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HIV Course

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15721. Twenty-four month efficacy of a maternal short-course zidovudine regimen to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in West Africa. (PubMed)

Twenty-four month efficacy of a maternal short-course zidovudine regimen to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in West Africa. To assess the 24 month efficacy of a maternal short-course zidovudine regimen to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in a breastfeeding population in West Africa.Data were pooled from two clinical trials: DITRAME-ANRS049a conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina-Faso and RETRO-CI, conducted in Abidjan. Between September (...) , a significant 59% reduction.A maternal short-course zidovudine regimen reduces MTCT of HIV-1 at age 24 months, despite prolonged breastfeeding. However, efficacy was observed only among women with CD4 cell counts > or =500/ml. New interventions should be considered to prevent MTCT, especially for African women with advanced HIV-1 immunodeficiency.

2002 AIDS

15722. Virological and immunological effects of short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. (PubMed)

Virological and immunological effects of short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. National and international guidelines call for the treatment of primary HIV infection (PHI) with combination antiretroviral therapy, although the ideal timing and duration of this intervention is unknown. Recent immunological studies of antiretroviral therapy on small numbers of patients with PHI have reported preservation of HIV-specific CD4 T-helper responses, ordinarily lost in the absence (...) of intervention. We sought to investigate whether a short course of antiretroviral therapy (SCART) at PHI was sufficient to preserve HIV-specific cellular immunity.Forty-five subjects with confirmed PHI were offered SCART at diagnosis. HIV specific cellular immune responses and virological parameters were assessed at monthly intervals.Thirty-seven of the subjects chose SCART at PHI, and achieved a plasma viral load < 50 RNA copies/ml by a median of 10 weeks (range, 4-32 weeks). Two of the 45 individuals had

2002 AIDS

15723. Effect of perinatal short-course zidovudine on the clinical and virological manifestations of HIV-1 subtype E infection in infants. (PubMed)

Effect of perinatal short-course zidovudine on the clinical and virological manifestations of HIV-1 subtype E infection in infants. The perinatal short-course zidovudine (ZDV) chemoprophylaxis that can reduce HIV-1 vertical transmission by 51% has been widely practiced in developing countries such as Thailand because of its simpler and less cost.To investigate the effects of short-course regimen of oral ZDV for prophylaxis of HIV-1 subtype E vertical transmission among 'break-through' HIV-1 (...) infected infants.The study analyzed clinical and virological outcomes of 80 infants, whose mothers received ZDV prophylaxis starting at 36 weeks gestation (group Z) and 37 infants whose mothers never received anti-retroviral drugs (group C), at the ages of 1-2, 4-6, and 12 months.Of the 12 HIV-1 infected infants, 5/7 (71.4%) from group Z and 1/5 (20%) from group C progressed to a symptomatic clinical stage by the age 4-6 months. The intersample nucleotide distance of HIV-1 pol reverse transcriptase (RT

2002 Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology

15724. Course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative sex workers and their infants. (PubMed)

Course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative sex workers and their infants. To determine the course and outcome of pregnancy in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative pregnant commercial sex workers (prostitutes).Five hundred twenty-three initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Manipur, India, were studied between 1990 and 1999. Two hundred forty (46%) women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction with env, nef and vif gene (...) primers was done on 98 persistently seronegative sex workers, who remained seronegative after three years of follow-up. Fifty-four of these women became pregnant (study group). The course and outcome of pregnancy were studied prospectively in 54 persistently HIV-1-seronegative women and compared with those in matched HIV-1-seronegative women from the general population coming for routine antenatal checkups.In the 54 seronegative women (study group) who became pregnant, there were 52 singleton, term

2002 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

15725. Short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in patients with HIV infection: the 2-year experience of a comprehensive community-based program in Broward County, Florida. (PubMed)

Short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in patients with HIV infection: the 2-year experience of a comprehensive community-based program in Broward County, Florida. To determine the completion rate and tolerability of short-course rifamycin and pyrazinamide treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-infected patients through a comprehensive community-based program.Prospective cohort, with comparison to a historical control group.Of 3,118 (...) patients with HIV infection screened for LTBI between February 1999 and March 2001, 135 patients were placed on rifamycin/pyrazinamide for 2 months under directly observed therapy and were compared to a historical group comprised of 93 HIV-infected patients who were placed on self-administered treatment of isoniazid for 12 months between 1996 and 1998.Of 135 patients receiving rifamycin/pyrazinamide, 124 patients (92%) completed treatment; 5 patients had to discontinue treatment due to side effects

2002 Chest

15726. Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection. (PubMed)

Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection. To investigate the impact of the clinical course of the primary HIV infection on the subsequent course of the infection.Prospective documenting of seroconversion, follow up at six month intervals, and analysis of disease progression by life tables.86 Men in whom seroconversion occurred within 12 months.Progression of HIV infection, defined as CD4 lymphocyte count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l, recurrence of HIV (...) longlasting primary illnesses. Three year progression rates to a CD4 lymphocyte count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l and to recurrence of HIV antigenaemia were significantly higher for those who had longlasting primary illnesses than those who had no symptoms or mild illness (75% v 42% and 55% v 14%, respectively).The course of primary infection may determine the subsequent course of the infection.

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1989 BMJ : British Medical Journal

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