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HIV Course

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101. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (Overview)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (Overview) Pediatric HIV Infection: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTY1MDg2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing (...) > Pediatric HIV Infection Updated: Nov 16, 2018 Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric HIV Infection Overview Practice Essentials Since the first cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. HIV is a retrovirus and can

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

102. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

and tolerability of cabozantinib (XL184) (cabozantinib-s-malate) as a single agent in solid tumor participants with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) in this patient population. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: I. To investigate possible pharmacokinetic interactions between cabozantinib and antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV infection. II. To investigate the effects of therapy on participant immune status and HIV viral load. III. To preliminarily assess (...) treatment ] Binomial proportions and their 95% confidence intervals will be used. Effects of therapy on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load [ Time Frame: Up to 30 days after completion of study treatment ] A repeated measures analysis of variance will be used to assess the effect of cabozantinib-s-malate on HIV viral loads across time points. Analyses will be done per stratum, where the data are sufficient. If the data do not meet the assumptions of normality, Friedman's test

2013 Clinical Trials

103. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases on pigmented skin types. (Abstract)

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases on pigmented skin types. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant problem globally. Early diagnosis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs has considerably improved health outcomes and decreased disease-related morbidity. HIV infection is associated with a wide range of skin disorders enabling dermatologists to diagnose HIV as well as associated opportunistic infections early in the course of disease (...) . Despite concerted efforts by international health organizations to limit disease incidence, the prevalence of HIV infection remains high and is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The diagnosis of HIV-related skin diseases is challenging as immunosuppression often results in atypical disease presentation. In addition, the clinical presentation will vary in pigmented skin types. The aim of this article is to describe disease variation in pigmented skin types. © 2013 The Author BJD © 2013 British Association

2013 British Journal of Dermatology

104. Recalcitrant pseudotumoral anogenital herpes simplex type 2 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: Evidence for predominant B-lymphoplasmocytic infiltration and immunomodulators as effective therapeutic strategy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recalcitrant pseudotumoral anogenital herpes simplex type 2 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: Evidence for predominant B-lymphoplasmocytic infiltration and immunomodulators as effective therapeutic strategy. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, genital herpetic lesions may be extensive and tend to persist for longer periods; in addition, atypical hypertrophic, ulcerative, or pseudotumor forms have been reported, frequently showing resistance (...) 2 cases, and the immunomodulators imiquimod and thalidomide allowed 5 patients to reach sustained complete response.HSV-2-related pseudolymphoma in HIV-infected patients is characterized by a predominant polyclonal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and is frequently refractory to antiherpetic drugs. Immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies using thalidomide showed consistent efficacy, and should be considered early during the course of disease.

2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases

105. Short communication: human immunodeficiency virus rebound in blood and seminal plasma following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short communication: human immunodeficiency virus rebound in blood and seminal plasma following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Although there is discordance between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) blood plasma and seminal plasma viral loads (VL), little is known about the dynamics of VL rebound in these compartments upon discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between blood and semen VL rebound after (...) discontinuation of HAART. Participants in this substudy were men enrolled from two centers of a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial of HIV therapeutic vaccination using ALVAC with or without Remune. With at least 2 years of sustained virologic suppression and following a 20-week vaccination course, subjects underwent structured HAART interruption. Fourteen men provided semen samples. Seven to 12 weeks after HAART interruption, all 14 men had detectable blood VLs whereas 8 of 14 had detectable

2013 AIDS research and human retroviruses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

106. Charting the Course to End HIV Transmission in the United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

Charting the Course to End HIV Transmission in the United States 28934006 2018 01 10 2018 11 13 1468-2877 132 6 2017 Nov/Dec Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) Public Health Rep Charting the Course to End HIV Transmission in the United States. 603-605 10.1177/0033354917729182 eng Journal Article 2017 09 21 United States Public Health Rep 9716844 0033-3549 0 Anti-Retroviral Agents AIM IM Anti-Retroviral Agents therapeutic use Disease Transmission, Infectious prevention & control (...) Female HIV Infections prevention & control transmission Healthcare Disparities Humans Male United States 2017 9 22 6 0 2018 1 11 6 0 2017 9 22 6 0 ppublish 28934006 10.1177/0033354917729182 PMC5692156 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Feb 03;66(4):97-103 28151924 N Engl J Med. 2015 Aug 27;373(9):795-807 26192873 N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 30;355(22):2283-96 17135583 N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 11;365(6):493-505 21767103 JAMA. 2016 Jul 12;316(2):171-81 27404185 N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 22;375(25):2413-2415

2017 Public Health Reports

107. Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Alter the Course of HIV-1 Infection in Vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

not neutralize, the reporter virus in vitro. However, anti-HA protects against infection in humanized mice and strongly selects for nnAb-resistant viruses in an entirely Fc-dependent manner. Similar results were also obtained with tier 2 HIV-1 viruses using a human anti-gp41 nnAb, 246D. While nnAbs are demonstrably less effective than broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo, the data show that nnAbs can protect against and alter the course of HIV-1 infection in vivo (...) Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Alter the Course of HIV-1 Infection in Vivo Non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) to HIV-1 show little measurable activity in prevention or therapy in animal models yet were the only correlate of protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. To investigate the role of nnAbs on HIV-1 infection in vivo, we devised a replication-competent HIV-1 reporter virus that expresses a heterologous HA-tag on the surface of infected cells and virions. Anti-HA antibodies bind to, but do

2017 Cell

108. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females Full Text available with Trip Pro

Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S.We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors (...) during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR

2017 Journal of child sexual abuse

109. Safety Tolerability DDI Short Course Treatment of LTBI Infection With High-dose Rifapentine Isoniazid in HIV+ Patients

Safety Tolerability DDI Short Course Treatment of LTBI Infection With High-dose Rifapentine Isoniazid in HIV+ Patients Safety Tolerability DDI Short Course Treatment of LTBI Infection With High-dose Rifapentine Isoniazid in HIV+ Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Safety Tolerability DDI Short Course Treatment of LTBI Infection With High-dose Rifapentine Isoniazid in HIV+ Patients (IMPAACT4TB) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2017 Clinical Trials

110. Short-course TLR9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals with HIV infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course TLR9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals with HIV infection. Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule-a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703-could function (...) as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo.We conducted a single-arm, open-label study in which 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks. We characterized plasmacytoid dendritic cell, natural killer (NK), and T-cell activation using flow cytometry on baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. HIV-1 transcription was quantified by measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA during MGN1703 administration.In accordance

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

111. Quantification system for the viral dynamics of a highly pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus based on an in vitro experiment and a mathematical model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantification system for the viral dynamics of a highly pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus based on an in vitro experiment and a mathematical model Developing a quantitative understanding of viral kinetics is useful for determining the pathogenesis and transmissibility of the virus, predicting the course of disease, and evaluating the effects of antiviral therapy. The availability of data in clinical, animal, and cell culture studies, however, has been quite limited. Many studies (...) of virus infection kinetics have been based solely on measures of total or infectious virus count. Here, we introduce a new mathematical model which tracks both infectious and total viral load, as well as the fraction of infected and uninfected cells within a cell culture, and apply it to analyze time-course data of an SHIV infection in vitro.We infected HSC-F cells with SHIV-KS661 and measured the concentration of Nef-negative (target) and Nef-positive (infected) HSC-F cells, the total viral load

2012 Retrovirology

112. Long-term follow-up after voluntary human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection counseling, point-of-service testing, and referral to substance abuse treatment from the emergency department. (Abstract)

Long-term follow-up after voluntary human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection counseling, point-of-service testing, and referral to substance abuse treatment from the emergency department. Public health initiatives have lowered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk associated with injection drug use in the United States, making sexual risk behaviors a greater source of transmission. Strategies are therefore needed to reduce these risk behaviors among all (...) emergency department (ED) patients who use drugs, regardless of route of administration. Although recent articles have focused on the opportunity for early HIV detection and treatment through an array of ED screening and testing strategies, the effect of voluntary HIV testing and brief counseling (VT/C) on the sexual behaviors of out-of-treatment drug users over time has not yet been reported.From November 2004 to May 2008, the study screened 46,208 urban ED patients aged 18 to 54 years; 2,148 (4.6

2012 Academic Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

113. HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

be encouraged to bleed freely, but should not be sucked. Local guidelines should be followed and primary healthcare providers should ensure that they have arrangements in place for rapid 24-hour access to urgent advice and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) — usually via the local Accident and Emergency department. Occupational exposures to HIV must be reported to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) as a dangerous occurrence ('accidental release of a biological agent likely to cause severe human illness (...) Officers' Expert Advisory Group on AIDS [ ], UK guideline for the use of post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure [ ], and expert opinion in the Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health publication HIV in primary care — an essential guide for GPs, practice nurses and other members of the primary health care team [ ]. How should I manage a potential sexual exposure to HIV? Exposure is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment with a course of antiretroviral therapy (ART

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

114. HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: How should I manage acute HIV-related problems?

HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: How should I manage acute HIV-related problems? Scenario: Acute HIV-related problems | Management | HIV infection and AIDS | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Scenario: Acute HIV-related problems HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: How should I manage acute HIV-related problems? Last revised in October 2018 Scenario: How should I manage acute HIV-related problems? From birth onwards. When should I admit a person with HIV? Most serious HIV-related conditions affect (...) people with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/uL, although tuberculosis can occur at higher counts. Arrange admission if: The person is acutely unwell. suggest pneumonia, tuberculosis, or a serious bacterial lower respiratory tract infection. suggest a serious underlying condition such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Progressive or acute indicate an HIV-related condition such as cryptococcal meningitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, or cerebral lymphoma. of the lung or gut is suspected. Serious or life

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

115. HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: Established HIV infection

insemination, sperm washing, and artificial insemination. Antenatal and postnatal care The risk of transmitting HIV from a pregnant woman with HIV to her baby is substantially reduced by: Taking ART during pregnancy. Using ART at the time of delivery, together with a short course of ART for the newborn baby. Having delivery by Caesarean section, or vaginal delivery may be an option in women treated with ART who have an undetectable viral load close to the time of delivery. Avoidance of breastfeeding (...) HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: Established HIV infection Scenario: Established HIV infection | Management | HIV infection and AIDS | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Scenario: Established HIV infection HIV infection and AIDS: Scenario: Established HIV infection Last revised in October 2018 Scenario: Established HIV infection From birth onwards. Review in primary care Monitoring of HIV infection will be done in specialist clinics using the CD4 count and viral load — see the section

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

116. HIV Course

HIV Course HIV Course Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 HIV Course HIV Course Aka: HIV Course , HIV Stage , HIV Staging (...) received no therapy Course over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: <5% Slow decline in s (40 to 80 cells/year) VI. Staging: Intermediate Disease (CD4 Count 200 - 500 cells) HIV related disorders Pronounced , Recurrent Infection Recurrent Infection Pruritic Recurrent s Anogenital ulcers or warts Complications Atypical in this stage Management therapy is continued from prior stages Course (Untreated) over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: 20-30% Treatment

2018 FP Notebook

117. Clinical course and outcome of human monkeypox in Nigeria. (Abstract)

Clinical course and outcome of human monkeypox in Nigeria. In a retrospective review of hospital records of 40 human monkeypox from Nigeria, majority developed fever and self-limiting vesiculopustular skin eruptions. Five deaths were reported. Compared to HIV-negative cases, HIV-1-coinfected cases had more prolonged illness, larger size lesions and higher rates of both secondary bacterial skin infections and genital ulcers.© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

118. Clinical Course, Radiological Manifestations, and Outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical Course, Radiological Manifestations, and Outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In literature, presentation and outcome of PCP differs between patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and renal transplant recipients (RTRs).We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with PCP based on the HIV and renal (...) groups. Duration from illness onset to hospital presentation was longer in the HIV patients (median of 18 vs. 10 days (p = 0.02)), implying a less fulminant clinical course. Sixty percent of PCP cases in RTRs occurred >12 months after transplantation. Lengths of hospitalization, admission rates to the intensive care unit, and requirements for mechanical ventilation were similar. Outcome in both groups was favourable.While important differences in radiological presentation of PCP between HIV patients

2016 PLoS ONE

119. Persistent accumulation of gut macrophages with impaired phagocytic function correlates with simian immunodeficiency virus disease progression Full Text available with Trip Pro

Persistent accumulation of gut macrophages with impaired phagocytic function correlates with simian immunodeficiency virus disease progression The contribution of macrophages in the gastrointestinal tract to disease control or progression in HIV infection remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed CD163+ macrophages in ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (LN) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques with dichotomous expression of controlling MHC class I alleles predicted to be SIV controllers (...) function relative to controllers and uninfected macaques, and the proportion of phagocytic macrophages negatively correlated with mucosal epithelial breach, lamina propria Escherichia coli density, and plasma virus burden. Macrophages in intestine produced low levels of cytokines regardless of disease course, while mesenteric LN macrophages from progressors became increasingly responsive as infection advanced. These data indicate that noninflammatory CD163+ macrophages accumulate in gut mucosa

2017 European journal of immunology

120. Pathogenic Correlates of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated B Cell Dysfunction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pathogenic Correlates of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated B Cell Dysfunction We compared and contrasted pathogenic (in pig-tailed macaques [PTMs]) and nonpathogenic (in African green monkeys [AGMs]) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B cell dysfunction observed in simian (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the natural hosts, in which SIV (...) cell subsets point to their role in the pathogenesis of HIV/SIV infections and suggest that monitoring B cells may be a reliable approach for assessing disease progression.IMPORTANCE We report here that the HIV/SIV-associated B cell dysfunction (defined by loss of total and memory B cells, increased B regulatory cell [Breg] counts, and B cell activation and apoptosis) is specifically associated with pathogenic SIV infection and absent during the course of nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural

2017 Journal of virology

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