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HIV Course

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61. Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia? (PubMed)

Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia? High rates of partner change in 'upstream' sex work networks have long been recognized to drive 'downstream' transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used a stochastic microsimulation model (STDSIM) to explore such transmission dynamics in a generalized African HIV epidemic.We refined the quantification of sex work in Kisumu, Kenya (...) , from the 4-cities study. Interventions with sex workers were introduced in 2000 and epidemics projected to 2020. We estimated the contribution of sex work to transmission, and modelled standard condom and STI interventions for three groups of sex workers at feasible rates of use and coverage.Removing transmission from sex work altogether would have resulted in 66% lower HIV incidence (range 54-75%) and 56% lower prevalence (range 44-63%) after 20 years. More feasible interventions reduced HIV

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2014 AIDS

62. Long-term Effects of Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Cancer in Patients With HIV Infection: Oncological Outcomes, Immunological Status, and the Clinical Course of the HIV Disease. (PubMed)

Long-term Effects of Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Cancer in Patients With HIV Infection: Oncological Outcomes, Immunological Status, and the Clinical Course of the HIV Disease. Despite the increasing evidence for chemoradiotherapy as standard treatment for anal cancer in patients with HIV infection, there is still some uncertainty regarding increased toxicity and adverse effects on the immune status.We report the clinical outcome of 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (...) for anal carcinoma in patients with HIV infection with an emphasis on the long-term course of CD4 counts and the HIV-related morbidity during follow-up.A retrospective single-institution chart review was performed.Between 1997 and 2012, 36 HIV-positive patients were treated with standard chemoradiotherapy (median tumor dose, 54 (range, 50.4-60.4) Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction; 5-fluorouracil, 800-1000 mg/m(2), days 1-4 or 1-5; mitomycin C, 10 mg/m(2), day 1, in the first and fifth week).A retrospective

2014 Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

63. Seeking realistic gains within tight budgetary constraints: Is changing HIV drug regimen the next step in India’s struggle against HIV/AIDS?

76.7% to 83%, and increase life expectancy for HIV infected by three years. A worthwhile gain; but cost-effectiveness is, of course, crucial. Cost-effectiveness is shown to be very sensitive to the cost of the medication itself. Currently, the cost of the present regime is estimated at $98 USD per year, and that of dolutegravir at $102 USD. Authors show that the change to dolutegravir would be cost-neutral where cost of the drug is ≤$105 USD. Above that, change of regimen would still be cost (...) Seeking realistic gains within tight budgetary constraints: Is changing HIV drug regimen the next step in India’s struggle against HIV/AIDS? Seeking realistic gains within tight budgetary constraints: Is changing HIV drug regimen the next step in India’s struggle against HIV/AIDS? | Sexually Transmitted Infections by The case of India has been seen as a model of an intelligent and integrated use of data for an evidence-based response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic ( ). Avahan, the India HIV/AIDS

2018 Sexually Transmitted Infections blog

64. Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (PubMed)

specimens from a Kenyan perinatal MTCT cohort (1999-2005) involving HIV-infected women and their infants, who received short-course zidovudine for prevention of MTCT. Vaginal swabs collected at 32 weeks gestation were tested for MG using a transcription-mediated amplification assay. Infant perinatal HIV infection was determined at birth and 4 weeks of age by DNA PCR. Using a case-cohort design, a random sample was generated with 3:1 control: case ratio; prevalence and correlates of MG were assessed (...) Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, but the effect of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is not known. We hypothesized that MG infection would be common among HIV-infected pregnant women and could be associated with in utero and intrapartum MTCT.Observational case-cohort study METHODS:: This study used

2019 AIDS

65. Routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals (2019 interim update)

-group M viruses. References 1. Sabin CA, Devereux H, Phillips AN et al. Course of viral load throughout HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000; 23: 172–177. 2. Rodriguez B, Sethi AK, Cheruvu VK et al. Predictive value of plasma HIV RNA level on rate of CD4 T-cell decline in untreated HIV infection. JAMA 2006; 296: 1498–1506. 4.3.3.3 Resistance testing Recommendations • We recommend that a baseline genotypic resistance test should be performed on the first available sample (1A). • We (...) monitoring of adherence to appointments and engagement in care [5], which may be of relevance when considering ART [6-13]. With regard to hepatitis A and B infections, a rigorous approach is required to ensure vaccine courses are completed [14], especially in those co-infected with hepatitis C [15] as there is an ongoing incidence of hepatitis B infection in the UK HIV-positive cohort [16]. There is also evidence of continuing high rates of hepatitis C re-infection rates among HIV-positive MSM [17,18

2019 British HIV Association

66. HIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance

HIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance The duration of breastfeeding and support from health services to improve feeding practices among mothers living with HIV HIV AND INFANT FEEDING IN EMERGENCIES: OPERATIONAL GUIDANCEHIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance© World Health Organization 2018 Some rights reserved. This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO licence (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO; https (...) . HIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Sales, rights and licensing. To purchase WHO publications, see http://apps.who.int/bookorders. To submit requests for commercial use and queries on rights and licensing, see http://www.who.int/about/licensing. Third-party materials. If you wish to reuse material from this work

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

67. BHIVA/BASHH guidelines on the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

was a secondary outcome. At interim review, the DSMB recommended that all study participants should be offered study drug. A total of 23 participants became infected with HIV over the course of the study: three in the daily TDF-FTC group and 20 in the deferred (no-PrEP) group, representing a rate difference in HIV infection of 7.8 per 100 person-years (90% CI 4.3–11.3) The relative risk reduction was 86% (90% CI 64–96%) and the number needed to treat over 1 year to prevent one HIV infection was 13 (90% CI 9 (...) ceasing sexual risk. Participants were followed up every 8 weeks for HIV testing and risk-reduction advice, and every 6 months for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for a total of 431 person-years of follow-up. Primary endpoint was HIV infection. At interim review, the placebo group was discontinued and all study participants were offered study drug. Over the course of the study, 16 people became infected with HIV: two in the TDF-FTC group and 14 in the placebo group, representing

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

68. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children More than 1 in 10 HIV-related deaths are as a result of cryptococcal me n i n g i t i s. Three quarters of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis are in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/CDS/HIV/18.2 POLICY BRIEF WHO / James Oatway: Namibia Living with HIV / AIDS at the Katatura State Hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT (...) OF CRYPTOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION MARCH 2018 HIV TREATMENT 1 Cryptococcal meningitis is by far the commonest manifestation of cryptococcal disease representing 70–90% of HIV-related cryptococcal disease. Other less common disease presentations include pulmonary disease and skin, lymph node and bone involvement. The burden of morbidity and mortality

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

69. Delays to anti-tuberculosis treatment intiation among cases on directly observed treatment short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. (PubMed)

Delays to anti-tuberculosis treatment intiation among cases on directly observed treatment short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Delayed tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment increase morbidity, mortality, expenditure, and transmission in the community. This study assessed patient and provider related delays to diagnosis and treatment of TB.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 735 new adult TB cases registered between January to December 2015 (...) predictors of delays and statistical significance was judged at p < 0.05.The median (inter-quartile range) of patient, provider and total delays were 25 (IQR;15-36), 22 (IQR:9-48) and 55 (IQR:32-100) days, respectively. More than half (54.6%) of the total delay was attributed to health system. Prior self-treatment [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)]: 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.07-2.75), HIV co-infection (aOR:1.8, 95% CI: 1.05-3.10) and extra-pulmonary TB (aOR: 1.54,95% CI:1.03-2.29) were independently

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

70. Timing of treatment interruption among latently infected tuberculosis cases treated with a nine-month course of daily isoniazid: findings from a time to event analysis. (PubMed)

Timing of treatment interruption among latently infected tuberculosis cases treated with a nine-month course of daily isoniazid: findings from a time to event analysis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk groups is an effective strategy for TB control and elimination in low incidence settings. A nine-month course of daily isoniazid (INH) has been the longest prescribed therapy; however, completion rates are suboptimal. We need data to guide TB program outreach efforts (...) , 0.81), patients with diabetes (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98), and patients with HIV (HR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.51) had a lower risk of treatment default. However, black patients (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.44, 1.70), Hispanic patients (HR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.43, 1.66), and non-U.S.-born persons living in the United States ≤5 years (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.32) were significantly more likely to default on therapy.In this analysis of INH treatment outcome, we see high levels of treatment discontinuation

2019 BMC Public Health

71. Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. (PubMed)

Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. Short-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may delay disease progression but has not been adequately evaluated.We randomly assigned adults with primary HIV infection to ART for 48 weeks, ART for 12 weeks, or no ART (standard of care), with treatment initiated within 6 months after seroconversion. The primary end point was a CD4+ count of less than 350 cells per cubic millimeter (...) a greater interval between ART initiation and the primary end point the closer that ART was initiated to estimated seroconversion (P=0.09), and 48-week ART conferred a reduction in the HIV RNA level of 0.44 log(10) copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.64) 36 weeks after the completion of short-course therapy. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, death, or serious adverse events.A 48-week course of ART in patients with primary

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2013 NEJM

72. An Observational Study of Long-term Outcomes of HIV-1 Infection in Persons Who Become HIV-1 Infected After Enrollment in HIV-1 Vaccine Trials

An Observational Study of Long-term Outcomes of HIV-1 Infection in Persons Who Become HIV-1 Infected After Enrollment in HIV-1 Vaccine Trials An Observational Study of Long-term Outcomes of HIV-1 Infection in Persons Who Become HIV-1 Infected After Enrollment in HIV-1 Vaccine Trials - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. An Observational Study of Long-term Outcomes of HIV-1 Infection in Persons Who Become HIV-1 Infected After Enrollment in HIV-1 Vaccine Trials The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details

2017 Clinical Trials

73. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial. (PubMed)

no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART. (...) Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial. Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV

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2017 PLoS ONE

74. Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children SUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV (...) INFECTIONSUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTIONWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data : Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

75. Consolidated guidelines on person-centred HIV patient monitoring and case surveillance

Consolidated guidelines on person-centred HIV patient monitoring and case surveillance CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON PERSON-CENTRED HIV PATIENT MONITORING AND CASE SURVEILLANCE JUNE 2017 GUIDELINES HIV STRATEGIC INFORMATION FOR IMPACTCONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON PERSON-CENTRED HIV PATIENT MONITORING AND CASE SURVEILLANCE JUNE 2017Consolidated guidelines on person-centred HIV patient monitoring and case surveillance ISBN 978-92-4-151263-3 © World Health Organization 2017 Some rights reserved (...) the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. Consolidated guidelines on person-centred HIV patient monitoring and case surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Sales, rights and licensing. To purchase WHO publications, see http://apps.who.int/bookorders. To submit requests

2017 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

76. Guidelines on the public health response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance

Guidelines on the public health response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance Introduction i GUIDELINES GUIDELINES ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE TO PRETREATMENT HIV DRUG RESISTANCE JULY 2017 HIV DRUG RESISTANCEGUIDELINES ON JULY 2017 THE PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE TO PRETREATMENT HIV DRUG RESISTANCEGuidelines on the public health response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance: July 201 7 ISBN 978-92-4-155005-5 © World Health Organization 2017 Some rights reserved. This work is available under (...) in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. Guidelines on the public health response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance, July 201 7 . Geneva: World Health Organization; 201 7 . Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Sales, rights and licensing. To purchase WHO publications, see http://apps.who.int/ bookorders. To submit requests for commercial use and queries

2017 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

77. Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment

routine clinic visits. We did mixed-effects, intent-to-treat analyses to examine treatment effects on the primary outcome of log10 viral load collected at months 5, 10, and 15. The viral load results were exponentiated (with base 10) for easier interpretation. Using cohort data from 7347 Dutch patients with HIV to calculate the natural course of illness, we developed a lifetime Markov model to estimate the primary economic outcome of lifetime societal costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs (...) Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Discover Portal Discover Portal Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Published on 10 October 2017 doi: Use of electronic pill bottles that record when they are opened and follow-up discussion of the printed readouts with nurses improved HIV outcomes. It is thought

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

78. Consolidated guideline on sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV

(Department of Reproductive Health and Research [RHR]), Rachel Baggaley (Department of HIV/ AIDS), John Beard (Department of Ageing and Life Course [ALC]), Ana Pilar Betrán Lazaga (Department of RHR), Francoise Bigirimana (WHO Regional Office for Africa), Sonja Caffe (WHO Regional Office for the Americas/Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]), Rebekah Bosco Thomas (Gender, Equity and Human Rights T eam), Nathalie Broutet (Department of RHR), T arun Dua (Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse (...) of evidence Healthy sexuality across the life course REC A.1: Adolescent-friendly health services should be implemented in HIV services to ensure engagement and improved outcomes. 1 Strong recommendation, low- quality evidence Integration of SRHR and HIV services REC A.2: In generalized epidemic settings, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated and maintained in eligible pregnant and postpartum women and in infants at maternal and child health care settings, with linkage and referral to ongoing

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

79. Consolidated guideline on sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV

health and rights of women living with HIV 4 Table 1: Summary list of WHO recommendations for the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of women living with HIV Note: Where recommendations apply to “key populations” this includes women living with HIV and therefore these have been included in these guidelines. A. Creating an enabling environment Recommendation (REC) Strength of recommendation, quality of evidence Healthy sexuality across the life course REC A.1: Adolescent-friendly health (...) ) Psychosocial support GPS A.1 (NEW): Psychosocial support interventions, such as support groups and peer support, provided by, with, and for women living with HIV, should be included in HIV care. Healthy sexuality across the life course GPS A.2 (NEW): Women living with HIV in all their diversity should be supported in their choice to have safe and fulfilling sexual relationships and sexual pleasure as they age. Women living with HIV who choose not to be sexually active should also be supported

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

80. Improving healthcare providers? face-to-face interactions with clients living with or at-risk for HIV

) – in particular, the user’s health literacy level. Health literacy is “the ability to access, understand, evaluate and communicate information as a way to promote, maintain and improve health in a variety of settings across the life-course” (13). More than half of Canadians do not meet the minimum literacy requirements to manage their health needs (14). For persons at higher risk of HIV, and for those already living with HIV, poor health literacy interferes with their ability to fully understand HIV risk (...) Improving healthcare providers? face-to-face interactions with clients living with or at-risk for HIV RAPID RESPONSE SERVICE | #111, AUGUST 2016 1 RAPID RESPONSE SERVICE THE ONTARIO HIV TREATMENT NETWORK Question • What face-to-face interventions have proven effective in helping providers educate clients and improve their health literacy? References 1. Price-Haywood EG, Harden- Barrios J, Cooper LA. Comparative effectiveness of audit-feedback versus additional physician communication training

2016 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

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