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21. Dengue Virus Coinfection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Patients on the West Coast of Mexico. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dengue Virus Coinfection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Patients on the West Coast of Mexico. Dengue virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is not well studied. Previous reports suggest a transitory inhibition of the HIV-1 viral load, as well as a benign clinical progression of dengue. The follow-up of six HIV-1-infected patients, diagnosed and hospitalized with dengue virus infection in the State of Colima, Mexico, was carried out to analyze (...) the progression of this viral coinfection. The presence of dengue virus serotype 1 was confirmed through molecular tests. No severe complications were observed in any of the patients during dengue virus infection. Significant alteration of the HIV-1 viral loads was not observed during dengue virus infection and 6 months after coinfection. Further studies are required to understand the pathology, as well as the clinical course, of these viral coinfections.

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

22. A Rare Case of Three Distinct Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders Over Sixteen Years of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Rare Case of Three Distinct Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders Over Sixteen Years of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is well known to cause different types of malignancies. In immunocompromised patients, such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is a higher likelihood of EBV related malignant transformation. Diagnosis of EBV related malignancies may be difficult and sometimes requires clinical (...) and pathological correlation. It is very rare to have more than one type of EBV related malignancy in a single patient. Until now, there are no specific guidelines for treatment of EBV related malignancies and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). We present a patient who developed three different types of EBV related LPD during a sixteen-year course of HIV infection.

2017 Hematology reports

23. A highly pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus effectively produces infectious virions compared with a less pathogenic virus in cell culture Full Text available with Trip Pro

A highly pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus effectively produces infectious virions compared with a less pathogenic virus in cell culture The host range of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite narrow. Therefore, analyzing HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo has been limited owing to lack of appropriate animal model systems. To overcome this, chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that encode HIV-1 Env and are infectious to macaques have been developed and used (...) to investigate the pathogenicity of HIV-1 in vivo. So far, we have many SHIV strains that show different pathogenesis in macaque experiments. However, dynamic aspects of SHIV infection have not been well understood. To fully understand the dynamic properties of SHIVs, we focused on two representative strains-the highly pathogenic SHIV, SHIV-KS661, and the less pathogenic SHIV, SHIV-#64-and measured the time-course of experimental data in cell culture.We infected HSC-F with SHIV-KS661 and -#64 and measured

2017 Theoretical biology & medical modelling

24. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752 Summary: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. (Abstract)

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752 Summary: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. Furthermore, new evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the course of infection is beneficial (...) for individuals infected with HIV and reduces the rate of sexual transmission to partners who are not infected. Screening should be performed after women have been notified that HIV screening is recommended for all pregnant patients and that they will receive an HIV test as part of the routine panel of prenatal tests unless they decline (opt-out screening). Human immunodeficiency virus testing using the opt-out approach, which is currently permitted in every jurisdiction in the United States, should

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

25. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. (Abstract)

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. Furthermore, new evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the course of infection is beneficial (...) for individuals infected with HIV and reduces the rate of sexual transmission to partners who are not infected. Screening should be performed after women have been notified that HIV screening is recommended for all pregnant patients and that they will receive an HIV test as part of the routine panel of prenatal tests unless they decline (opt-out screening). Human immunodeficiency virus testing using the opt-out approach, which is currently permitted in every jurisdiction in the United States, should

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

26. Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report Acanthamoeba species can cause disseminating infections in immunocompromised individuals.Here, we report a case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis with a lethal outcome in a 54-year-old German man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive. The diagnosis was based on symptoms of progressive neurological deficits, including sensorimotor paralysis of his (...) right leg and deteriorating alertness. Due to the rapid course and rather late diagnosis of the infection, effective treatment could not be applied and he died 12 days after hospital admission.To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis reported within Germany. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis to prevent fatal outcome.

2018 Journal of medical case reports

27. Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection during Early, Nonaccelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques Full Text available with Trip Pro

SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4+ T cell counts mirrored early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans. At 12 weeks postinfection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection of SHIV RNA and elevations in IP-10 and MCP-1 reflected a discrete neurovirologic process. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a diffuse, low-level CD3+ CD4- cellular infiltrate in the brain parenchyma without a concomitant increase in CD68/CD163+ monocytes, macrophages (...) Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection during Early, Nonaccelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neurological AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this nonaccelerated

2018 Journal of virology

28. Interferon-α Subtypes As an Adjunct Therapeutic Approach for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Functional Cure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interferon-α Subtypes As an Adjunct Therapeutic Approach for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Functional Cure Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes life-long latency in infected individuals. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a significant impact on the course of HIV infection leading to a better long-term outcome, the pool of latent reservoir remains substantial even under HAART. Numerous approaches have been under development with the goal of eradicating (...) the latent HIV reservoir though with limited success. Approaches that combine immune-mediated control of HIV to activate both the innate and the adaptive immune system under suppressive therapy along with "shock and kill" drugs may lead to a better control of the reactivated virus. Interferon-α (IFN-α) is an innate cytokine that has been shown to activate intracellular defenses capable of restricting and controlling HIV. IFN-α, however, harbors numerous functional subtypes that have been reported

2018 Frontiers in immunology

29. Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kaposi's sarcoma of the conjunctiva and the eyelid leads to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection - a case report. The purpose of this case report is to describe a conjunctiva and eyelid Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. There are only 3 reported cases of ocular KS as an initial manifestation of HIV infection.A 32-year old white man presented to our department with a 1 (...) month history of eye redness. The patient had an enlarged violet-coloured mass on the right superior eyelid which had evolved over the course of 1 week. There was also a mobile bulbar conjunctival lesion with a bright red colour, approximately 5 mm × 5 mm, in the superior temporal quadrant of his left eye. The lesions looked like a chalazion and a subconjunctival haemorrhage, respectivly. Presumed KS diagnosis was confirmed with HIV-1 positive testing and histopathology from tissue biopsy

2018 BMC Cancer

30. Pomalidomide in Treating Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Biological therapies, such as pomalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing and it may also block the growth of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Positive Skin Kaposi Sarcoma Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Drug: Pomalidomide Phase 2 Detailed Description: PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To determine if pomalidomide (...) ] The binomial proportion and its 95% exact confidence interval will be used to estimate the proportion of participants who experience a grade 3 or higher toxicity. Secondary Outcome Measures : Changes in CD4 T cell count [ Time Frame: Baseline to up to 30 days after last dose of study drug ] Changes in CD4 counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load will be evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Changes in HIV viral load as measured by HIV quantitative polymerase chain reaction

2018 Clinical Trials

31. Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening

. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Abstract: Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can improve survival and reduce morbidity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that females aged 13–64 years be tested at least once in their lifetime and annually thereafter based on factors (...) Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening - ACOG Menu ▼ Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Page Navigation ▼ Number 596, May 2014 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 411, August 2008) (Reaffirmed 2019) Committee on Gynecologic Practice This Committee Opinion was developed with the assistance of the HIV Expert Work Group. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change

2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

32. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

issued and is subject to change. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Abstract: Preexposure prophylaxis is defined as the administration of antiretroviral medications to individuals who are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are at the highest risk of acquiring HIV infection. In combination with other proven HIV-prevention (...) Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus - ACOG Menu ▼ Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Page Navigation ▼ Number 595, May 2014 (Reaffirmed 2019) Committee on Gynecologic Practice This Committee Opinion was developed with the assistance of the HIV Expert Work Group. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date

2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

33. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional study in the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional study in the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon Cardiac involvement is frequent in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disease. This work aimed at studying the profile of echocardiographic and electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities in adults living with HIV (PLHIV), compared to those not infected with HIV at the treatment unit of the Yaoundé (...) Central Hospital.We carried out a case-control study over three months at the HIV treatment unit. We included adults of both sexes, aged ≥21 years, HIV-infected (cases), and age and sex matched controls. Those with a history of heart disease were excluded. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic data.We included 59 PLHIV and 59 age-sex matched controls without HIV infection. The prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 28.8% in cases, and 8.5% in the control group

2017 Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy

34. Autoimmune hepatitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case series Full Text available with Trip Pro

Autoimmune hepatitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case series Liver injury in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is more commonly attributed to viral hepatitis or highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) toxicity. The severity of liver injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The emergence of autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the setting of HIV infection, is rare. Previous reports (...) indicate that elevated liver enzymes are a common denominator amongst these patients. We present two patients with HIV infection, on HAART, with virological suppression. Both patients presented with elevated liver enzymes, and following liver biopsies, were diagnosed with AIH. The clinical course of these patients underscore the therapeutic value of corticosteroids, and in some cases, addition of immunosuppression for AIH treatment.

2017 World journal of hepatology

35. Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Direct acting antivirals are expected to drastically reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, rates of HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection in this group remain uncertain in Australia. We assessed (...) trends in HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection among HIV-positive individuals, and evaluated factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident infection.The study population consisted of HIV-positive individuals who visited a sexual health service involved in the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) between 2007 and 2015. Poisson regression was used to assess trends and to evaluate factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident HCV

2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

36. Longitudinal study of surrogate aging measures during human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal study of surrogate aging measures during human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) harbor an increased risk of age-related conditions. We measured changes in telomere length and DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of 31 intravenous drug users, who were followed longitudinally with blood samples pre-HIV (T1), immediately post-HIV (T2; 1.9±1 year from T1), and at a later follow-up time (T3; 2.2±1 year from T2). Absolute (...) increased over the time course of HIV infection (p=0.035). CpG sites corresponding to PCBP2 and CSRNP1 were differentially methylated between T1 and T2 at a q-value <0.05. Telomere shortening and methylation changes can therefore be observed in the short-term period immediately following HIV seroconversion. Further studies to confirm these results in larger sample sizes and to compare these results to non-HIV and non-injection drug users are warranted.

2017 Aging (Albany NY)

37. The Significance of Type-I Interferons in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Significance of Type-I Interferons in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are a widely expressed family that could promote antivirus immunity in the process of pathogens invasion. In a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual, the production of IFN-I can be detected as early as the acute phase and will persist throughout the course of infection. However, sustained stimulation of immune system by IFN-I also (...) contributes greatly to host-mediated immunopathology and diseases progression. Although the protective effects of IFN-I in the acute phase of HIV-1 infection have been observed, more studies recently focus on their detrimental role in the chronic stage. Inhibition of IFN-I signaling may reverse HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and furthermore reduce HIV-1 reservoirs, which suggest this strategy may provide a potential way to enhance the therapeutic effect of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, we

2017 Frontiers in immunology

38. Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Optic Neuropathy Associated with Syphilitic Meningomyelitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Optic Neuropathy Associated with Syphilitic Meningomyelitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier (...) with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient presumably had latent syphilis and slowly developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). A cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed the diagnosis of active neurosyphilis based on an elevated T. pallidum hemagglutination assay index. A change in the patient's immune status, possibly due to HIV, might have converted the syphilis from latent to active, leading to LETM of the spinal cord.

2017 Internal Medicine

39. Longitudinal Viral Suppression Among a Cohort of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behaviorally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal Viral Suppression Among a Cohort of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behaviorally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Youth living with HIV (YLWH) are less likely than older adults to achieve and sustain viral suppression. While treatment guidelines recommend decreased viral load (VL) monitoring in individuals with well-controlled HIV, the appropriateness of this strategy for adolescents is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe longitudinal viral (...) suppression and identify incidence of, and risk factors for, virologic failure among YLWH at a US adolescent HIV clinic from 2002 to 2015. We utilized Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare hazard ratios (HRs) for virologic failure stratified by baseline characteristics. Study participants (n = 365) were predominately African American (87%) and cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men (80%) and the majority (79%) entered care from 2002 to 2012. Of antiretroviral therapy (ART

2017 AIDS patient care and STDs

40. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Particle Heterogeneity in Immunodeficient Human Liver Chimeric fah-/- Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Particle Heterogeneity in Immunodeficient Human Liver Chimeric fah-/- Mice Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity (...) to increase very-low-density lipoprotein secretion by the liver in rodents, on lipoprotein and HCV particle characteristics.Similar to the severe combined immunodeficiency disease/Albumin-urokinase plasminogen activator human liver chimeric mouse model, density fractionation of infectious mouse serum showed higher infectivity in the low-density fractions early after infection. However, over the course of the infection, viral particle heterogeneity increased and the overall in vitro infectivity diminished

2017 Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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