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HIV Course

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21. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females (PubMed)

Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S.We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors (...) during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR

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2017 Journal of child sexual abuse

22. Catalogue of infection control and hospital hygiene courses in the European Union ? 2016

Catalogue of infection control and hospital hygiene courses in the European Union ? 2016 www.ecdc.europa.eu Catalogue of infection control and hospital hygiene courses in the European Union 2016 TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ECDC TECHNICAL DOCUMENT Catalogue of infection control and hospital hygiene courses in the European Union 2016 ii This course catalogue was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Carmen Varela Santos, and produced (...) Hartemann (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France), Jette Holt (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark), Smilja Kalenic (University of Zagreb, Croatia), Walter Popp (HyKoMedGmbH, Dortmund/Lünen, Germany) and Gaetano Privitera (University of Pisa, Italy). Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions in evaluating the infection control and hospital hygiene courses: Ana Budimir (Croatia); Brian Kristensen (Denmark); Pascal Astagneau (France); Outi Lyytikäinen

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

23. HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PubMed)

HIV-1 Drug Resistance by Ultra-Deep Sequencing Following Short Course Zidovudine, Single-Dose Nevirapine, and Single-Dose Tenofovir with Emtricitabine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Antiretroviral drug resistance following pMTCT strategies remains a significant problem. With rapid advancements in next generation sequencing technologies, there is more focus on HIV drug-resistant variants of low frequency, or the so-called minority variants. In South Africa, AZT monotherapy

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2016 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

24. First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load. (PubMed)

First-line cART regimen impacts the course of CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients that achieve sustained undetectable viral load. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART (...) between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed.CD8 T-cell counts were assessed in 572 patients treated with 2NRTIs+1PI/r (n= 297), 2NRTIs+1NNRTI (n= 207) and 3NRTIs (n= 68). In multivariate analysis, after 12 months of follow-up, the 3NRTIs regimen was associated with a significantly smaller decrease of CD8 T-cell count compared

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2016 Medicine

25. Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. (PubMed)

Failure to achieve immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients with clinical and virological success after 10 years of combined ART: role of treatment course. We assessed factors, including treatment course, associated with failure to obtain a 10 year immunological response after starting first-generation PI-containing combined ART (cART).In the prospective COPILOTE cohort of HIV-infected patients started on a first-generation PI-containing regimen in 1997-99, the impact of cART history (...) response, despite prolonged virological success. Lack of treatment interruption may improve long-term immunological outcome in HIV infection.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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2016 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

26. Accelerated CD4 decline in untreated HIV-1 patients points toward increasing virulence over the course of the epidemic. (PubMed)

Accelerated CD4 decline in untreated HIV-1 patients points toward increasing virulence over the course of the epidemic. Based on the assumption that the rate of CD4 cell count loss in treatment-naïve patients is correlated with the virulence of HIV-1, we evaluated 4616 patients. Patients who entered a German national database between 1985 and 1995 had a median annual CD4 cell count loss of 48 cells/μl, whereas those registered between 1999 and 2009 had a median annual CD4 cell count loss of 68 (...) cells/μl (P < 0.001). This suggests that HIV-1 virulence has increased over the course of the epidemic.

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2016 AIDS

27. Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India (PubMed)

Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India Migrant workers are understood to be vulnerable to HIV. However, little is known about the experience of migration-based households following HIV infection. This qualitative study examined the migration-HIV relationship beyond the point of infection, looking at how it affects livelihood choices, household relationships and the economic viability of migrant families. We conducted semi (...) and reduced physical strength. Insecure migrant job markets, monthly drug collection and discriminatory employment policies impeded future migration plans. HIV-positive wives of migrants occupied an insecure position in the rural marital household that depended on their husbands' health and presence of children. The migration-HIV relationship continued to shape the life course of migrant families beyond the point of infection, often exposing them again to the economic insecurity that migration had helped

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2016 Global public health

28. From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults (PubMed)

From First Love to Marriage and Maturity: A Life-Course Perspective on HIV Risk among Young Swazi Adults This paper uses a life-course approach to explore the sexual partnerships and HIV-related risk of men and women in Swaziland throughout their adolescence, 20s and 30s. Twenty-eight Swazi men and women between the ages of 20 and 39 discussed their life histories in 117 in-depth interviews, with an average follow-up of nine months. Many participants described painful childhood experiences (...) and change was observed over the study period, with half of participants reporting concurrency within their primary relationship. Participants' narratives revealed significant sources and circumstances of risk, particularly multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships, violence and lack of mutual trust within relationships, as well as social ideals that may provide opportunities for effective HIV prevention.

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2016 Culture, health & sexuality

29. HIV Course

HIV Course HIV Course Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 HIV Course HIV Course Aka: HIV Course , HIV Stage , HIV Staging (...) received no therapy Course over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: <5% Slow decline in s (40 to 80 cells/year) VI. Staging: Intermediate Disease (CD4 Count 200 - 500 cells) HIV related disorders Pronounced , Recurrent Infection Recurrent Infection Pruritic Recurrent s Anogenital ulcers or warts Complications Atypical in this stage Management therapy is continued from prior stages Course (Untreated) over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: 20-30% Treatment

2018 FP Notebook

30. Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. (PubMed)

Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection. Robust and dynamic innate and adaptive responses characterize the acute central nervous system (CNS) response to HIV and other viral infections. In a state of chronic infection or viral latency, persistent immune activation associates with abnormality in the CNS. Understanding this process is critical, as immune-mediated abnormality in nonrenewable CNS cells may result in long-term neurologic sequelae (...) for HIV-infected individuals.In humans, immune activation is reduced by suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, but persists at abnormally elevated levels on treatment. CNS immune activation is initiated in acute infection and progressively increases until combination antiretroviral therapy is started. Newly identified characteristics of the CNS immune surveillance network include features of homeostasis and function of brain microglial cells, lymphatic drainage from CNS to cervical lymph

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2016 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

31. Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic (PubMed)

Antiretroviral Use for Prevention and Other Factors Affecting the Course of the HIV-1 Epidemic Antiretroviral therapy has tremendous potential to alter the HIV-1 epidemic trajectory. However, gaps in the continuum from HIV diagnosis, through linkage to care and uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, are substantially limiting to the actual impact. In the United States, gaps in HIV diagnosis and care are greatest among African Americans, substance users, and persons living below (...) the poverty line. Globally, HIV diagnosis rates are highest in women, but HIV incidence may be declining more rapidly in men, due to lower transmission rates from female partners and greater uptake of medical male circumcision. The 2012 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections explored gaps in the continuum of care and potential strategies to address them, and also addressed the disparate results from preexposure prophylaxis efficacy trials. The role of injectable contraceptives

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2016 Topics in antiviral medicine

32. Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities (PubMed)

Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number (...) of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high

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2016 Therapeutics and clinical risk management

33. Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV , , Questions What is the cost-effectiveness of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis? What is the cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis? What are the gaps (...) in literature? Key take-home messages Economic evaluations of health care interventions can inform resource allocation and policy development. However, interpreting and generalizing results can be challenging (1). PrEP can be cost-effective or cost-saving depending on the local context, adherence rates, and program coverage (1). Interventions that target individuals at high risk of HIV exposure may improve the cost-effectiveness of PrEP (1–3). Non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, or even cost-saving

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

34. Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV

(3). Back-calculation was initially used at the beginning of the HIV epidemic; AIDS incidence data was used to “back-calculate” the number of individuals previously infected (16, 17). During this time, effective treatment was not available; the virus took its course, and over time, progressed to AIDS (18). By using the number of reported AIDS cases from each year and the assumed length of time from HIV infection to AIDS (i.e. the incubation period), estimating the number of individuals who (...) Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV , , , , , , , Questions How do we know how many people are living with undiagnosed HIV infection? What population groups make up people living

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

35. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA – An integrated approach 1 Executive summary Reaching and testing those at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a public health challenge across Europe. One in two people currently living with HIV is diagnosed late in the course of their infection and an even larger proportion of the estimated 9 million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C (...) for all three infections, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection – in itself a challenge given that these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years. Early diagnosis of HBV, HCV or HIV is vital as it allows people to access treatment, which significantly reduces associated long-term morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment either eliminates or suppresses the viruses, which in turn also prevents onward transmission – a benefit known

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

36. Public health guidance in brief on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

testing Why integrated testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? Why do we need to improve testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? What are the benefits of testing and early diagnosis? One in two people living with HIV are diagnosed late in the course of their infection. A large proportion of the estimated nine million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C are unaware that they are infected. The three viruses have common modes of transmission, and integrated HBV, HCV and HIV testing allows synergies (...) -infection. Integrated testing also reflects existing patterns of service delivery in EU/EEA countries and a growing movement to integrate HIV, HBV and HCV testing, prevention and linkage-to-care efforts. To maximise the benefits of individual treatment for all three infections, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection, which is challenging since these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years. The ECDC guidance advocates for the development

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

37. The efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV

? What are key factors implicated in the efficacy or inefficacy of PEP? Key take-home messages PEP initiated soon after exposure can reduce the risk of HIV seroconversion after occupational and non-occupational exposures, provided adherence to medications is sufficient (1–4). Evidence suggests that individuals prescribed tenofovir-based two- or three-drug regimens are more likely to complete a course of PEP and have lower discontinuation rates due to adverse events compared to zidovudine-based (...) and 2015 (14). All patients were prescribed TDF/FTC (300mg/200mg) plus RAL (400mg) twice daily for a 28-day course. Five individuals were diagnosed with HIV within 12 months of using PEP, all of which reportedly completed the prescribed regimen (14). The second study found that 324 patients (266 male, 215 men who have sex with men) were prescribed PEP at a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle between 2000 and 2010 (15). A total of 89% of patients completed the prescribed regimen. Two cases were

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

38. Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis

Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) must be initiated as soon as possible, ideally within 2 hours, and preferably within 24 hours of exposure. However, the period during which PEP is most efficacious is often said to be within (...) 72 hours of exposure. Most exposures have only a low risk of HIV transmission even in the absence of PEP. PEP given to HIV-negative people reduces likelihood of HIV seroconversion by approximately 80%. Duration of treatment is 28 days. New antiretroviral treatment regimens for PEP offer low risk of toxicity. There is an absence of randomised controlled studies evaluating PEP. Definition Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-negative people

2018 BMJ Best Practice

39. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Co-Infection and Concurrent Diseases Core: Canadian guidelines for management and treatment of HIV/hepatitis C coinfection in adults

on this time course. Coinfected individuals progress more rapidly to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and ESLD compared with those infected with HCV alone (47-50). In a meta-analysis, the RR for cirrhosis was 2.49 (95% CI 1.81 to 3.42) in ART -untreated and 1.72 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.80) in ART - treated coinfected versus monoinfected individuals (50). Once cirrhosis develops, there is also a dramatic sixfold acceleration to decompensation and death (47). Fibrosis rates in HIV-infected MSM acquiring acute HCV while (...) on ART have also been shown to be surprisingly rapid, sug- gesting an accelerated course of HCV despite effective HIV control (51). This more rapid course is driving, in large measure, the increased liver-related mortality that has been observed worldwide in developed countries in the post-ART era. In a large HIV cohort collaboration (the Data Collection o n Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs [D:A:D] study), liver-related deaths (14% overall) were second only to AIDS and were associated

2014 CPG Infobase

40. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV

Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV UPDATED RECOMMENDATIONS ON FIRST-LINE AND SECOND-LINE ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMENS AND POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON EARLY INFANT DIAGNOSIS OF HIV SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION DECEMBER 2018 INTERIM GUIDELINES HIV TREATMENTUPDATED (...) RECOMMENDATIONS ON FIRST-LINE AND SECOND-LINE ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMENS AND POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON EARLY INFANT DIAGNOSIS OF HIV: INTERIM GUIDELINES SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION DECEMBER 2018WHO/CDS/HIV/18.51 © World Health Organization 2018 Some rights reserved. This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO licence (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO; https

2019 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

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