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141. Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Robust and dynamic innate and adaptive responses characterize the acute central nervous system (CNS) response to HIV and other viral infections. In a state of chronic infection or viral latency, persistent immune activation associates with abnormality in the CNS. Understanding this process is critical, as immune-mediated abnormality in nonrenewable CNS cells may result in long-term neurologic sequelae (...) for HIV-infected individuals.In humans, immune activation is reduced by suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, but persists at abnormally elevated levels on treatment. CNS immune activation is initiated in acute infection and progressively increases until combination antiretroviral therapy is started. Newly identified characteristics of the CNS immune surveillance network include features of homeostasis and function of brain microglial cells, lymphatic drainage from CNS to cervical lymph

2016 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

142. Intermittent Courses of Corticosteroids Also Present a Risk for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intermittent Courses of Corticosteroids Also Present a Risk for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical (...) outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010. The underlying condition, immunosuppressive therapies, coinfection, and clinical course were determined. PCP diagnosis required symptoms of pneumonia and identification of the organisms by visualization or by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 128 cases of PCP were identified during the study period. Hematological malignancies were

2016 Canadian respiratory journal

143. HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Antiretroviral drug resistance following pMTCT strategies remains a significant problem. With rapid advancements in next generation sequencing technologies, there is more focus on HIV drug-resistant variants of low frequency, or the so-called minority variants. In South Africa, AZT monotherapy

2016 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

144. From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults This paper uses a life-course approach to explore the sexual partnerships and HIV-related risk of men and women in Swaziland throughout their adolescence, 20s and 30s. Twenty-eight Swazi men and women between the ages of 20 and 39 discussed their life histories in 117 in-depth interviews, with an average follow-up of nine months. Many participants described painful childhood experiences (...) and change was observed over the study period, with half of participants reporting concurrency within their primary relationship. Participants' narratives revealed significant sources and circumstances of risk, particularly multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships, violence and lack of mutual trust within relationships, as well as social ideals that may provide opportunities for effective HIV prevention.

2016 Culture, health & sexuality

145. Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India Migrant workers are understood to be vulnerable to HIV. However, little is known about the experience of migration-based households following HIV infection. This qualitative study examined the migration-HIV relationship beyond the point of infection, looking at how it affects livelihood choices, household relationships and the economic viability of migrant families. We conducted semi (...) and reduced physical strength. Insecure migrant job markets, monthly drug collection and discriminatory employment policies impeded future migration plans. HIV-positive wives of migrants occupied an insecure position in the rural marital household that depended on their husbands' health and presence of children. The migration-HIV relationship continued to shape the life course of migrant families beyond the point of infection, often exposing them again to the economic insecurity that migration had helped

2016 Global public health

146. Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number (...) of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high

2016 Therapeutics and clinical risk management

147. Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic Antiretroviral therapy has tremendous potential to alter the HIV-1 epidemic trajectory. However, gaps in the continuum from HIV diagnosis, through linkage to care and uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, are substantially limiting to the actual impact. In the United States, gaps in HIV diagnosis and care are greatest among African Americans, substance users, and persons living below (...) the poverty line. Globally, HIV diagnosis rates are highest in women, but HIV incidence may be declining more rapidly in men, due to lower transmission rates from female partners and greater uptake of medical male circumcision. The 2012 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections explored gaps in the continuum of care and potential strategies to address them, and also addressed the disparate results from preexposure prophylaxis efficacy trials. The role of injectable contraceptives

2016 Topics in antiviral medicine

148. Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. We assessed factors, including treatment course, associated with failure to obtain a 10 year immunological response after starting first-generation PI-containing combined ART (cART).In the prospective COPILOTE cohort of HIV-infected patients started on a first-generation PI-containing regimen in 1997-99, the impact of cART history (...) response, despite prolonged virological success. Lack of treatment interruption may improve long-term immunological outcome in HIV infection.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2016 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

149. Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. Short-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may delay disease progression but has not been adequately evaluated.We randomly assigned adults with primary HIV infection to ART for 48 weeks, ART for 12 weeks, or no ART (standard of care), with treatment initiated within 6 months after seroconversion. The primary end point was a CD4+ count of less than 350 cells per cubic millimeter (...) a greater interval between ART initiation and the primary end point the closer that ART was initiated to estimated seroconversion (P=0.09), and 48-week ART conferred a reduction in the HIV RNA level of 0.44 log(10) copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.64) 36 weeks after the completion of short-course therapy. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, death, or serious adverse events.A 48-week course of ART in patients with primary

2013 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

150. Time-Course Analysis of Main Markers of Primary Infection in Cats with the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Time-Course Analysis of Main Markers of Primary Infection in Cats with the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Studies of the response of the immune system to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) during primary infection have shown that a subpopulation of CD8(+) T-cells with an activated phenotype and reduced expression of the CD8β chain (denoted CD8β(low) T cells) expands to reach up to 80% of the total CD8(+) T cell count. The expansion of this subpopulation is considered to be a signature of FIV (...) with a population approach using data from 102 experimentally infected cats. We examine the dose of infection as a potential covariate of parameters. We find that the rates of increase of viral load and of CD8β(low) percentage are both correlated with the dose of infection. Cats that develop strong acute viremia also show the largest degree of CD8β(low) expansion. The two simple models are robust tools for analysing the time course of CD8β(low) percentage and circulating viral load in FIV-infected cats and may

2012 Computational and mathematical methods in medicine

151. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health

health and HIV. 25 January 2018 Updated the data in the guidance and linked to 'HIV in the UK: 2016 report' instead of '2014 HIV: surveillance, data and management report'. Added a new section about online courses. 4 August 2017 Updated measuring outcomes section to add links to Everyday Interactions measuring impact toolkit and sexual health impact pathway. 1 April 2015 First published. Related content Collection Explore the topic Is this page useful? Thank you for your feedback Help us improve (...) Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve government digital services. Any data collected is anonymised. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Sexual and reproductive health

2019 Public Health England

152. Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines: May 2017. Available from: Accessed November 30, 2018. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, Heneine W, Thomas V, Cheever LW, et al. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology. 2013;34(9):875–92. Hankins C, Macklin R, Warren M. Translating PrEP (...) prophylaxis after sexual or injection-drug exposure to human immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164(1):46–54. Pinkerton SD, Martin JN, Roland ME, Katz MH, Coates TJ, Kahn JO. Cost-effectiveness of HIV postexposure prophylaxis following sexual or injection drug exposure in 96 metropolitan areas in the United States. AIDS. 2004;18(15):2065–73. Herida M, Larsen C, Lot F, Laporte A, Desenclos JC, Hamers FF. Cost-effectiveness of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in France. AIDS. 2006;20

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

153. Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV

. Available from: Accessed January 3, 2019. Hughson G. NAM: AIDSMAP. Factsheet: CD4 cell counts. 2017. Available from Accessed December 20, 2018. Hall HI, Song R, Szwarcwald CL, Green T. Brief report: Time from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to diagnosis, United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2015;69(2):248–51. Song R, Hall HI, Green TA, Szwarcwald CL, Pantazis N. Using CD4 data to estimate HIV incidence, prevalence, and percent of undiagnosed infections (...) (3). Back-calculation was initially used at the beginning of the HIV epidemic; AIDS incidence data was used to “back-calculate” the number of individuals previously infected (16, 17). During this time, effective treatment was not available; the virus took its course, and over time, progressed to AIDS (18). By using the number of reported AIDS cases from each year and the assumed length of time from HIV infection to AIDS (i.e. the incubation period), estimating the number of individuals who

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

154. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA – An integrated approach 1 Executive summary Reaching and testing those at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a public health challenge across Europe. One in two people currently living with HIV is diagnosed late in the course of their infection and an even larger proportion of the estimated 9 million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C (...) /EEA European Union/European Economic Area GP General practitioner HA-REACT Joint Action on HIV and Co-Infection Prevention and Harm Reduction HBV Hepatitis B virus HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen HCV Hepatitis C virus HIV Human immunodeficiency virus IC Indicator condition IFN Interferon INTEGRATE Joint Action on Integrating Prevention, Testing and Linkage to Care Strategies Across HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB and STIs in Europe IUSTI International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections MSM

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

155. Public health guidance in brief on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

testing Why integrated testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? Why do we need to improve testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? What are the benefits of testing and early diagnosis? One in two people living with HIV are diagnosed late in the course of their infection. A large proportion of the estimated nine million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C are unaware that they are infected. The three viruses have common modes of transmission, and integrated HBV, HCV and HIV testing allows synergies (...) -infection. Integrated testing also reflects existing patterns of service delivery in EU/EEA countries and a growing movement to integrate HIV, HBV and HCV testing, prevention and linkage-to-care efforts. To maximise the benefits of individual treatment for all three infections, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection, which is challenging since these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years. The ECDC guidance advocates for the development

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

156. The efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV

and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis: Updated version, June 13, 2018. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2017;189(47):E1448–e58. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, Heneine W, Thomas V, Cheever LW, et al. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2013;34(9):875–92. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, Srivastava PU, Marcus R (...) ? What are key factors implicated in the efficacy or inefficacy of PEP? Key take-home messages PEP initiated soon after exposure can reduce the risk of HIV seroconversion after occupational and non-occupational exposures, provided adherence to medications is sufficient (1–4). Evidence suggests that individuals prescribed tenofovir-based two- or three-drug regimens are more likely to complete a course of PEP and have lower discontinuation rates due to adverse events compared to zidovudine-based

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

157. Guidelines for diagnosing and managing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living with HIV

reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with histoplasmosis: • continue antiretroviral therapy; and • ensure optimal antifungal therapy. Short-course oral steroid therapy can be considered if there are life-threatening complications despite appropriate treatment of histoplasmosis. In these cases, it has been recommended that 1–2 mg/kg per day of prednisone or the equivalent be given for 1–2 weeks followed by dose-tapering for two weeks.14 3.4 TB therapy for people coinfected with TB, HIV (...) Guidelines for diagnosing and managing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living with HIV GUIDELINES FOR APRIL 2020 GUIDELINES HIV TREATMENT DIAGNOSING AND MANAGING DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV pDIAGNOSING AND MANAGING DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV GUIDELINES FOR APRIL 2020 Washington, D.C. 2020 pGuidelines for Diagnosing and Managing Disseminated Histoplasmosis among People Living with HIV © Pan American Health Organization and World

2020 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

158. Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV

Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV , , , , , , , , , Questions What are the unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV? What interventions, strategies, and programs have been used to address these needs? Key take-home messages In 2016, First Nations, Métis (...) , and Inuit peoples accounted for 4.9% of the Canadian population but represented 11.3% of all new HIV infections (1). When considering Indigenous health, conventional approaches to HIV and other communicable diseases are insufficient (2). Considerable disconnect exists between the priorities of the HIV care cascade and the experiences of Indigenous peoples living with HIV (3). The lack of coordination between mainstream HIV biomedical approaches and Indigenous worldviews appears to contribute to poor

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

159. Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform (...) abundance of CD4+CCR5+ T cell targets of virus replication, and T cell activation. To test whether increasing gastrointestinal permeability to cause microbial translocation would amplify viremia, we treated two SIV-infected macaque 'elite controllers' with a short-course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-stimulating a transient increase in microbial translocation and a prolonged recrudescent viremia. Altogether, our data implicates translocating microbes as amplifiers of immunodeficiency virus replication

2016 PLoS pathogens

160. 90-90-90 - Charting a steady course to end the paediatric HIV epidemic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

90-90-90 - Charting a steady course to end the paediatric HIV epidemic. The new "90-90-90" UNAIDS agenda proposes that 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression by 2020. By focusing on children, the global community is in the unique position of realizing an end to the paediatric HIV epidemic.Despite (...) treatment to children, adolescents and families. The road to an AIDS-free generation will require bridging the gaps in HIV services and addressing the particular needs of children across the developmental spectrum from infancy through adolescence. To reach the ambitious new targets, innovations and service improvements will need to be rapidly escalated at each step along the prevention-treatment cascade.Charting a successful course to reach the 90-90-90 targets will require sustained political

2015 Journal of the International AIDS Society

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