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HIV Course

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61. Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children SUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV (...) INFECTIONSUPPLEMENT GUIDELINES ON POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV AND THE USE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV-RELATED INFECTIONS AMONG ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH DECEMBER 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTIONWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data : Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

62. Routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals (2019 interim update)

-group M viruses. References 1. Sabin CA, Devereux H, Phillips AN et al. Course of viral load throughout HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000; 23: 172–177. 2. Rodriguez B, Sethi AK, Cheruvu VK et al. Predictive value of plasma HIV RNA level on rate of CD4 T-cell decline in untreated HIV infection. JAMA 2006; 296: 1498–1506. 4.3.3.3 Resistance testing Recommendations • We recommend that a baseline genotypic resistance test should be performed on the first available sample (1A). • We (...) monitoring of adherence to appointments and engagement in care [5], which may be of relevance when considering ART [6-13]. With regard to hepatitis A and B infections, a rigorous approach is required to ensure vaccine courses are completed [14], especially in those co-infected with hepatitis C [15] as there is an ongoing incidence of hepatitis B infection in the UK HIV-positive cohort [16]. There is also evidence of continuing high rates of hepatitis C re-infection rates among HIV-positive MSM [17,18

2019 British HIV Association

63. Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. (Full text)

Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Robust and dynamic innate and adaptive responses characterize the acute central nervous system (CNS) response to HIV and other viral infections. In a state of chronic infection or viral latency, persistent immune activation associates with abnormality in the CNS. Understanding this process is critical, as immune-mediated abnormality in nonrenewable CNS cells may result in long-term neurologic sequelae (...) for HIV-infected individuals.In humans, immune activation is reduced by suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, but persists at abnormally elevated levels on treatment. CNS immune activation is initiated in acute infection and progressively increases until combination antiretroviral therapy is started. Newly identified characteristics of the CNS immune surveillance network include features of homeostasis and function of brain microglial cells, lymphatic drainage from CNS to cervical lymph

2016 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS PubMed abstract

64. Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. (Full text)

Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. We assessed factors, including treatment course, associated with failure to obtain a 10 year immunological response after starting first-generation PI-containing combined ART (cART).In the prospective COPILOTE cohort of HIV-infected patients started on a first-generation PI-containing regimen in 1997-99, the impact of cART history (...) response, despite prolonged virological success. Lack of treatment interruption may improve long-term immunological outcome in HIV infection.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2016 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

65. First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load. (Full text)

First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART (...) between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed.CD8 T-cell counts were assessed in 572 patients treated with 2NRTIs+1PI/r (n= 297), 2NRTIs+1NNRTI (n= 207) and 3NRTIs (n= 68). In multivariate analysis, after 12 months of follow-up, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a significantly smaller decrease of CD8 T-cell count compared

2016 Medicine PubMed abstract

66. Accelerated CD4 decline in untreated HIV-1 patients points toward increasing virulence over the course of the epidemic. (Full text)

Accelerated CD4 decline in untreated HIV-1 patients points toward increasing virulence over the course of the epidemic. Based on the assumption that the rate of CD4 cell count loss in treatment-naïve patients is correlated with the virulence of HIV-1, we evaluated 4616 patients. Patients who entered a German national database between 1985 and 1995 had a median annual CD4 cell count loss of 48 cells/μl, whereas those registered between 1999 and 2009 had a median annual CD4 cell count loss of 68 (...) cells/μl (P < 0.001). This suggests that HIV-1 virulence has increased over the course of the epidemic.

2016 AIDS PubMed abstract

67. Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. (Full text)

Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. Short-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may delay disease progression but has not been adequately evaluated.We randomly assigned adults with primary HIV infection to ART for 48 weeks, ART for 12 weeks, or no ART (standard of care), with treatment initiated within 6 months after seroconversion. The primary end point was a CD4+ count of less than 350 cells per cubic millimeter (...) a greater interval between ART initiation and the primary end point the closer that ART was initiated to estimated seroconversion (P=0.09), and 48-week ART conferred a reduction in the HIV RNA level of 0.44 log(10) copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.64) 36 weeks after the completion of short-course therapy. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, death, or serious adverse events.A 48-week course of ART in patients with primary

2013 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

68. From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults (Full text)

From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults This paper uses a life-course approach to explore the sexual partnerships and HIV-related risk of men and women in Swaziland throughout their adolescence, 20s and 30s. Twenty-eight Swazi men and women between the ages of 20 and 39 discussed their life histories in 117 in-depth interviews, with an average follow-up of nine months. Many participants described painful childhood experiences (...) and change was observed over the study period, with half of participants reporting concurrency within their primary relationship. Participants' narratives revealed significant sources and circumstances of risk, particularly multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships, violence and lack of mutual trust within relationships, as well as social ideals that may provide opportunities for effective HIV prevention.

2016 Culture, health & sexuality PubMed abstract

69. Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India (Full text)

Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India Migrant workers are understood to be vulnerable to HIV. However, little is known about the experience of migration-based households following HIV infection. This qualitative study examined the migration-HIV relationship beyond the point of infection, looking at how it affects livelihood choices, household relationships and the economic viability of migrant families. We conducted semi (...) and reduced physical strength. Insecure migrant job markets, monthly drug collection and discriminatory employment policies impeded future migration plans. HIV-positive wives of migrants occupied an insecure position in the rural marital household that depended on their husbands' health and presence of children. The migration-HIV relationship continued to shape the life course of migrant families beyond the point of infection, often exposing them again to the economic insecurity that migration had helped

2016 Global public health PubMed abstract

70. Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities (Full text)

Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number (...) of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high

2016 Therapeutics and clinical risk management PubMed abstract

71. HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (Full text)

HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Antiretroviral drug resistance following pMTCT strategies remains a significant problem. With rapid advancements in next generation sequencing technologies, there is more focus on HIV drug-resistant variants of low frequency, or the so-called minority variants. In South Africa, AZT monotherapy

2016 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) PubMed abstract

72. Intermittent Courses of Corticosteroids Also Present a Risk for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients (Full text)

Intermittent Courses of Corticosteroids Also Present a Risk for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical (...) outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010. The underlying condition, immunosuppressive therapies, coinfection, and clinical course were determined. PCP diagnosis required symptoms of pneumonia and identification of the organisms by visualization or by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 128 cases of PCP were identified during the study period. Hematological malignancies were

2016 Canadian respiratory journal PubMed abstract

73. Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic (Full text)

Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic Antiretroviral therapy has tremendous potential to alter the HIV-1 epidemic trajectory. However, gaps in the continuum from HIV diagnosis, through linkage to care and uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, are substantially limiting to the actual impact. In the United States, gaps in HIV diagnosis and care are greatest among African Americans, substance users, and persons living below (...) the poverty line. Globally, HIV diagnosis rates are highest in women, but HIV incidence may be declining more rapidly in men, due to lower transmission rates from female partners and greater uptake of medical male circumcision. The 2012 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections explored gaps in the continuum of care and potential strategies to address them, and also addressed the disparate results from preexposure prophylaxis efficacy trials. The role of injectable contraceptives

2016 Topics in antiviral medicine PubMed abstract

74. Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (Abstract)

specimens from a Kenyan perinatal MTCT cohort (1999-2005) involving HIV-infected women and their infants, who received short-course zidovudine for prevention of MTCT. Vaginal swabs collected at 32 weeks gestation were tested for MG using a transcription-mediated amplification assay. Infant perinatal HIV infection was determined at birth and 4 weeks of age by DNA PCR. Using a case-cohort design, a random sample was generated with 3:1 control: case ratio; prevalence and correlates of MG were assessed (...) Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, but the effect of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is not known. We hypothesized that MG infection would be common among HIV-infected pregnant women and could be associated with in utero and intrapartum MTCT.Observational case-cohort study METHODS:: This study used

2019 AIDS

75. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study. (Full text)

with schistosomes compared to those uninfected. To our knowledge, no report exists on the virological response to ART in schistosome-infected individuals. In addition, viral load in HIV-1 infected individuals changes over the course of the HIV infection. This study assessed the impact of HIV-1/Schistosoma sp. co-infections on viral load in people with immunological failure on ART, taking into account the duration of HIV-1 infection.We enrolled HIV-1 infected Tanzanian adults over 18 years of age who had used (...) Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study. Schistosoma sp. infection has been shown to interact with HIV-1 by modifying susceptibility to the virus and impacting AIDS outcome, but very little is known about the potential impact of Schistosoma sp. infection on the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-1 infected individuals. One study suggested increased immunological failure in patients infected

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

76. Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil)

of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in adults at high risk (Truvada SPC). Truvada was licensed in the US for PrEP in 2012. Course and cost Course and cost The recommended dose of Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil 200 mg/245 mg) for treating or preventing HIV in adults is 1 tablet, taken orally, once daily (Truvada SPC). The SPC states that to optimise the absorption of tenofovir, it is recommended that Truvada is taken with food. The use of Truvada for PrEP is contraindicated in people (...) Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil) Pre-e Pre-exposure proph xposure prophylaxis of HIV in adults at high ylaxis of HIV in adults at high risk: T risk: T ruvada ( ruvada (emtricitabine/tenofo emtricitabine/tenofovir disopro vir disoproxil) xil) Evidence summary Published: 5 October 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/esnm78 pathways K Ke ey points from the e y points from the evidence vidence The content of this evidence summary was up

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

77. HIV and adolescents: Guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV

HIV and adolescents: Guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR POLICY-MAKERS AND MANAGERS HIV AND ADOLESCENTS: GUIDANCE FOR HIV TESTING AND COUNSELLING AND CARE FOR ADOLESCENTS LIVING WITH HIV United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural Organization ISBN 978 92 4 150616 8 HIV AND ADOLESCENTS: GUIDANCE FOR HIV TESTING AND COUNSELLING AND CARE FOR ADOLESCENTS LIVING WITH HIV ? World (...) Health Organization 20, avenue Appia CH–1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland For more information, contact: ? Department of HIV/AIDS E-mail: hiv-aids@who.int http://www.who.int/hiv/en/ ? Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health Email: mncah@who.int http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/en/RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR POLICY-MAKERS AND MANAGERS HIV AND ADOLESCENTS: GUIDANCE FOR HIV TESTING AND COUNSELLING AND CARE FOR ADOLESCENTS LIVING

2013 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

78. Delays to anti-tuberculosis treatment intiation among cases on directly observed treatment short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. (Full text)

Delays to anti-tuberculosis treatment intiation among cases on directly observed treatment short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Delayed tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment increase morbidity, mortality, expenditure, and transmission in the community. This study assessed patient and provider related delays to diagnosis and treatment of TB.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 735 new adult TB cases registered between January to December 2015 (...) predictors of delays and statistical significance was judged at p < 0.05.The median (inter-quartile range) of patient, provider and total delays were 25 (IQR;15-36), 22 (IQR:9-48) and 55 (IQR:32-100) days, respectively. More than half (54.6%) of the total delay was attributed to health system. Prior self-treatment [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)]: 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.07-2.75), HIV co-infection (aOR:1.8, 95% CI: 1.05-3.10) and extra-pulmonary TB (aOR: 1.54,95% CI:1.03-2.29) were independently

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

79. Timing of treatment interruption among latently infected tuberculosis cases treated with a nine-month course of daily isoniazid: findings from a time to event analysis. (Full text)

Timing of treatment interruption among latently infected tuberculosis cases treated with a nine-month course of daily isoniazid: findings from a time to event analysis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk groups is an effective strategy for TB control and elimination in low incidence settings. A nine-month course of daily isoniazid (INH) has been the longest prescribed therapy; however, completion rates are suboptimal. We need data to guide TB program outreach efforts (...) , 0.81), patients with diabetes (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98), and patients with HIV (HR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.51) had a lower risk of treatment default. However, black patients (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.44, 1.70), Hispanic patients (HR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.43, 1.66), and non-U.S.-born persons living in the United States ≤5 years (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.32) were significantly more likely to default on therapy.In this analysis of INH treatment outcome, we see high levels of treatment discontinuation

2019 BMC Public Health PubMed abstract

80. Life Course, HIV and Hepatitis B Among African Migrants Living in Ile-de-France

Life Course, HIV and Hepatitis B Among African Migrants Living in Ile-de-France Life Course, HIV and Hepatitis B Among African Migrants Living in Ile-de-France - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Life Course, HIV and Hepatitis B Among African Migrants Living in Ile-de-France (PARCOURS) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02566148 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : October 2, 2015 Last Update Posted : May 15, 2017 Sponsor: French National Institute for Health

2015 Clinical Trials

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