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HIV Course

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15721. Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV

and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: It is not known if anti-HIV treatment for recently infected patients improves long-term patient prognosis. The purpose of this study is to determine if a one year course of anti-HIV medications slows progression of HIV disease in adults recently infected with HIV. Study hypothesis: A one-year course of HAART administered during acute or early seroconversion may slow the progression of HIV infection. Condition or disease (...) Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently Infected With HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Anti-HIV Medications for People Recently

2005 Clinical Trials

15722. Anti-HIV Drugs for Treating Infants Who Acquired HIV Infection at Birth

and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Information provided by (Responsible Party): National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of anti-HIV drug courses of different lengths in infants who became HIV infected at birth. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase HIV Infections Drug: Abacavir sulfate Drug: Didanosine Drug: Efavirenz Drug: Lamivudine Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir Drug (...) treatment to benefit long-term prognosis in infants is a significant health challenge. Evidence suggests that starting ART early during acute infection will provide long-term benefits. However, longer duration of treatment increases the chance of developing drug-resistant virus, and continuous therapy begun early leads to long-term complications in children. This study will evaluate the efficacy of two different short-course ART strategies in HIV-infected infants from South Africa. This study will last

2005 Clinical Trials

15723. NNRTI vs PI Regimens for HIV Infected Women After They Have Taken Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission

of MTCT of HIV Last dose of NVP for prevention of MTCT of HIV taken at least 6 months prior to study entry Exclusion Criteria for All Participants: Previously received any antiretrovirals, excluding NVP for MTCT prophylaxis for Trial 1 participants. Participants who have received up to 10 weeks of zidovudine alone and completed this course at least 6 months prior to study entry are not excluded. Use of systemic cancer chemotherapy, systemic investigational agents, immunomodulators, or rifampin within (...) NNRTI vs PI Regimens for HIV Infected Women After They Have Taken Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission NNRTI vs PI Regimens for HIV Infected Women After They Have Taken Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum

2004 Clinical Trials

15724. Anti-HIV Treatment Interruptions in HIV Infected Adults in South Africa

table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: HIV infected CD4 count of 200 to 350 cells/mm3 within 60 days of starting study treatment Antiretroviral naive. Participants who have received antiretrovirals through postexposure prophylaxis or short course therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission are eligible for this study. Willing to adhere to study (...) Anti-HIV Treatment Interruptions in HIV Infected Adults in South Africa Anti-HIV Treatment Interruptions in HIV Infected Adults in South Africa - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Anti-HIV

2005 Clinical Trials

15725. HIV-1 viral load and other risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in a breast-feeding population in Cote d'Ivoire. (PubMed)

HIV-1 viral load and other risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in a breast-feeding population in Cote d'Ivoire. Short-course antiretroviral regimens have been evaluated to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited settings. This report from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, examines the risk factors for HIV transmission by 1 and 24 months among breast-feeding women. Eligible HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women enrolled in this randomized double-blind clinical trial

2003 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

15726. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load. (PubMed)

Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load. To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79 (...) %) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P<.05); this difference was associated with no change in plasma HIV-1 RNA load in the early intervention group (P=.99) and an increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load in the delayed intervention group (P<.01). Among the 227 participants who were followed up, those who received early

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2005 The Journal of infectious diseases

15727. Independent effects of nevirapine prophylaxis and HIV-1 RNA suppression in breast milk on early perinatal HIV-1 transmission. (PubMed)

Independent effects of nevirapine prophylaxis and HIV-1 RNA suppression in breast milk on early perinatal HIV-1 transmission. The mechanism of action of single-dose nevirapine on reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 may involve reduction of maternal HIV-1 or prophylaxis of infants.In a study that randomized pregnant mothers to HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course antenatal zidovudine, we compared breast milk HIV-1 RNA viral shedding and administration of single-dose nevirapine (...) between mothers who transmitted HIV-1 to their infants at 6 weeks postpartum and those who did not.In multivariate analyses, maximum breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25 to 4.99; P = 0.01) and nevirapine use (HR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.97; P = 0.05) were each independently associated with perinatal transmission at 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers who transmitted HIV-1 to their infants had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA levels in their breast milk

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2007 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

15728. Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV With Anti-HIV Drugs

a job or other obligations that may require long absences during the duration of the study Exclusion Criteria for HIV Infected Partner: Current or previous use of any ART. Participants who previously took a short-term course of ART for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV are not excluded. Documented or suspected acute hepatitis within 30 days of study entry, if the infected partner's starting regimen in the study contains nevirapine or atazanavir Current or previous AIDS-defining (...) Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV With Anti-HIV Drugs Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV With Anti-HIV Drugs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV

2003 Clinical Trials

15729. Bevacizumab to Treat Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients

herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels over the course of treatment; and changes in viral interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels over the course of treatment. ELIGIBILITY: Key eligibility parameters include HIV-associated or classical Kaposi's sarcoma, age greater than or equal to 18 years, and life expectancy greater than 6 months. Patients with HIV infection must have either KS progression on a regimen of highly active (...) Bevacizumab to Treat Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients Bevacizumab to Treat Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2003 Clinical Trials

15730. Effectiveness of Acyclovir in Suppressing HIV Viral Load in Women Coinfected With HIV and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2)

to study entry are not excluded. Any immunomodulator, HIV vaccine, or other investigational therapy within 30 days prior to study entry. Patients who received a tapering course of corticosteroids as acute therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) or are receiving inhaled or nasal fluticasone are not excluded. Current drug or alcohol use that, in the investigator's opinion, may interfere with the study Vomiting or inability to swallow medications Involuntarily incarcerated in a correctional (...) Effectiveness of Acyclovir in Suppressing HIV Viral Load in Women Coinfected With HIV and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Effectiveness of Acyclovir in Suppressing HIV Viral Load in Women Coinfected With HIV and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached

2006 Clinical Trials

15731. Effects of HIV-1 serostatus, HIV-1 RNA concentration, and CD4 cell count on the incidence of malaria infection in a cohort of adults in rural Malawi. (PubMed)

Effects of HIV-1 serostatus, HIV-1 RNA concentration, and CD4 cell count on the incidence of malaria infection in a cohort of adults in rural Malawi. To assess the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on susceptibility to malaria, we compared the incidence rates of malaria by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) serostatus, baseline blood HIV-1 RNA concentration, and baseline CD4 cell count, over the course of a malaria season.We followed a cohort of 349 adults in Malawi. For the 224 HIV-1 (...) -seropositive adults (64% of the cohort), we measured HIV-1 RNA concentration (n=187) and CD4 cell count (n=184) at baseline. Parasitemia was defined as presence of asexual parasites on a thick film of blood and was treated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP), in accordance with national policy. Hazard ratios (HRs) of parasitemia were estimated using Cox regression. Demographics were adjusted for.HIV-1 seropositivity was associated with parasitemia (adjusted HR, 1.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-2.7

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2005 Journal of Infectious Diseases

15732. Incidence of HIV-1 dual infection and its association with increased viral load set point in a cohort of HIV-1 subtype C-infected female sex workers. (PubMed)

(n=22), which was measured by use of the bDNA assay. Within 3 months of infection, 19% (6/31) of the women were dually infected with 2 distinct HIV-1 subtype C viruses. No evidence of superinfection was detected over the course of 24 months of follow-up, indicating that the risk of dual infection is highest around the time of the initial infection. There was a significant association between dual infection and elevated viral load set point. (...) Incidence of HIV-1 dual infection and its association with increased viral load set point in a cohort of HIV-1 subtype C-infected female sex workers. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the incidence and pathogenic implications of dual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in a cohort of female sex workers. Blood samples from 31 recently infected women were screened by use of a heteroduplex mobility assay and sequencing. The median viral load set point was 5404 copies/mL

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2004 Journal of Infectious Diseases

15733. HIV-1 disease progression in breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers: a prospective 2-year comparison of T cell subsets, HIV-1 RNA levels, and mortality. (PubMed)

HIV-1 disease progression in breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers: a prospective 2-year comparison of T cell subsets, HIV-1 RNA levels, and mortality. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine (...) . HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell

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2007 Journal of Infectious Diseases

15734. Hepatotoxicity of rifampin and pyrazinamide in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected persons: is it different than in HIV-uninfected persons? (PubMed)

Hepatotoxicity of rifampin and pyrazinamide in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected persons: is it different than in HIV-uninfected persons? In 2000, results of a multinational trial demonstrated that a 2-month course of rifampin and pyrazinamide (RZ) was as effective as isoniazid (INH) in reducing tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). After the release of new guidelines, the Centers (...) for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of the RZ regimen for the treatment of LTBI in the general population. To better understand the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in an HIV-infected population, we conducted a more detailed analysis of the liver function test results obtained in the multinational trial of RZ.At study entry, patients were required to have a bilirubin level of < or =2.5 mg/dL and both an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level

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2004 Clinical Infectious Diseases

15735. Suppression of leukemia inhibitor factor in lymphoid tissue in primary HIV infection: absence of HIV replication in gp130-positive cells. (PubMed)

Suppression of leukemia inhibitor factor in lymphoid tissue in primary HIV infection: absence of HIV replication in gp130-positive cells. Leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family, has recently been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication both in vivo and in vitro.LIF and its corresponding receptors gp130 and LIF receptor-alpha (LIFR-alpha) were studied in lymphoid tissue (LT) to reveal potential systemic immunoregulatory effects during the course of HIV-1 (...) infection.LIF, gp130, LIFR-alpha and HIV-1 replicating cells were identified at the single cell level by immunohistochemistry and quantified by computerized in situ imaging in tonsil and lymph nodes biopsies (LT) from patients with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI), chronic HIV-1 infection (cHI), long-term non-progressors (LTNP) and HIV-1 seronegative controls.LIF and its receptors, gp130 and LIFR-alpha were significantly (P < 0.005) upregulated in LT from PHI patients as compared with HIV-1 seronegative

2003 AIDS

15736. Prospective analyses of HIV-1-specific proliferative responses, recall antigen proliferative responses, and clinical outcomes in an HIV-1-seropositive cohort. (PubMed)

from 608 HIV-seropositive individuals enrolled in a trial of glycoprotein 160 vaccine therapy over the course of 3-5 years, lymphoproliferative responses to HIV-1 antigens, tetanus toxoid (TT), and mitogens were measured and correlated with clinical outcome and other parameters of progression. Baseline lymphoproliferative responses to antigens and mitogens were used to categorize the cohort into responders or nonresponders.Although response to recall antigens did not correlate with clinical indices (...) Prospective analyses of HIV-1-specific proliferative responses, recall antigen proliferative responses, and clinical outcomes in an HIV-1-seropositive cohort. In cross-sectional studies of chronically infected individuals, lymphoproliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 p24 Gag antigen have previously been associated with lower virus load. It was not known whether this association would be predictive of better clinical outcome in longitudinal studies.In blood samples

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2004 Journal of Infectious Diseases

15737. HIV, hepatitis C and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection in vulnerable populations. (PubMed)

with HIV-alone-infected patients. Co-infected patients were less likely to have a history of an AIDS opportunistic infection ever and were less likely to have received HIV antiretroviral drugs in 2002.The VA's HIV and HIV/HCV-co-infected patient populations have very high rates of additional comorbid conditions that complicate both the pharmacological therapy and clinical course of both HIV and HCV infections. Given the overlap in viral illness and comorbidities, optimal models of integrated care need (...) HIV, hepatitis C and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection in vulnerable populations. To describe basic patient demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-co-infected patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) with a focus on some patient factors that place such patients at an increased risk of poor health outcomes.An observational retrospective cohort study.The study cohort consisted of veterans in the VA Immunology Case

2005 AIDS

15738. Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic. (PubMed)

Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic. Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections.To compare the pattern of AIDS-defining events, CD4 cell count at the time of AIDS diagnosis, survival from time of AIDS, and CD4 cell count near time of death in HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients.Adult patients with AIDS who (...) attended the clinics of the MRC in The Gambia were enrolled. AIDS was diagnosed according to the expanded World Health Organization case definition for AIDS surveillance (1994).Three hundred and forty-one AIDS patients with HIV-1 and 87 with HIV-2 infection were enrolled. The most common AIDS-defining events in both infections were the wasting syndrome and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CD4 cell count at AIDS was 109 cells/microl in HIV-1 and 176 in HIV-2 (P = 0.01) and remained significantly

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2007 AIDS

15739. A Vitamin A Deficient Diet Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine, Mu Opioid Receptor, and HIV-1 Expression in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat (PubMed)

A Vitamin A Deficient Diet Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine, Mu Opioid Receptor, and HIV-1 Expression in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat The HIV-1 (HIV) transgenic (Tg) rat develops several immune abnormalities in association with clinical impairments that are similar to what are seen with HIV infection in humans. In HIV infection, retinoids and opioids can have separate and potentially combined effects on the clinical course of HIV disease. In these studies, the effects of a vitamin A deficient diet (...) and surface MOR. Mitogen stimulation also increased Tg rat HIV env, tat, and nef mRNA expression with even higher env and nef mRNA produced in association with the vitamin A deficient diet. All together, these data suggest that a vitamin A deficient diet can result in cellular effects that increase T cell proinflammatory responses and HIV expression, which may alter the course of disease in the HIV Tg rat model.

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2007 Journal of Neuroimmunology

15740. TH1 and TH2 Cytokine mRNA and Protein Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Youths (PubMed)

that there were no differences in cytokines detected in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative adolescents, and there was no apparent relationship between the cytokine measurements and the viral load or CD4(+)-T-cell categorization, the parameters selected as markers of HIV-associated disease status. These adolescents, including the HIV-seropositive subjects, were relatively healthy, and the HIV-infected subjects were at an early stage in the course of their HIV-associated disease. On the basis of our data, we (...) conclude that, early in the course of HIV-associated disease in adolescents, there are no detectable shifts from TH1 to TH2 cytokine production.

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2003 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

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