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21. Clinical Course, Radiological Manifestations, and Outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients. (PubMed)

Clinical Course, Radiological Manifestations, and Outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In literature, presentation and outcome of PCP differs between patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and renal transplant recipients (RTRs).We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with PCP based on the HIV and renal (...) groups. Duration from illness onset to hospital presentation was longer in the HIV patients (median of 18 vs. 10 days (p = 0.02)), implying a less fulminant clinical course. Sixty percent of PCP cases in RTRs occurred >12 months after transplantation. Lengths of hospitalization, admission rates to the intensive care unit, and requirements for mechanical ventilation were similar. Outcome in both groups was favourable.While important differences in radiological presentation of PCP between HIV patients

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2016 PLoS ONE

22. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Co-Infection and Concurrent Diseases Core: Canadian guidelines for management and treatment of HIV/hepatitis C coinfection in adults

on this time course. Coinfected individuals progress more rapidly to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and ESLD compared with those infected with HCV alone (47-50). In a meta-analysis, the RR for cirrhosis was 2.49 (95% CI 1.81 to 3.42) in ART -untreated and 1.72 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.80) in ART - treated coinfected versus monoinfected individuals (50). Once cirrhosis develops, there is also a dramatic sixfold acceleration to decompensation and death (47). Fibrosis rates in HIV-infected MSM acquiring acute HCV while (...) on ART have also been shown to be surprisingly rapid, sug- gesting an accelerated course of HCV despite effective HIV control (51). This more rapid course is driving, in large measure, the increased liver-related mortality that has been observed worldwide in developed countries in the post-ART era. In a large HIV cohort collaboration (the Data Collection o n Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs [D:A:D] study), liver-related deaths (14% overall) were second only to AIDS and were associated

2014 CPG Infobase

23. The efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV

? What are key factors implicated in the efficacy or inefficacy of PEP? Key take-home messages PEP initiated soon after exposure can reduce the risk of HIV seroconversion after occupational and non-occupational exposures, provided adherence to medications is sufficient (1–4). Evidence suggests that individuals prescribed tenofovir-based two- or three-drug regimens are more likely to complete a course of PEP and have lower discontinuation rates due to adverse events compared to zidovudine-based (...) and 2015 (14). All patients were prescribed TDF/FTC (300mg/200mg) plus RAL (400mg) twice daily for a 28-day course. Five individuals were diagnosed with HIV within 12 months of using PEP, all of which reportedly completed the prescribed regimen (14). The second study found that 324 patients (266 male, 215 men who have sex with men) were prescribed PEP at a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle between 2000 and 2010 (15). A total of 89% of patients completed the prescribed regimen. Two cases were

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

24. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA – An integrated approach 1 Executive summary Reaching and testing those at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a public health challenge across Europe. One in two people currently living with HIV is diagnosed late in the course of their infection and an even larger proportion of the estimated 9 million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C (...) for all three infections, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection – in itself a challenge given that these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years. Early diagnosis of HBV, HCV or HIV is vital as it allows people to access treatment, which significantly reduces associated long-term morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment either eliminates or suppresses the viruses, which in turn also prevents onward transmission – a benefit known

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

25. Public health guidance in brief on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

testing Why integrated testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? Why do we need to improve testing for HIV and viral hepatitis? What are the benefits of testing and early diagnosis? One in two people living with HIV are diagnosed late in the course of their infection. A large proportion of the estimated nine million Europeans living with chronic hepatitis B or C are unaware that they are infected. The three viruses have common modes of transmission, and integrated HBV, HCV and HIV testing allows synergies (...) -infection. Integrated testing also reflects existing patterns of service delivery in EU/EEA countries and a growing movement to integrate HIV, HBV and HCV testing, prevention and linkage-to-care efforts. To maximise the benefits of individual treatment for all three infections, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection, which is challenging since these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years. The ECDC guidance advocates for the development

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

26. Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV

Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV Unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV , , , , , , , , , Questions What are the unmet needs of Indigenous peoples living with HIV? What interventions, strategies, and programs have been used to address these needs? Key take-home messages In 2016, First Nations, Métis (...) , and Inuit peoples accounted for 4.9% of the Canadian population but represented 11.3% of all new HIV infections (1). When considering Indigenous health, conventional approaches to HIV and other communicable diseases are insufficient (2). Considerable disconnect exists between the priorities of the HIV care cascade and the experiences of Indigenous peoples living with HIV (3). The lack of coordination between mainstream HIV biomedical approaches and Indigenous worldviews appears to contribute to poor

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

27. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health

health and HIV. 25 January 2018 Updated the data in the guidance and linked to 'HIV in the UK: 2016 report' instead of '2014 HIV: surveillance, data and management report'. Added a new section about online courses. 4 August 2017 Updated measuring outcomes section to add links to Everyday Interactions measuring impact toolkit and sexual health impact pathway. 1 April 2015 First published. Related content Collection Explore the topic Is this page useful? Thank you for your feedback Help us improve (...) Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health Sexual and reproductive health and HIV: applying All Our Health - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve government digital services. Any data collected is anonymised. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Sexual and reproductive health

2019 Public Health England

28. Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV Economic evaluations of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV , , Questions What is the cost-effectiveness of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis? What is the cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis? What are the gaps (...) in literature? Key take-home messages Economic evaluations of health care interventions can inform resource allocation and policy development. However, interpreting and generalizing results can be challenging (1). PrEP can be cost-effective or cost-saving depending on the local context, adherence rates, and program coverage (1). Interventions that target individuals at high risk of HIV exposure may improve the cost-effectiveness of PrEP (1–3). Non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, or even cost-saving

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

29. Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV

(3). Back-calculation was initially used at the beginning of the HIV epidemic; AIDS incidence data was used to “back-calculate” the number of individuals previously infected (16, 17). During this time, effective treatment was not available; the virus took its course, and over time, progressed to AIDS (18). By using the number of reported AIDS cases from each year and the assumed length of time from HIV infection to AIDS (i.e. the incubation period), estimating the number of individuals who (...) Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV , , , , , , , Questions How do we know how many people are living with undiagnosed HIV infection? What population groups make up people living

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

30. Improving Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Treatment Monitoring in South Africa: Evaluation of an Advanced TB/HIV Course for Healthcare Workers (PubMed)

Improving Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Treatment Monitoring in South Africa: Evaluation of an Advanced TB/HIV Course for Healthcare Workers South Africa has dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). Nurse-focused training was combined with onsite mentoring for nurses to improve HIV and TB care. A pre-/postevaluation was conducted in 3 districts in South Africa to assess the effects of the course on clinical patient monitoring (...) % posttraining (P = .001). Integration of TB and HIV care such as isoniazid preventive therapy increased significantly.The primary outcome measures did not change after training. However, the evaluation documented many other improvements in TB and HIV care that may have been supported by the course.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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2016 Open forum infectious diseases

31. Parasite Clearance and Artemether Pharmacokinetics Parameters Over the Course of Artemether-Lumefantrine Treatment for Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Ugandan Children (PubMed)

Parasite Clearance and Artemether Pharmacokinetics Parameters Over the Course of Artemether-Lumefantrine Treatment for Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Ugandan Children Artemisinins are primarily responsible for initial parasite clearance. Antimalarial pharmacokinetics (PK), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and antiretroviral therapy have been shown to impact treatment outcomes, although their impact on early parasite clearance in children (...) has not been well characterized.Parasite clearance parameters were generated from twice-daily blood smears in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Ugandan children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) area-under-the-curve from 0-8 hours (AUC0-8hr) after the 1st AL dose was compared with AUC0-8hr after the last (6th) dose in a concurrently enrolled cohort. The association between post-1st dose artemisinin AUC0-8hr and parasite clearance was assessed.Parasite

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2016 Open forum infectious diseases

32. Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene profiles modify HIV disease course, not HIV acquisition in South African women. (PubMed)

Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene profiles modify HIV disease course, not HIV acquisition in South African women. Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) interact with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) to modify natural killer- and T-cell function. KIR are implicated in HIV acquisition by small studies that have not been widely replicated. A role for KIR in HIV disease progression is more widely replicated and supported by functional studies.To assess the role of KIR (...) and KIR ligands in HIV acquisition and disease course, we studied at-risk women in South Africa between 2004-2010. Logistic regression was used for nested case-control analysis of 154 women who acquired vs. 155 who did not acquire HIV, despite high exposure. Linear mixed-effects models were used for cohort analysis of 139 women followed prospectively for a median of 54 months (IQR 31-69) until 2014.Neither KIR repertoires nor HLA alleles were associated with HIV acquisition. However, KIR haplotype BB

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2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

33. Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis

Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Post-exposure HIV prophylaxis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) must be initiated as soon as possible, ideally within 2 hours, and preferably within 24 hours of exposure. However, the period during which PEP is most efficacious is often said to be within (...) 72 hours of exposure. Most exposures have only a low risk of HIV transmission even in the absence of PEP. PEP given to HIV-negative people reduces likelihood of HIV seroconversion by approximately 80%. Duration of treatment is 28 days. New antiretroviral treatment regimens for PEP offer low risk of toxicity. There is an absence of randomised controlled studies evaluating PEP. Definition Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-negative people

2018 BMJ Best Practice

34. Knowledge of HIV and Related Best Practices Among Non-HIV Specific Health Care Providers

testing as a regular screening test for all patients (11). The authors of the U.S. study comparing generalist, “expert generalist” and infectious disease specialists stressed that generalists can be trained to provide high-quality care to patients with complex chronic illness through multiple means, including continuing education courses, conferences and literature updates (9). Similarly, a study of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) knowledge among HIV-providers and non-HIV- providers in California (...) Knowledge of HIV and Related Best Practices Among Non-HIV Specific Health Care Providers RAPID RESPONSE SERVICE | #98, OCTOBER 2015 1 RAPID RESPONSE SERVICE THE ONTARIO HIV TREATMENT NETWORK References 1. Rosen NO, Knauper B, Mozessohn L, Ho MH. Factors affecting knowledge of sexually transmitted infection transmis- sibility in healthcare providers: Results from a national survey. Sexually Trans- mitted Diseases 2005;32(10):619-24. 2. Farley JE, Hayat MJ, Murphy J, Sheridan-Malone E, Anderson J

2015 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

35. Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines

Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 94–114 No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines x Mona Loutfy , MD, MPH (Principal Author) Toronto, ON x V. Logan Kennedy , RN (Principal Author) Toronto, ON x Vanessa Poliquin , MD (Principal Author) Winnipeg, MB x Frederick Dzineku , MD (Principal (...) and Gynaecology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON. , MD (Principal Author)* , x Mark H. Yudin Correspondence Corresponding Author: Dr. Mark Yudin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON. Toronto, ON No. 354, January 2018 (Replaces No. 278, June 2012) DOI: To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or . Click to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Abstract Objective The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical

2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

36. Vaccination of HIV infected children

on immunisation can be found: - “Guidance on vaccination of HIV-infected children in Europe”. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) Vaccines Group. HIV Med. 2012. - Immunisation against infectious diseases GOV.UK, The Green Book. Routine Childhood Immunisations, Autumn 2018. Table 2. Indicators of severe immunosupression (CDC, 1994) Age CD4 count CD4% 100 IU/L. If 10 but <100 IU/L after primary course, offer one booster vaccine and recheck serology after 6-8 weeks) Notes. 1. If boosters (...) Vaccination of HIV infected children Vaccination of HIV infected children (UK schedule, 2018) Abbreviation list DTaP/IPV/Hib – diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio vaccine/ Haemophilus influenzae type b DTaP/IPV or dTaP/IPV - diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio vaccine “D” - vaccines containing the higher dose of diphtheria toxoid (contain not less than 30IU) “d” - vaccines containing the lower dose of diphtheria toxoid (contain approximately 2IU) PCV13

2018 The Children's HIV Association

37. Bictegravir / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide / fumarate (Biktarvy) - HIV Infections

exposure is low; estimates are on the order of 0.1% per contact for heterosexual transmission, but this varies considerably and increases with concurrent ulcerative STDs, high HIV viral load in the subject, and lack of antiretroviral therapy. 2.1.2. Epidemiology There are approximately 37 million people worldwide living with HIV-1. HIV-1 infection remains a life- threatening disease in infected persons who do not receive adequate treatment sufficiently early in the course of the infection (...) Bictegravir / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide / fumarate (Biktarvy) - HIV Infections 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 26 April 2018 EMA/293559/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

38. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life

Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life ABamford,*ATurkova,*HLyall, CFoster, NKlein, DBastiaans, DBurger, SBernardi, KButler, EChiappini, 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 P Clayden, 9 M Della Negra, 10 V Giacomet, 11 C (...) Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK, 5 Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegan, The Netherlands, 6 University Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy, 7 Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital Crumlin & University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, 8 Meyer University Hospital, Florence University, Florence, Italy, 9 HIV i-Base, London, UK, 10 Emilio Ribas Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 11 Paediatric

2018 The Children's HIV Association

39. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

course of standby treatment is warranted. In addition TD prophylaxis is offered to selected travellers who are at risk of TD because of their medication or pre-existing morbidity. This includes those who require stable absorption of medications, and HIV positive children on ART may fit this category. For standby treatment or prophylaxis the antibiotic choice should cover E. Coli/ ETEC/ Salmonella/ Shigella and Campylobacter species. Co-trimoxazole can reduce TD risk and it is preferred prophylactic (...) , but will not require RIG. Choice of vaccine and schedule Approximately 95% of HIV negative adults will respond to a full course of rabies pre exposure vaccine, and the antibodies are long lived. In HIV positive adults a reduced response to vaccination occurs, particularly in those with lower CD4 counts, and there is no data for HIV positive children. If HIV positive children receive this vaccine as pre-exposure prophylaxis antibody titres could be checked 2 weeks after the last vaccine dose and those with titres

2018 The Children's HIV Association

40. Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines

Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 94–114 No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines x Mona Loutfy , MD, MPH (Principal Author) Toronto, ON x V. Logan Kennedy , RN (Principal Author) Toronto, ON x Vanessa Poliquin , MD (Principal Author) Winnipeg, MB x Frederick Dzineku , MD (Principal (...) and Gynaecology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON. , MD (Principal Author)* , x Mark H. Yudin Correspondence Corresponding Author: Dr. Mark Yudin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON. Toronto, ON No. 354, January 2018 (Replaces No. 278, June 2012) DOI: To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or . Click to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Abstract Objective The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical

2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

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