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15861. Participation, roles, and the dynamics of change in a group-delivered self-management course for people living with HIV. (PubMed)

Participation, roles, and the dynamics of change in a group-delivered self-management course for people living with HIV. Interventions designed to change behavior delivered to groups rather than individuals are popular in health promotion and self-management. The 7-week positive self-management program (PSMP) for people with HIV status is adapted from a psychoeducational program designed to increase people's capacity to manage their conditions by enhancing self-efficacy. A case study using

2007 Qualitative Health Research

15862. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV/HCV-coinfection with interferon alpha-2b+ full-course vs. 16-week delayed ribavirin. (PubMed)

Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV/HCV-coinfection with interferon alpha-2b+ full-course vs. 16-week delayed ribavirin. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients increasingly experience the consequences of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. This trial randomized 107 patients coinfected with HIV and HCV to receive 48 weeks of interferon alfa-2b (IFN) 3 million units three times weekly plus either a full course of ribavirin (RBV) at 800 mg/day (group A; n = 53) or 16 (...) in group A (+4.1%; P <.001), but not in group B (-0.3%). A significant proportion (22%) of patients who were HIV viremic at baseline had undetectable HIV RNA at week 12. By week 16, the hemoglobin level decreased more in group A (-2,52 g/dL) than in group B (-1.02 g/dL; P <.001). In group A, the hemoglobin decline was steeper in patients receiving zidovudine (azidothymidine [AZT], -3.64 g/dL vs. no AZT, -2.08 g/dL), and patients receiving zidovudine had more anemia-related RBV dose reductions (AZT, 60

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2004 Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15863. Randomized, controlled study of the effects of a short course of prednisone on the incidence of rash associated with nevirapine in patients infected with HIV-1. (PubMed)

Randomized, controlled study of the effects of a short course of prednisone on the incidence of rash associated with nevirapine in patients infected with HIV-1. To examine the effect of 2 weeks of treatment with prednisone on the incidence of nevirapine-associated rash in HIV-1-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.This was a 24-week, prospective, randomized, open-label, international study. Patients were randomized to receive nevirapine plus open-label prednisone (40 (...) Fisher exact test for prednisone reducing the incidence of rash, p =.984). There tended to be more severe rashes (7% versus 1%, respectively) and more therapy discontinuations due to rash (16% versus 9%, respectively) in the prednisone treatment group than in the nonprednisone treatment group. Risk factors for rash included higher pretreatment CD4 cell count, lower HIV-1 RNA level, female sex, and higher trough nevirapine concentrations. The prednisone treatment group had a marked increase

2003 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15864. Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 after a maternal short-course zidovudine peripartum regimen in West Africa. (PubMed)

Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 after a maternal short-course zidovudine peripartum regimen in West Africa. To assess the postnatal transmission (PT) risk of HIV-1 after a maternal short-course zidovudine regimen in a breastfeeding population.Data were pooled from two trials: ANRS 049a DITRAME (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina-Faso) and RETROCI (Abidjan). Consenting HIV-1 seropositive women were randomized at 36-38 weeks' gestation between September 1995 and February 1998 (...) , to receive oral zidovudine or placebo: one tablet twice daily until delivery, and in DITRAME only, for 7 more days. A PT case was infection in a child with a negative HIV-1 PCR at age >/= 30 days who later became infected as defined by a positive HIV-1 PCR, or if aged >/= 15 months, a positive HIV serology. Cumulative risks (CR) of PT were computed using a competing risk approach with weaning as a competing event.At age 24 months, CR for PT were similar in the zidovudine (9.8%, n = 254) and placebo

2003 AIDS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15865. Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogues during short-course monotherapy or dual therapy: its role in preventing HIV infection in infants. (PubMed)

Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogues during short-course monotherapy or dual therapy: its role in preventing HIV infection in infants. This is the first report on the preliminary efficacy of 4 different short-course nucleoside analogue regimens (stavudine [d4T], didanosine [ddI], d4T+ddI, and zidovudine [ZDV]) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) in a resource-limited setting.This prospective open-label, randomized 4-arm study (May 1999 to May 2000) conducted (...) in South Africa enrolled 373 women from 34 weeks of gestation; medication was continued through delivery and for 6 weeks to infants. MTCT rates were ascertained at birth, 6, 12, and 24 weeks of age.Mean maternal HIV-1 RNA levels decreased rapidly on treatment in all groups. At week 4, the mean decrease was 1.91 log10 copies/mL (c/mL) in the d4T+ddI group, 1.33 log10 c/mL in the ddI group, 1.12 log10 c/mL in the d4T group, and 0.76 log10 c/mL in the ZDV group. Among the 362 evaluable mother-infant pairs

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2006 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15866. Transmission of hepatitis C virus among HIV-positive homosexual men and response to a 24-week course of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. (PubMed)

Transmission of hepatitis C virus among HIV-positive homosexual men and response to a 24-week course of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. To evaluate treatment outcome of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-positive individuals.Open-label, prospective study conducted in London, January 1997-December 2003.Patients in whom acute HCV infection had been diagnosed had sequential HCV RNA levels measured at 0, 4, 12, 24, 32, and 48 weeks. If HCV RNA positive at 12 weeks, patients were offered (...) pegylated interferon alpha-2b 1.5 microg/kg/wk and ribavirin 800-1200 mg/d for 24 weeks. Patients with increasing HCV RNA titers were offered treatment earlier.Fifty male homosexuals with a mean age 37 years were identified: 44 from abnormal liver function test results, 4 from sexual contact with an HCV-positive partner, and 2 at HIV seroconversion. Overall, 12 individuals became HCV RNA negative spontaneously. This was significantly associated with high baseline median CD4(+) count (P = 0.029), CD4

2005 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15867. Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine. (PubMed)

Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine. To compare the effect of perinatal regimens of short-course nevirapine (HIVNET 012) and zidovudine [Thai-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regimen] on breast milk viral shedding and perinatal transmission during the first 6 weeks postpartum in a randomized clinical trial.Randomized clinical trial.Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women in Nairobi (...) , Kenya who planned to breastfeed were randomized to HIVNET 012 or Thai-CDC regimens. Two to four breast milk samples were collected each week between delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA was quantified using the Gen-Probe TMA assay. Infants were tested for HIV-1 DNA at birth and 6 weeks.From March to October 2003, 76 women were enrolled and 795 breast milk samples were collected from 60 women who were randomized and followed after delivery. Between 3 and 21 days postpartum

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2005 AIDS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15868. Effect of a four-week course of interleukin-10 on cytokine production in a placebo-controlled study of HIV-1-infected subjects. (PubMed)

Effect of a four-week course of interleukin-10 on cytokine production in a placebo-controlled study of HIV-1-infected subjects. Interleukin (IL)-10 suppresses synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)gamma. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), cytokine synthesis in whole blood cultures were determined during a 4-week course of subcutaneous IL-10 (...) injections in 33 HIV-1-infected patients. Patients were randomized into four groups: placebo (nine), IL-10 at 1 microg/kg/day (nine), IL-10 at 4 microg/kg/day (six) and IL-10 at 8 microg/kg three times per week (nine). Whole blood was obtained at the beginning and conclusion of the study and was stimulated for 24 hours with the combination of IL-18 plus lipopolysaccharide. TNFalpha production in stimulated whole blood was reduced three and six hours after the first injection of IL-10 compared to subjects

2007 European cytokine network Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15869. Short-course oral zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised trial. (PubMed)

Short-course oral zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised trial. In Africa, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection is high. Short-course perinatal oral zidovudine might decrease the rate of transmission. We assessed the safety and efficacy of such a regimen among HIV-1-seropositive breastfeeding women in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.From April, 1996, to February, 1998, all consenting, eligible HIV-1-seropositive (...) . The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission in the placebo and zidovudine groups were 21.7% and 12.2% (p=0.05) at 4 weeks, and 24.9% and 15.7% (p=0.07) at 3 months. Efficacy was 44% (95% CI -1 to 69) at age 4 weeks and 37% (-5 to 63) at 3 months.Short-course oral zidovudine was safe, well tolerated, and decreased mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 at age 3 months. Substantial efforts will be needed to ensure successful widespread implementation of such a regimen.

1999 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15870. Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Large reductions in transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child have been achieved in more-developed countries due to the use of antiretrovirals. Short-course regimens, suitable for resource-poor countries, have also been shown to significantly reduce (...) peripartum HIV-1 transmission. We assessed the efficacy of short-course regimens with zidovudine and lamivudine in a predominantly breastfeeding population.We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in South Africa, Uganda, and Tanzania. Between June, 1996, and January, 2000, HIV-1-infected mothers were randomised to one of four regimens: A, zidovudine plus lamivudine starting at 36 weeks' gestation, followed by oral intrapartum dosing and by 7 days' postpartum dosing of mothers

2002 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

15871. Nine Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV

Nine Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV Nine Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Nine Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00090779 Recruitment Status : Terminated (The DSMB concluded that the findings regarding the primary analysis would persist and that no additional study goals would

2004 Clinical Trials

15872. Three Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV

Three Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV Three Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding (...) more. Three Month Course of Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00087464 Recruitment Status : Withdrawn (study was withdrawn before any participants were recruited and enrolled) First Posted : July 13, 2004 Last Update Posted

2004 Clinical Trials

15873. Short-course zidovudine for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: a randomised controlled trial. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. (PubMed)

Short-course zidovudine for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: a randomised controlled trial. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. Many developing countries have not implemented the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission because of its complexity and cost. We investigated the safety and efficacy of short-course oral zidovudine administered during late pregnancy and labour.In a randomised, double (...) -24.2) on placebo (p=0.006; efficacy 50.1% [15.4-70.6]). Between enrolment and delivery, women in the zidovudine group had a mean decrease in viral load of 0.56 log. About 80% of the treatment effect was explained by lowered maternal viral concentrations at delivery.A short course of twice-daily oral zidovudine was safe and well tolerated and, in the absence of breastfeeding, can lessen the risk for mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission by half. This regimen could prevent many HIV-1 infections during

1999 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

15874. More severe course of delta hepatitis in HIV-infected patients [L] (PubMed)

More severe course of delta hepatitis in HIV-infected patients [L] 7744408 1995 06 12 2018 11 13 0266-4348 71 2 1995 Apr Genitourinary medicine Genitourin Med More severe course of delta hepatitis in HIV-infected patients [L]. 132-3 de Pouplana M M Soriano V V Samaniego J G JG Enríquez A A Muñoz F F González-Lahoz J J eng Letter England Genitourin Med 8503853 0266-4348 EC 2.6.1.2 Alanine Transaminase IM X Adult Alanine Transaminase blood Chronic Disease Female HIV Infections complications

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1995 Genitourinary Medicine

15875. Analysis of the risk factors associated with the emergence of azole resistant oral candidosis in the course of HIV infection. (PubMed)

Analysis of the risk factors associated with the emergence of azole resistant oral candidosis in the course of HIV infection. The objective of this case-control study, conducted in a large Italian university hospital over a 12-month period, was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the emergence of azole resistant oral candidosis in 64 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients. A swab was obtained from each patient by brushing candidal lesions. Candida albicans was isolated (...) episodes of oral candidosis in the last year (P = 0.01), previous use of azole therapy (P = 0.001), C2-3 category of HIV infection (P = 0.01) and low number of circulating CD4+ T-cells (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with an increased risk for the development of azole resistance. However, previous use of azole therapy was the only factor selected by a stepwise logistic regression analysis which was independently associated with the isolation of azole resistant strains (P = 0.003). Our findings

1996 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

15876. Highly active antiretroviral treatment initiated early in the course of symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection: results of the ANRS 053 trial. (PubMed)

Highly active antiretroviral treatment initiated early in the course of symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection: results of the ANRS 053 trial. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was given early to 64 patients with symptomatic primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. At the time of analysis, patients had been followed up for 9-21 months. No patient had died or developed an AIDS-defining event. Survival analysis showed that by month 21 the proportion of patients (...) with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL was 72% (95% confidence interval, 58%-95%) in intention-to-treat analysis. After 18 months of treatment, 50% of the patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA also had undetectable HIV-1 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Only 1 of 3 patients had undetectable HIV-1 RNA in lymphoid tissue, while all patients had quantifiable HIV-1 DNA both in PBMC and lymphoid tissue. The median CD4 lymphocyte increase from baseline was 230 cells/microL. These preliminary

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1999 The Journal of infectious diseases

15877. Virological and immunological effects of short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. (PubMed)

Virological and immunological effects of short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. National and international guidelines call for the treatment of primary HIV infection (PHI) with combination antiretroviral therapy, although the ideal timing and duration of this intervention is unknown. Recent immunological studies of antiretroviral therapy on small numbers of patients with PHI have reported preservation of HIV-specific CD4 T-helper responses, ordinarily lost in the absence (...) of intervention. We sought to investigate whether a short course of antiretroviral therapy (SCART) at PHI was sufficient to preserve HIV-specific cellular immunity.Forty-five subjects with confirmed PHI were offered SCART at diagnosis. HIV specific cellular immune responses and virological parameters were assessed at monthly intervals.Thirty-seven of the subjects chose SCART at PHI, and achieved a plasma viral load < 50 RNA copies/ml by a median of 10 weeks (range, 4-32 weeks). Two of the 45 individuals had

2002 AIDS

15878. Course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative sex workers and their infants. (PubMed)

Course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative sex workers and their infants. To determine the course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative pregnant commercial sex workers (prostitutes).Five hundred twenty-three initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Manipur, India, were studied between 1990 and 1999. Two hundred forty (46%) women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction with env, nef and vif gene (...) primers was done on 98 persistently seronegative sex workers, who remained seronegative after three years of follow-up. Fifty-four of these women became pregnant (study group). The course and outcome of pregnancy were studied prospectively in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative women and compared with those in matched HIV-1-seronegative women from the general population coming for routine antenatal checkups.In the 54 seronegative women (study group) who became pregnant, there were 52 singleton, term

2002 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

15879. Short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in patients with HIV infection: the 2-year experience of a comprehensive community-based program in Broward County, Florida. (PubMed)

Short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in patients with HIV infection: the 2-year experience of a comprehensive community-based program in Broward County, Florida. To determine the completion rate and tolerability of short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-infected patients through a comprehensive community-based program.Prospective cohort, with comparison to a historical control group.Of 3,118 (...) patients with HIV infection screened for LTBI between February 1999 and March 2001, 135 patients were placed on rifamycin/pyrazinamide for 2 months under directly observed therapy and were compared to a historical group comprised of 93 HIV-infected patients who were placed on self-administered treatment of isoniazid for 12 months between 1996 and 1998.Of 135 patients receiving rifamycin/pyrazinamide, 124 patients (92%) completed treatment; 5 patients had to discontinue treatment due to side effects

2002 Chest

15880. Is the clinical course of HIV infection changing? Study's censoring strategy may be source of bias. (PubMed)

Is the clinical course of HIV infection changing? Study's censoring strategy may be source of bias. 9393248 1997 12 24 2017 11 16 0959-8138 315 7117 1997 Nov 08 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Is the clinical course of HIV infection changing? Study's censoring strategy may be source of bias. 1237 Cozzi Lepri A A Phillips A N AN Pezzotti P P Rezza G G eng Letter Comment England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM X BMJ. 1997 Apr 26;314(7089):1232-7 9154026 Bias CD4 Lymphocyte Count Disease Progression (...) HIV Infections mortality HIV Seropositivity Humans 1997 12 11 1997 12 11 0 1 1997 12 11 0 0 ppublish 9393248 PMC2127753

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1997 BMJ : British Medical Journal

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