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HIV Course

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15901. Ceftriaxone in the treatment of chronic donovanosis in central Australia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of infection was 3.0 years (SD 1.9 years), and between four and ten courses of antibiotics had been prescribed for six of the 12 patients. Patients received between 7-26g of ceftriaxone sodium. Clinical improvement was dramatic in most lesions, and four patients healed completely without recurrence after a total 7-10g of ceftriaxone. Mild recurrences responded to further ceftriaxone or short courses of oral antibiotics. Treatment was well tolerated, and both patient and staff compliance high.Donovanosis (...) is an important cause of chronic genital ulceration in central Australia, and is potentially an important risk factor for HIV transmission in Aboriginal communities. The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of ceftriaxone make it a useful and cost-effective agent in the ambulatory management of donovanosis, especially in remote communities. Supervised multidrug regimens of two or more long-acting agents may provide the best answer in donovanosis, administered through the existing health care infrastructure.

1994 Genitourinary Medicine

15902. The dual epidemics of tuberculosis and AIDS: ethical and policy issues in screening and treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The dual epidemics of tuberculosis and AIDS: ethical and policy issues in screening and treatment. As the recent increase in cases of tuberculosis is addressed, there is a danger that the need for increased protection of the public health will create a climate in which the rights of individuals with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be disregarded. This paper considers ethical and policy issues in the control of tuberculosis. The authors conclude that mandatory (...) HIV testing is not critical to effective tuberculosis control, and that although individuals infected with HIV are at increased risk for developing tuberculosis, exclusionary employment practices are not justified. Because failure to complete the course of tuberculosis treatment increases the prospect that drug-resistant strains will develop, it is crucial to require all those who commence treatment to complete their therapy. To ensure the completion of treatment, special attention must be paid

1993 American Journal of Public Health

15903. Prevalence of toxoplasma myocarditis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of toxoplasma myocarditis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To evaluate the prevalence of cardiac toxoplasmosis in a series of 182 necropsies performed between 1987 and 1991 on patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to correlate this prevalence with the ante mortem diagnosis of cardiac involvement, and to assess the role of such cardiac lesions in the immediate cause of death.Complete necropsies of 182 HIV-infected patients (48 women (...) inflammatory reaction or necrosis were seen in 4/21. Anti-toxoplasma immunolabelling showed cardiac toxoplasmosis in three patients with lymphocytic myocarditis. Particles with the ultrastructural characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites were seen in four cases. Six patients had presented with cardiac symptoms, confirmed by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities during their disease course, and their cardiac lesions were directly responsible for the death.Cardiac toxoplasmosis

1993 British Heart Journal

15904. A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention Full Text available with Trip Pro

approach to stem the spread of HIV infection. It examines some of the philosophical differences underlying cognitive and behavioral approaches that are embedded in mechanistic versus functional contextualistic principles. It explores the theoretical and practical implications of adopting either predicting and explaining behavior or predicting and influencing behavior as the goals of science. To illustrate the value of adopting the goal of prediction and influence, behavior-analytic research (...) on the social context of risky sexual behavior in adolescents is described. The paper argues that in order to alter the future course of the AIDS epidemic, the behavioral sciences must move beyond describing cognitive and attitudinal correlates of risky behavior and focus on the social context of the behavior of individuals. In addition, population-wide changes in AIDS-risk behavior can be accomplished only if research focuses on how to influence larger social systems, including the media, school systems

1994 The Behavior Analyst

15905. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with AIDS: a relatively uncommon condition associated with reduced survival. Full Text available with Trip Pro

associated with AIDS, but in the remainder the source of bleeding was not a direct consequence of HIV infection. We conclude that acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rarely complicates the course of AIDS, but its occurrence is associated with decreased survival. As many of the causes are potentially treatable, a complete diagnostic approach is indicated in these patients, except those who are terminally ill.

1991 Gut

15906. Long-term serologic follow-up of hepatitis C virus-seropositive homosexual men. Full Text available with Trip Pro

converted to HCV seropositive during the study interval. Parenteral sources of exposure could be identified in 6 of these 26 HCV-seropositive men. Four men were HCV seropositive at baseline and seronegative at their most recent visit. Of the 26 HCV-seropositive men, 12 were also seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. EIA analysis of 298 longitudinal samples from the 26 men revealed three patterns of HCV seropositivity: persistent, intermittent, and rare. Nine men (35%) showed intermittent (...) Long-term serologic follow-up of hepatitis C virus-seropositive homosexual men. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may go undiagnosed and continue to present a source of community-acquired or transfusion-associated infection because of shortcomings in sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of serologic tests. This project was designed to longitudinally study persons who were HCV seropositive or were at risk for seroconversion to characterize the course of infection. Sequential serum

1995 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

15907. The retinal lesions of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fit no particular pattern. The etiology has been attributed to factors acting singly or in synergy namely that repeated exposure to CMV, semen, or other antigens results in progressive cellular immunodeficiency, or alternatively, a novel virus has an etiologic role. The epidemiology of the syndrome suggests a horizontally transmissible agent. The spectrum of opportunistic infections observed in AIDS patients is well documented. A higher incidence of KS as well as squamous carcinoma of the oral (...) The retinal lesions of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS is a reliably diagnosed disease that is indicative of an underlying cellular immunodeficiency with no other cause for the disorder. To date over 2000 cases have been reported in North America and Europe and the number is rising. Patients fulfilling the definition for AIDS have included male homosexuals, IV drug abusers of both sexes, people from Haiti, heterosexual partners of AIDS patients, hemophiliacs, and some patients who

1984 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

15908. Prospective study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza and antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III in homosexual men. Selective loss of an influenza-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in human T l Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prospective study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza and antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III in homosexual men. Selective loss of an influenza-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in human T l Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from 18 homosexual men who did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and from 9 heterosexual men were repetitively tested for their ability to generate HLA self-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (...) responses to influenza virus (flu-self) over a 2-yr period. The sera of the same donors were tested for antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III). Six of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors consistently generated weak cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self. Seven of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors were seropositive for antibodies to HTLV-III. No obvious correlation was detected between weak flu-self cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and antibodies

1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

15909. JC Virus-Induced Changes in Cellular Gene Expression in Primary Human Astrocytes Full Text available with Trip Pro

JC Virus-Induced Changes in Cellular Gene Expression in Primary Human Astrocytes Cell-type-specific transcription of the JC virus (JCV) promoter in glial cells initiates a series of events leading to viral replication in the brain and the development of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with neurologic complications due to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Here we employed an in vitro infection of primary cultures (...) of human astrocytes to compare the transcriptional profile of cellular genes after JCV infection by using an oligonucleotide-based microarray of 12600 genes. Transcription of nearly 355 genes was enhanced and expression of 130 genes was decreased to various degrees. Many transcripts that were increased upon JCV infection were found to encode proteins with properties that suggest their involvement in cell proliferation, including cyclin A and cyclin B1; signaling pathways, such as transforming growth

2003 Journal of virology

15910. Non-invasive investigation of liver disease in haemophilic patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

patients (60%) had splenomegaly on computed tomography, and of 28 patients in whom intravenous contrast medium was used, seven (25%) had collateral oesophageal veins. Serum procollagen III peptide estimations and computed tomography, both non-invasive investigations, indicated that hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension had developed in a proportion of haemophilic patients with non-A, non-B hepatitis. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may modify the course of this presumably (...) cytopathic virus infection of the liver.

1988 Journal of Clinical Pathology

15911. Hepatitis B in symptomless Danish homosexual men. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in 12 (39%) and chronic hepatitis B in 19 (61%) of the 31 patients who underwent liver biopsy. The course of the infection was: acute hepatitis B in 14/48 (29%), chronic persistent hepatitis B in 23/48 (48%), chronic aggressive hepatitis B in 8/48 (17%), and cirrhosis in 3/48 (6%) of the patients. Antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were present in 16/45 (36%) of the patients, but the presence of antibodies to HIV did not influence the course of hepatitis B in the observation

1988 Genitourinary Medicine

15912. Influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic study In the course of a prospective study of the prevalence and incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk factors for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome among 961 homosexual men, 97 initially HIV antibody seronegative men reported a febrile period lasting at least three days. In 60 of these men serological evidence for an infection was found: influenza A or B virus (17 men), HIV (14 (...) ), Epstein-Barr virus (seven), parainfluenza virus type I, 11 or Ill (five), hepatitis A virus (three), cytomegalovirus (three), adenovirus (two), respiratory syncytial virus (two), hepatitis B virus (one) and Toxoplasma gondii (one). Combined infections were found in five men. A total of 17 men seroconverted for HIV antibody. The clinical symptoms of acute HIV infection closely resembled those of influenza A or B infection. Skin rashes also occurred frequently in men with HIV infection. HIV antibody

1988 The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

15913. Failure to deliver hepatitis B vaccine: confessions from a genitourinary medicine clinic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of hepatitis B vaccine in 1988. Case notes were unavailable for one patient.The proportion of patients screened for hepatitis B virus markers, the proportion of susceptible patients immunised, the proportion completing the vaccine course, and the proportion rendered immune.25 men had been previously tested for hepatitis markers; of the 732 not previously tested, 440 (60.1%) were screened for hepatitis B markers. 207 (69%) of the 300 patients without hepatitis B serological markers started the vaccine (...) course, and 141 (68%) completed it, with 75 (84%) of the 89 tested after immunisation being immune. An estimated 24% of susceptible new patients were rendered immune as a result of the immunisation policy. Patients who presented with a further episode of a sexually transmitted disease were more likely to have been screened (25% v 12%, p less than 0.0001) and immunised (31% v 18% p = 0.02); those known or found to be positive for HIV antibody were more likely to have been screened (23% v 14%, p

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal

15914. Human immunodeficiency viruses in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in London, 1982-7. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human immunodeficiency viruses in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in London, 1982-7. To determine the prevalence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in all patients attending a London sexually transmitted disease clinic over four weeks at the end of 1987 and to see how it varied from that in similar samples studied between 1982 and 1986.Anonymous testing of serum samples from consecutive heterosexual and homosexual patients having routine (...) homosexual and bisexual men were excluded (these were regular attenders as part of a prospective study of the natural course of HIV infection).The prevalence of anti-HIV-I in homosexual and bisexual men in 1987 was 25.6% (64/250). Results in the same clinic population between 1982 and 1984 had shown a rise in prevalence, which flattened out in 1985-6 and continued at that level. Among heterosexual attenders in 1987 the prevalence of anti-HIV-I was 1% (women 4/412; men 4/377), which contrasted

1989 BMJ : British Medical Journal

15915. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine in woodchucks. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine in woodchucks. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) has proven to be a suitable animal model for studying hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection owing to similarities in the course of infection between woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in woodchucks and HBV in humans. (-)-beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) is a nucleoside analog which has demonstrated antiviral activity against HBV as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV (...) relationships for clearance and volume of distribution at steady state predicted the observed pharmacokinetic parameters in humans quite well; however, the apparent volume of distribution was underestimated in humans. Thus, the pharmacokinetic data obtained with the woodchuck HBV animal model should be useful for designing clinical trials.

1996 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

15916. Hope and caution: report from the XI International Conference on AIDS. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hope and caution: report from the XI International Conference on AIDS. The XI International Conference on AIDS brought hope to people infected with HIV and to their physicians. The amount of HIV RNA in an infected person's plasma--the viral load--can be quantified to predict the course of the disease and provide a basis for therapeutic decisions. Various combinations of antiretroviral agents can reduce viral load and decrease the risk of progression to AIDS and death. The high cost (...) of these drugs together with the potential for low patient compliance and for the emergence of drug-resistant mutations of HIV represent obstacles to successful treatment. Speakers at the conference explained the dynamics of viral replication and the immune response to HIV infection, and provided preliminary results of studies designed to test the feasibility of eradicating HIV from the body. New guidelines for antiretroviral therapy were presented at a satellite symposium, but the prospects for the long

1996 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

15917. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth in mammalian cells by purine and pyrimidine analogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

50% growth inhibition being 10 and 5 microM, respectively, in contrast to a concentration causing 50% growth inhibition of 3 microM for allopurinol. Among the pyrimidine analogs examined, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine) significantly reduced the growth of the parasite at concentrations as low as 1 microM. The anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine caused a decrease in amastigote growth, while 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 2',3'-dideoxyuridine (...) the time course of parasite growth is determined quantitatively. We adopted this system for the screening of anti-T. cruzi agents that would ideally prove to be effective against trypanosomes with no toxicity to the host cell. Of the purine analogs tested, allopurinol markedly inhibited the growth of amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner, with no lethal effect on trypomastigotes. 3'-Deoxyinosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine also suppressed T. cruzi growth inside the host cell, with the concentrations causing

1996 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

15918. Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection: comparison of the clinical features, treatment and outcome with pulmonary tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection: comparison of the clinical features, treatment and outcome with pulmonary tuberculosis. In the United Kingdom Mycobacterium kansasii is the most common pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria to cause disease in the non-HIV positive population.The clinical features, treatment, and outcome of 47 patients (13 women) of mean (SD) age 58 (17) years with culture positive pulmonary M kansasii infection were compared with those of 87 patients (23 women (...) or symptoms other than those due to mycobacterial infection. Patients with M kansasii were also less likely to have a history of diabetes, but the frequency of previous chest disease and tuberculosis was similar. An alcohol intake of > 14 units/week was less frequent in those with M kansasii, but there were no significant differences in drug history, past and present smoking habit, occupational exposures, social class, or marital status. Patients with M kansasii received a longer total course

1996 Thorax

15919. Meeting the needs of people with AIDS: local initiatives and Federal support. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the recommendations of the Intragovernmental Task Force on AIDS Health Care Delivery by enhancing the AIDS training of health care personnel in prevention, diagnosis, and care and by counseling and encouraging the expansion of facilities outside hospitals to care for AIDS patients. The agency, through its pediatric AIDS demonstration projects, is working on models for the care of children with HIV infections. The needs of AIDS patients are being addressed through a drug therapy reimbursement program (...) ; demonstration grants to 13 projects to promote coordinated, integrated systems of care in the community; and grants for the development of intermediate and long-term care facilities for patients. Ten regional education and training centers, funded in 1987 and 1988, will increase the supply of health care providers prepared to diagnose and treat persons with HIV infections. Programs will be conducted for several thousand providers over the next 3 years, using such modalities as televised programs and train

1988 Public Health Reports

15920. The Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences: formulating AIDS policy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the areas of drug and vaccine development, modeling the course of the epidemic, research in the behavioral and social sciences, equitable financing of care, pediatric AIDS, early cognitive impairment in HIV infection, IV drug abuse, and other topics. (...) The Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences: formulating AIDS policy. In 1985 the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences devoted its annual meeting to an exploration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The questions raised at the meeting propelled the IOM/NAS to initiate an assessment of the dimensions of the AIDS epidemic and to propose an appropriate national response. The Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS issued its report, "Confronting AIDS

1988 Public Health Reports

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