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21. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752 Summary: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. (Abstract)

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752 Summary: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. Furthermore, new evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the course of infection is beneficial (...) for individuals infected with HIV and reduces the rate of sexual transmission to partners who are not infected. Screening should be performed after women have been notified that HIV screening is recommended for all pregnant patients and that they will receive an HIV test as part of the routine panel of prenatal tests unless they decline (opt-out screening). Human immunodeficiency virus testing using the opt-out approach, which is currently permitted in every jurisdiction in the United States, should

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

22. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. (Abstract)

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. Furthermore, new evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the course of infection is beneficial (...) for individuals infected with HIV and reduces the rate of sexual transmission to partners who are not infected. Screening should be performed after women have been notified that HIV screening is recommended for all pregnant patients and that they will receive an HIV test as part of the routine panel of prenatal tests unless they decline (opt-out screening). Human immunodeficiency virus testing using the opt-out approach, which is currently permitted in every jurisdiction in the United States, should

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

23. Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report Acanthamoeba species can cause disseminating infections in immunocompromised individuals.Here, we report a case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis with a lethal outcome in a 54-year-old German man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive. The diagnosis was based on symptoms of progressive neurological deficits, including sensorimotor paralysis of his (...) right leg and deteriorating alertness. Due to the rapid course and rather late diagnosis of the infection, effective treatment could not be applied and he died 12 days after hospital admission.To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis reported within Germany. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis to prevent fatal outcome.

2018 Journal of medical case reports

24. Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection during Early, Nonaccelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques Full Text available with Trip Pro

SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4+ T cell counts mirrored early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans. At 12 weeks postinfection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection of SHIV RNA and elevations in IP-10 and MCP-1 reflected a discrete neurovirologic process. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a diffuse, low-level CD3+ CD4- cellular infiltrate in the brain parenchyma without a concomitant increase in CD68/CD163+ monocytes, macrophages (...) Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection during Early, Nonaccelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neurological AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this nonaccelerated

2018 Journal of virology

25. Interferon-α Subtypes As an Adjunct Therapeutic Approach for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Functional Cure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interferon-α Subtypes As an Adjunct Therapeutic Approach for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Functional Cure Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes life-long latency in infected individuals. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a significant impact on the course of HIV infection leading to a better long-term outcome, the pool of latent reservoir remains substantial even under HAART. Numerous approaches have been under development with the goal of eradicating (...) the latent HIV reservoir though with limited success. Approaches that combine immune-mediated control of HIV to activate both the innate and the adaptive immune system under suppressive therapy along with "shock and kill" drugs may lead to a better control of the reactivated virus. Interferon-α (IFN-α) is an innate cytokine that has been shown to activate intracellular defenses capable of restricting and controlling HIV. IFN-α, however, harbors numerous functional subtypes that have been reported

2018 Frontiers in immunology

26. Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. The purpose of this case report is to describe a conjunctiva and eyelid Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. There are only 3 reported cases of ocular KS as an initial manifestation of HIV infection.A 32-year old white man presented to our department with a 1 (...) month history of eye redness. The patient had an enlarged violet-coloured mass on the right superior eyelid which had evolved over the course of 1 week. There was also a mobile bulbar conjunctival lesion with a bright red colour, approximately 5 mm × 5 mm, in the superior temporal quadrant of his left eye. The lesions looked like a chalazion and a subconjunctival haemorrhage, respectivly. Presumed KS diagnosis was confirmed with HIV-1 positive testing and histopathology from tissue biopsy

2018 BMC Cancer

27. Pomalidomide in Treating Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Biological therapies, such as pomalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing and it may also block the growth of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Positive Skin Kaposi Sarcoma Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Drug: Pomalidomide Phase 2 Detailed Description: PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To determine if pomalidomide (...) ] The binomial proportion and its 95% exact confidence interval will be used to estimate the proportion of participants who experience a grade 3 or higher toxicity. Secondary Outcome Measures : Changes in CD4 T cell count [ Time Frame: Baseline to up to 30 days after last dose of study drug ] Changes in CD4 counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load will be evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Changes in HIV viral load as measured by HIV quantitative polymerase chain reaction

2018 Clinical Trials

28. Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening

. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Abstract: Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can improve survival and reduce morbidity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that females aged 13–64 years be tested at least once in their lifetime and annually thereafter based on factors (...) Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening - ACOG Menu ▼ Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Page Navigation ▼ Number 596, May 2014 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 411, August 2008) (Reaffirmed 2019) Committee on Gynecologic Practice This Committee Opinion was developed with the assistance of the HIV Expert Work Group. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change

2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

29. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

issued and is subject to change. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Abstract: Preexposure prophylaxis is defined as the administration of antiretroviral medications to individuals who are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are at the highest risk of acquiring HIV infection. In combination with other proven HIV-prevention (...) Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus - ACOG Menu ▼ Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Page Navigation ▼ Number 595, May 2014 (Reaffirmed 2019) Committee on Gynecologic Practice This Committee Opinion was developed with the assistance of the HIV Expert Work Group. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date

2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

30. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional study in the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional study in the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon Cardiac involvement is frequent in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disease. This work aimed at studying the profile of echocardiographic and electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities in adults living with HIV (PLHIV), compared to those not infected with HIV at the treatment unit of the Yaoundé (...) Central Hospital.We carried out a case-control study over three months at the HIV treatment unit. We included adults of both sexes, aged ≥21 years, HIV-infected (cases), and age and sex matched controls. Those with a history of heart disease were excluded. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic data.We included 59 PLHIV and 59 age-sex matched controls without HIV infection. The prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 28.8% in cases, and 8.5% in the control group

2017 Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy

31. Autoimmune hepatitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case series Full Text available with Trip Pro

Autoimmune hepatitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case series Liver injury in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is more commonly attributed to viral hepatitis or highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) toxicity. The severity of liver injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The emergence of autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the setting of HIV infection, is rare. Previous reports (...) indicate that elevated liver enzymes are a common denominator amongst these patients. We present two patients with HIV infection, on HAART, with virological suppression. Both patients presented with elevated liver enzymes, and following liver biopsies, were diagnosed with AIH. The clinical course of these patients underscore the therapeutic value of corticosteroids, and in some cases, addition of immunosuppression for AIH treatment.

2017 World journal of hepatology

32. Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Direct acting antivirals are expected to drastically reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, rates of HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection in this group remain uncertain in Australia. We assessed (...) trends in HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection among HIV-positive individuals, and evaluated factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident infection.The study population consisted of HIV-positive individuals who visited a sexual health service involved in the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) between 2007 and 2015. Poisson regression was used to assess trends and to evaluate factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident HCV

2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

33. Longitudinal study of surrogate aging measures during human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal study of surrogate aging measures during human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) harbor an increased risk of age-related conditions. We measured changes in telomere length and DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of 31 intravenous drug users, who were followed longitudinally with blood samples pre-HIV (T1), immediately post-HIV (T2; 1.9±1 year from T1), and at a later follow-up time (T3; 2.2±1 year from T2). Absolute (...) increased over the time course of HIV infection (p=0.035). CpG sites corresponding to PCBP2 and CSRNP1 were differentially methylated between T1 and T2 at a q-value <0.05. Telomere shortening and methylation changes can therefore be observed in the short-term period immediately following HIV seroconversion. Further studies to confirm these results in larger sample sizes and to compare these results to non-HIV and non-injection drug users are warranted.

2017 Aging (Albany NY)

34. The Significance of Type-I Interferons in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Significance of Type-I Interferons in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are a widely expressed family that could promote antivirus immunity in the process of pathogens invasion. In a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual, the production of IFN-I can be detected as early as the acute phase and will persist throughout the course of infection. However, sustained stimulation of immune system by IFN-I also (...) contributes greatly to host-mediated immunopathology and diseases progression. Although the protective effects of IFN-I in the acute phase of HIV-1 infection have been observed, more studies recently focus on their detrimental role in the chronic stage. Inhibition of IFN-I signaling may reverse HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and furthermore reduce HIV-1 reservoirs, which suggest this strategy may provide a potential way to enhance the therapeutic effect of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, we

2017 Frontiers in immunology

35. Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Optic Neuropathy Associated with Syphilitic Meningomyelitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Optic Neuropathy Associated with Syphilitic Meningomyelitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier (...) with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient presumably had latent syphilis and slowly developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). A cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed the diagnosis of active neurosyphilis based on an elevated T. pallidum hemagglutination assay index. A change in the patient's immune status, possibly due to HIV, might have converted the syphilis from latent to active, leading to LETM of the spinal cord.

2017 Internal Medicine

36. Longitudinal Viral Suppression Among a Cohort of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behaviorally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal Viral Suppression Among a Cohort of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behaviorally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Youth living with HIV (YLWH) are less likely than older adults to achieve and sustain viral suppression. While treatment guidelines recommend decreased viral load (VL) monitoring in individuals with well-controlled HIV, the appropriateness of this strategy for adolescents is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe longitudinal viral (...) suppression and identify incidence of, and risk factors for, virologic failure among YLWH at a US adolescent HIV clinic from 2002 to 2015. We utilized Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare hazard ratios (HRs) for virologic failure stratified by baseline characteristics. Study participants (n = 365) were predominately African American (87%) and cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men (80%) and the majority (79%) entered care from 2002 to 2012. Of antiretroviral therapy (ART

2017 AIDS patient care and STDs

37. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Particle Heterogeneity in Immunodeficient Human Liver Chimeric fah-/- Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Particle Heterogeneity in Immunodeficient Human Liver Chimeric fah-/- Mice Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity (...) to increase very-low-density lipoprotein secretion by the liver in rodents, on lipoprotein and HCV particle characteristics.Similar to the severe combined immunodeficiency disease/Albumin-urokinase plasminogen activator human liver chimeric mouse model, density fractionation of infectious mouse serum showed higher infectivity in the low-density fractions early after infection. However, over the course of the infection, viral particle heterogeneity increased and the overall in vitro infectivity diminished

2017 Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

38. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child Suffering from Human Immunodeficiency Virus on “Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy” – Can This be Another Instance of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child Suffering from Human Immunodeficiency Virus on “Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy” – Can This be Another Instance of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome? We report a 12-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented with rapidly progressive difficulty in ambulation. The symptoms started to worsen when he was put on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our findings show that the dynamics of HIV-related immune (...) suppression and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have an impact on the clinical course of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Slow progression is expected in children on HAART but in our case, we observe a complex interaction of the virus with the immune system and modification of disease course of SSPE with ART. The child we discuss in this case report developed rapidly progressive SSPE on HAART regime; so the possibility of SSPE to be labeled as immune reconstitution inflammatory

2017 Cureus

39. MK-8591 With Doravirine and Lamivudine in Participants Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (MK-8591-011)

MK-8591 With Doravirine and Lamivudine in Participants Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (MK-8591-011) MK-8591 With Doravirine and Lamivudine in Participants Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (MK-8591-011) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. MK-8591 With Doravirine and Lamivudine in Participants Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (MK-8591-011) (DRIVE2Simplify) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03272347 Recruitment Status

2017 Clinical Trials

40. Antiretroviral naive and treated patients: Discrepancies of B cell subsets during the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antiretroviral naive and treated patients: Discrepancies of B cell subsets during the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection To evaluate alterations of memory B cell subpopulations during a 48-wk period in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients.Forty-one antiretroviral naïve and 41 treated HIV-1 patients matched for age and duration of HIV infection were recruited. All clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were recorded or measured. The different B (...) ) and 48th (P = 0.03). Higher levels of AM were preserved in HAART naive group during the whole study period (week 4: P = 0.018 and 48: P = 0.035). HIV-RNA viremia strongly correlated with AM B cells (r = 0.54, P = 0.01) and moderately with RM cells (r = -0.45, P = 0.026) at baseline.HIV disrupts memory B cell subpopulations leading to impaired immunologic memory over time. BMC, RM, EM and ITS BMC were higher in patients under HAART. Activated BMCs (AM) were higher in patients without HAART. Viremia

2016 World journal of virology

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