-up intervals with annual screening) follow-up

1993 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16980. Safety of late in utero exposure to zidovudine in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers: Bangkok. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. (Abstract)

Safety of late in utero exposure to zidovudine in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers: Bangkok. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. Short-course zidovudine (ZDV) given in the late antenatal period can reduce mother-infant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by one half. Because this intervention is being implemented in developing countries, evidence of its safety is needed.In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (...) in Bangkok, HIV-infected pregnant women received either ZDV (300 mg twice daily from 36 weeks' gestation until labor, then every 3 hours until delivery) or an identical placebo regimen. Infants were evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months of age. Growth, clinical events, and hematologic and immunologic measurements were compared between treatment groups.Of the 395 children born (196 in ZDV group and 199 in placebo group), 330 were uninfected, 55 were infected, and 10 had

2001 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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