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HIV Course

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101. Delays to treatment initiation is associated with tuberculosis treatment outcomes among patients on directly observed treatment short course in Southwest Ethiopia: a follow-up study. (PubMed)

Delays to treatment initiation is associated with tuberculosis treatment outcomes among patients on directly observed treatment short course in Southwest Ethiopia: a follow-up study. Despite reported long delays to initiate anti-TB treatment and poor outcomes in different parts of Ethiopia and elsewhere, evidences on association between the delay and treatment outcomes are scanty.A follow up study among 735 new TB cases registered at health facilities in districts of southwest Ethiopia (...) (ARR) = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30, 2.81], HIV co-infection (ARR = 2.18, 95%CI:1.47, 3.25) and received treatment at hospital (ARR = 3.73, 95%CI:2.23, 6.25). On the other hand, lower risk of unsuccessful outcome was predicted by weight gain (ARR = 0.40, 95%CI:0.19, 0.83) and sputum smear negative conversion (ARR = 0.17,95% CI:0.09, 0.33) at the end of second month treatment.Higher risk of unsuccessful outcome is associated with prolonged days elapsed between onset of illness and treatment commencement. Hence

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2018 BMC Pulmonary Medicine

102. Virological response to short-course maraviroc monotherapy does not predict viral tropism in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients. (PubMed)

Virological response to short-course maraviroc monotherapy does not predict viral tropism in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients. We aimed to evaluate whether virological response to a short course of maraviroc monotherapy could predict HIV-1 tropism.A clinical trial was performed in HIV-1 treatment-naive patients infected with R5- or non-R5-tropic virus determined using the Trofile(®) assay, with >1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Maraviroc was administered for 10 days. Viral load was measured (...) at baseline and days 4, 7, 10 and 28. The main outcome measurement was the decline in HIV-1 RNA at day 10. The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT01060618; TROPISMVC).Forty patients [30 R5 and 10 dual/mixed (D/M)] were recruited. There was a significant decrease in HIV-1 RNA after 10 days of maraviroc treatment in patients with R5-tropic virus (median 1.52 log10 RNA copies/mL; 95% CI 1.23-1.63; P < 0.0001), but also in patients with D/M-tropic virus (median 1.62 log(10) RNA copies

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2014 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

103. Drift of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 toward Increased Neutralization Resistance over the Course of the Epidemic: a Comprehensive Study Using the Most Potent and Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies (PubMed)

Drift of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 toward Increased Neutralization Resistance over the Course of the Epidemic: a Comprehensive Study Using the Most Potent and Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes

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2014 Journal of virology

104. A randomized clinical trial evaluating prophylactic single-dose vs prolonged course of antibiotics for caesarean section in a high HIV-prevalence setting. (PubMed)

A randomized clinical trial evaluating prophylactic single-dose vs prolonged course of antibiotics for caesarean section in a high HIV-prevalence setting. The evidence that perioperative antibiotics for caesarean delivery are effective in reducing infective morbidity is unequivocal. In developing countries, especially those with high HIV-prevalence, clinicians have increasingly become anxious about the efficacy of perioperative antibiotics, hence the adoption of treatment regimens, as described (...) in this study. We set out to investigate if these fears have a basis by conducting a randomised clinical trial. The setting was two tertiary units in a developing country with a significant HIV-prevalence. The outcome measures assessed were: pyrexia, wound infection, admission with puerperal sepsis, laparotomy for pelvic abscess and duration of hospital stay. There was no statistically significant difference between the two arms of the study with regard to the above outcomes. Our conclusion is that the two

2014 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

105. HIV Nef promotes BLyS/BAFF expression by blood dendritic cells during the course of infection in humans. (PubMed)

HIV Nef promotes BLyS/BAFF expression by blood dendritic cells during the course of infection in humans. Dendritic cells (DCs) modulate B-cell survival and differentiation, mainly through production of growth factors such as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also known as "B-cell factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family" [BAFF]). We have recently shown that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with rapid and those with classic disease progression, B-cell (...) dysregulations were associated with increased BLyS expression in plasma and by blood myeloid DCs (mDCs), in contrast to aviremic HIV-infected individuals with slow disease progression (also known as "elite controllers"). In previous work with transgenic mice expressing HIV genes, B-cell dysregulations were concomitant with altered mDCs and dependent on HIV negative factor (Nef). We now report that HIV Nef is detected early after infection and despite successful therapy in plasma and BLyS-overexpressing blood

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2014 Journal of Infectious Diseases

106. Can antiretroviral therapy modify the clinical course of HDV infection in HIV-positive patients? (PubMed)

Can antiretroviral therapy modify the clinical course of HDV infection in HIV-positive patients? Infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) affects approximately 6-14.5% of patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV, showing a more aggressive clinical course compared with an HIV-negative population. There is no universally approved treatment for chronic hepatitis D (CHD) in HIV-infected patients. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing tenofovir has been recently associated with HDV suppression (...) . Our aim was to evaluate whether the outcome of CHD in HIV-infected patients can be favourably influenced by ART including reverse transcriptase inhibitors.The clinical course of four HBV/HDV/HIV-coinfected patients receiving ART were retrospectively examined.HDV RNA became undetectable in all patients after a variable period of ART along with the disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen in two of them, and an increase in CD4(+) T-cell count. In all patients, virological changes were associated

2014 Antiviral Therapy

107. Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification

) but is not well established in the general population. This type of epidemic suggests that there are active networks of people with high risk behaviours within the subpopulation. The future course of the epidemic is determined by the nature of the links between subpopulations with a high HIV prevalence and the general population. Numerical proxy: HIV prevalence is consistently over 5% in at least one defined subpopulation but is below 1% in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. Confirm: to issue (...) Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification SUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON HIV TESTING SERVICES DECEMBER 2016 HIV SELF-TESTING AND PARTNER NOTIFICATION SUPPLEMENT TO CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON HIV TESTING SERVICES#Test4HIV SUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON DECEMBER 2016 HIV SELF-TESTING AND PARTNER NOTIFICATION SUPPLEMENT TO CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON HIV TESTING SERVICESWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: supplement to consolidated

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

108. Treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy (interim update)

Treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy (interim update) © 2016 British HIV Association _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2015 (2016 interim update) NHS Evidence has accredited the process used by the British HIV Association (BHIVA) to produce guidelines. Accreditation is valid (...) for five years from July 2012 and is applicable to guidance produced using the processes described in the British HIV Association (BHIVA) Guideline Development Manual. More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/accreditation August 2016 1 BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2015 (2016 interim update) Writing Group Laura Waters Chair N Ahmed, B Angus, M Boffito, M Bower, D Churchill, D Dunn, S Edwards, C Emerson, S Fidler, †M

2017 British HIV Association

109. Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment

routine clinic visits. We did mixed-effects, intent-to-treat analyses to examine treatment effects on the primary outcome of log10 viral load collected at months 5, 10, and 15. The viral load results were exponentiated (with base 10) for easier interpretation. Using cohort data from 7347 Dutch patients with HIV to calculate the natural course of illness, we developed a lifetime Markov model to estimate the primary economic outcome of lifetime societal costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs (...) Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Discover Portal Discover Portal Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Published on 10 October 2017 doi: Use of electronic pill bottles that record when they are opened and follow-up discussion of the printed readouts with nurses improved HIV outcomes. It is thought

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

110. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations

Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations GUIDELINES CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON HIV PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE FOR KEY POPULATIONS KEY POPULATIONS ISBN 978 92 4 151112 4 For more information, contact: World Health Organization Department of HIV/AIDS 20, avenue Appia 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland E-mail: hiv-aids@who.int http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/ keypopulations/ 2016 UPDATE CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON HIV PREVENTION (...) , DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE FOR KEY POPULATIONSCONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON HIV PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE FOR KEY POPULATIONS 2016 UPDATEWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data : Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations – 2016 update. 1.HIV Infections - prevention and control. 2.HIV Infections - therapy. 3.HIV Infections – diagnosis. 4.Risk Factors. 5.Vulnerable Populations. 6.Guideline. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

111. Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey. (PubMed)

universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015), 7 primary health clinics (PHCs) in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living (...) Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey. Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve

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2017 PLoS medicine

112. A Prospective Cohort Study of Common Childhood Infections in South African HIV-exposed Uninfected and HIV-unexposed Infants. (PubMed)

A Prospective Cohort Study of Common Childhood Infections in South African HIV-exposed Uninfected and HIV-unexposed Infants. Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty).This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South (...) African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated by logistic regression including stratified analyses conditioned on breastfeeding.One hundred and seventy-six (94 HEU and 82 HU) mother-infant pairs were analyzed. HIV-infected mothers were older

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2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

113. Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV Vaccine (gp145 C.6980) in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults in the United States

Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV Vaccine (gp145 C.6980) in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults in the United States Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV Vaccine (gp145 C.6980) in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults in the United States - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have (...) reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV Vaccine (gp145 C.6980) in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults in the United States The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03382418 Recruitment

2017 Clinical Trials

114. Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of ALVAC-HIV and MF59®- or AS01B-adjuvanted Bivalent Subtype C gp120 in Healthy, HIV-uninfected Adult Participants

Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of ALVAC-HIV and MF59®- or AS01B-adjuvanted Bivalent Subtype C gp120 in Healthy, HIV-uninfected Adult Participants Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of ALVAC-HIV and MF59®- or AS01B-adjuvanted Bivalent Subtype C gp120 in Healthy, HIV-uninfected Adult Participants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record (...) Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of ALVAC-HIV and MF59®- or AS01B-adjuvanted Bivalent Subtype C gp120 in Healthy, HIV-uninfected Adult Participants (HVTN 120) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S

2017 Clinical Trials

115. Xpert Ultra and Xpert HIV-VL in People Living With HIV

to interested collaborators and parties through sharing of data files or login information for the study's secure RedCap electronic database during the course of patient recruitment. Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by Grant Theron, University of Stellenbosch: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load (Xpert VL) Xpert Ultra Antiretroviral treatment (ART) Additional relevant MeSH (...) Xpert Ultra and Xpert HIV-VL in People Living With HIV Xpert Ultra and Xpert HIV-VL in People Living With HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Xpert Ultra and Xpert HIV-VL in People Living

2017 Clinical Trials

116. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013 (PubMed)

Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013 To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV (...) -)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds

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2017 AIDS and behavior

117. Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines (PubMed)

single-center study, there was a lower number of IRIS-attributable hospitalizations and IRIS-attributable hospital days in Time Period 2 compared with Time Period 1. The hospital burden of IRIS may decrease over time as more PLWH are started on ART earlier in the course of infection. This study highlights the continued importance of early diagnosis and linkage to care of those infected with HIV, so that morbidity and costs associated with IRIS continue to decline. (...) Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can manifest with initiation or reintroduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). In 2012, updated United States treatment guidelines recommended initiation of ART for all PLWH regardless of CD4 count. The objectives of this study were to quantify hospital usage

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2017 AIDS research and therapy

118. HIV Trafficking between Blood and Semen during Early Untreated HIV Infection (PubMed)

HIV Trafficking between Blood and Semen during Early Untreated HIV Infection Understanding the dynamics of HIV across anatomic compartments is important to design effective eradication strategies. In this study, we evaluated viral trafficking between blood and semen during primary HIV infection in 6 antiretroviral-naive men who have sex with men.Deep sequencing data of HIV env were generated from longitudinal blood plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and seminal plasma samples (...) . The presence or absence of viral compartmentalization was assessed using tree-based Slatkin-Maddison and distance-based Fst methods. Phylogeographic analyses were performed using a discrete Bayesian asymmetric approach of diffusion with Markov jump count estimation to evaluate the gene flow between blood and semen during primary HIV infection. Levels of DNA from human herpesviruses and selected inflammatory cytokines were also measured on genital secretions collected at baseline to evaluate potential

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2017 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

119. HIV-associated benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands confirmed by HIV-1 p24 antigen immunostaining (PubMed)

HIV-associated benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands confirmed by HIV-1 p24 antigen immunostaining Approximately 1%-10% of patients with HIV infection have been reported to have salivary gland enlargement. Parotid swelling in patients with HIV is often associated with salivary gland disease, including benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLECs). The presence of BLEC can serve as an indicator of HIV infection, and the diagnosis of HIV-associated BLEC is usually based on clinical course (...) , HIV confirmatory blood testing, such as western blot or viral detection, and imaging studies, but not on biopsies or immunostaining. To exclude other diseases such as tuberculosis and malignant lymphoma and to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of BLEC, the detection of the HIV-1 p24 antigen by immunohistochemistry is a useful diagnostic method. We report a case of a 65-year-old Japanese man with swelling of the parotid glands and HIV-associated BLEC confirmed via HIV-1 p24

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2017 BMJ case reports

120. Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults

Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (...) Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine

2016 Clinical Trials

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