How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

16,911 results for

HIV Course

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

361. Killing of Latently HIV-Infected CD4 T Cells by Autologous CD8 T Cells Is Modulated by Nef Full Text available with Trip Pro

Killing of Latently HIV-Infected CD4 T Cells by Autologous CD8 T Cells Is Modulated by Nef The role of HIV-specific CD8 T cell activity in the course of HIV infection and the way it affects the virus that resides in the latent reservoir resting memory cells is debated. The PBMC of HIV-infected patients contain HIV-specific CD8 T cells and their potential targets, CD4 T cells latently infected by HIV. CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells procured from PBMC of HIV-infected patients were co-incubated (...) and analyzed: Formation of CD8 T cells and HIV-infected CD4 T cell conjugates and apoptosis of these CD4 T cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy with in situ PCR of HIV LTR DNA. Furthermore, conjugation of CD8 T cells with CD4 T cells and apoptosis of CD4 T cells was observed and quantified by imaging flow cytometry using anti-human activated caspase 3 antibody and TUNEL assay. The conjugation activity and apoptosis were found to be much higher in patients with acute HIV infection or AIDS compared

2018 Frontiers in immunology

362. Evolution of HIV-1 within untreated individuals and at the population scale in Uganda Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution of HIV-1 within untreated individuals and at the population scale in Uganda HIV-1 undergoes multiple rounds of error-prone replication between transmission events, resulting in diverse viral populations within and among individuals. In addition, the virus experiences different selective pressures at multiple levels: during the course of infection, at transmission, and among individuals. Disentangling how these evolutionary forces shape the evolution of the virus at the population (...) scale is important for understanding pathogenesis, how drug- and immune-escape variants are likely to spread in populations, and the development of preventive vaccines. To address this, we deep-sequenced two regions of the HIV-1 genome (p24 and gp41) from 34 longitudinally-sampled untreated individuals from Rakai District in Uganda, infected with subtypes A, D, and inter-subtype recombinants. This dataset substantially increases the availability of HIV-1 sequence data that spans multiple years

2018 PLoS pathogens

363. HIV/AIDS: A Case-Based Learning Module for First-Year Medical Students Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV/AIDS: A Case-Based Learning Module for First-Year Medical Students In medical and healthcare-related education, case-based learning (CBL) is a teaching strategy that uses clinical cases to engage students in active learning using course concepts to solve important problems. Here we describe the design and implementation of a CBL module to teach first year medical students about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acute retroviral syndrome, clinical progression to acquired (...) immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV diagnostics, assays used to assess stage of disease and response to antiretroviral treatment, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. A team of basic science and clinical faculty in the disciplines of microbiology, immunology, infection prevention and control, clinical medicine, pharmacology, and medical ethics collaboratively designed the CBL module. The results of a questionnaire indicated that the students found the CBL case interesting, engaging, and a useful educational

2018 Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education

364. Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania It has been hypothesized that schistosomiasis negatively influences immune reconstitution in people living with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis on the course of HIV infection in patients starting ART in a rural part of Tanzania.Retrospective study including patients prospectively enrolled in a HIV (...) index, educational attainment, WHO-stage, tuberculosis status, and year of ART initiation, CAA-positivity showed a trend of a decreased hazard of death/LFU (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.32-1.05, p = 0.07), while CD4 count at baseline (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-1.00, p = 0.02) and MXD (sum of eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes counts) >1,100 cells/μl (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.03) were identified as independently protective factors.Schistosomiasis is prevalent in this HIV cohort and may be beneficial

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

365. Insight into treatment of HIV infection from viral dynamics models Full Text available with Trip Pro

Insight into treatment of HIV infection from viral dynamics models The odds of living a long and healthy life with HIV infection have dramatically improved with the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy. Along with the early development and clinical trials of these drugs, and new field of research emerged called viral dynamics, which uses mathematical models to interpret and predict the time-course of viral levels during infection and how they are altered by treatment. In this review, we (...) summarize the contributions that virus dynamics models have made to understanding the pathophysiology of infection and to designing effective therapies. This includes studies of the multiphasic decay of viral load when antiretroviral therapy is given, the evolution of drug resistance, the long-term persistence latently infected cells, and the rebound of viremia when drugs are stopped. We additionally discuss new work applying viral dynamics models to new classes of investigational treatment for HIV

2018 Immunological reviews

366. Vulnerabilities at First Sex and Their Association With Lifetime Gender-Based Violence and HIV Prevalence Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Engaged in Sex Work, Transactional Sex, and Casual Sex in Kenya Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vulnerabilities at First Sex and Their Association With Lifetime Gender-Based Violence and HIV Prevalence Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Engaged in Sex Work, Transactional Sex, and Casual Sex in Kenya Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) experience high rates of HIV early in their sexual life course. We estimated the prevalence of HIV-associated vulnerabilities at first sex, and their association with lifetime gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV.We conducted a cross-sectional (...) biobehavioral survey among AGYW (14-24 years) in Mombasa, Kenya in 2015. We compared the prevalence of first sex vulnerabilities across AGYW who self-identified as engaging in sex work (N = 408), transactional sex (N = 177), or casual sex (N = 714) and used logistic regression to identify age-adjusted associations between first sex vulnerabilities and outcomes (GBV after first sex; HIV).The median age at first sex was 16 years (interquartile range 14-18). A total of 43.6% received gifts or money at first

2018 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

367. Antiretroviral therapy interruptions: impact on HIV treatment and transmission Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antiretroviral therapy interruptions: impact on HIV treatment and transmission Successful management of pediatric and adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease includes lifelong administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The need for the continuous use of antiretroviral drugs throughout the life course poses a challenge to children, adolescents, and adults living with HIV and their caregivers. Historically, treatment interruptions have been viewed as a negative therapeutic strategy (...) in children and adults living with HIV.We searched two databases (PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) using keywords (HIV OR AIDS OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR HIV-1 OR antiretroviral) AND (treatment interruption OR planned interruption OR therapeutic interruption OR unplanned interruption), for published randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials and observational cohort studies in children and adults (from birth to 99 years of age) in global settings covering a period from 2012

2018 HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)

368. Treatment Intensification in HIV-Infected Patients Is Associated With Reduced Frequencies of Regulatory T Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment Intensification in HIV-Infected Patients Is Associated With Reduced Frequencies of Regulatory T Cells In untreated HIV infection, the efficacy of T cell responses decreases over the disease course, resulting in disease progression. The reasons for this development are not completely understood. However, immunosuppressive cells are supposedly crucially involved. Treatment strategies to avoid the induction of these cells preserve immune functions and are therefore the object of intense (...) research efforts. In this study, we assessed the effect of treatment intensification [=5-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART)] on the development of suppressive cell subsets. The New Era (NE) study recruited patients with primary HIV infection (PHI) or chronically HIV-infected patients with conventional ART (CHI) and applied an intensified 5-drug regimen containing maraviroc and raltegravir for several years. We compared the frequencies of the immune suppressive cells, namely, the myeloid-derived

2018 Frontiers in immunology

369. Prevalence and Genotypes of Parvovirus B19 Among HIV Positive Children in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and Genotypes of Parvovirus B19 Among HIV Positive Children in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a global infection with over 50% of infected children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. It causes persistent anaemia under immuno-compromised states such as HIV infection, thereby complicating the course of HIV infection. This study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence and genotypes of B19V among HIV positive children. Blood specimens were collected (...) of the results showed a low prevalence of Parvovirus B19 among HIV positive children but a significant relationship was established between Parvovirus B19 infection and the severity of anaemia (p=0.015). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data showed that all the B19 virus isolates detected in this study were genotype 1. This study therefore has been able to give an insight to the prevalence and circulating genotypes of Parvovirus B19 among HIV infected children and also establishing a relationship

2018 Archives of basic and applied medicine

370. Engaging religious leaders to support HIV prevention and care for gays, bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men in coastal Kenya Full Text available with Trip Pro

to encourage religious leaders to work effectively and sensitively with issues regarding HIV and sexuality. This paper describes the implementation of an engagement intervention with religious leaders from different denominations, which took place following a homophobic hate attack that was led by local religious leaders, at an HIV research clinic for GBMSM on the Kenyan coast. After the homophobic attack, tailored engagement activities, including a comprehensive four-day online sensitivity training course (...) took place between June 2015 and October 2016 in the Kenyan coast. HIV researchers, together with trained GBMSM activists, organized the series of engagement activities for religious leaders which unfolded iteratively, with each subsequent activity informed by the results of the previous one. Facilitated conversations were used to explore differences and disagreements in relation to questions of scripture, mission, HIV, and human sexuality. As a result, researchers noted that many religious leaders

2018 Critical Public Health

371. Deep-Sequencing Analysis of the Dynamics of HIV-1 Quasiespecies in Naive Patients during a Short Exposure to Maraviroc Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deep-Sequencing Analysis of the Dynamics of HIV-1 Quasiespecies in Naive Patients during a Short Exposure to Maraviroc In this study, we have characterized quasispecies dynamics and the evolution of viral tropism in naive HIV-1-infected patients treated with a short course of maraviroc monotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT01060618) independently of the tropism of the infecting virus. We randomly selected 20 patients infected with viruses displaying different basal tropisms-10 (...) carrying R5 and 10 carrying dual/mixed X4 (DM/X4) viruses-at recruitment as determined by phenotypic assay (Trofile). Evolution of viral quasiespecies at the end of treatment was determined by ultradeep sequencing of the V3 region using a 454 Life Sciences Platform and geno2pheno (g2p) algorithm for viral tropism prediction. The false-positive rate (FPR) that defines the probability of classifying an R5 virus falsely as X4 was set at 10%. X4-specific HIV-1 viral load (VL) was calculated from sequences

2018 Journal of virology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

372. HIV rapid diagnostic testing by lay providers in a key population-led health service programme in Thailand Full Text available with Trip Pro

of, or worked closely with, a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) and with transgender women (TG) communities, and compared it to tests conducted by MTs. Methods: Lay providers received a 3-day intensive training course on how to perform a finger-prick blood collection and an HIV RDT as part of the Key Population-led Health Services (KPLHS) programme among MSM and TG. All the samples were tested by lay providers using Alere Determine HIV 1/2. HIV-reactive samples were confirmed by DoubleCheckGold Ultra (...) HIV rapid diagnostic testing by lay providers in a key population-led health service programme in Thailand Introduction: Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for HIV has a quick turn-around time, which increases the proportion of people testing who receive their result. HIV RDT in Thailand has traditionally been performed only by medical technologists (MTs), which is a barrier to its being scaled up. We evaluated the performance of HIV RDT conducted by trained lay providers who were members

2018 Journal of virus eradication

373. Functional Antibody Response Against V1V2 and V3 of HIV gp120 in the VAX003 and VAX004 Vaccine Trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional Antibody Response Against V1V2 and V3 of HIV gp120 in the VAX003 and VAX004 Vaccine Trials Immunization with HIV AIDSVAX gp120 vaccines in the phase III VAX003 and VAX004 trials did not confer protection. To understand the shortcomings in antibody (Ab) responses induced by these vaccines, we evaluated the kinetics of Ab responses to the V1V2 and V3 regions of gp120 and the induction of Ab-mediated antiviral functions during the course of 7 vaccinations over a 30.5-month period (...) . Plasma samples from VAX003 and VAX004 vaccinees and placebo recipients were measured for ELISA-binding Abs and for virus neutralization, Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Ab responses to V1V2 and V3 peaked after 3 to 4 immunizations and declined after 5 to 7 immunizations. The deteriorating responses were most evident against epitopes in the underside of the V1V2 β-barrel and in the V3 crown. Correspondingly, vaccinees demonstrated higher

2018 Scientific reports

374. Building the evidence base on the HIV programme in India: an integrated approach to document programmatic learnings Full Text available with Trip Pro

the outcomes of the initiative.A multipronged approach was adopted, where a group of experts were brought together to collaborate with programme implementing organisations, review available data, develop research questions and guide peer-reviewed publications. Further, scientific writing courses were conducted to support individuals from HIV programme implementing organisations as well as educational and government organisations (mentees) to build the documentation capacity of individuals leading programme (...) implementation and current and future researchers. The impact and quality of evidence generated was measured by examining the number of papers published, the number of citations, and the number of papers with at least 10 citations. Additionally, course participants' responses to open-ended questions in the anonymous course evaluation questionnaires are presented as verbatim quotes.Overall, 99 papers on HIV programmatic learnings from India were finalised under the programme, of which 95 have been published

2018 Health Research Policy and Systems

375. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure. OSSN has been reported as the first presenting sign of HIV/AIDS in 26%-86% cases, and seropositivity is noted in 38%-92% OSSN patients. Mean age at presentation of OSSN has dropped to the third to fourth decade in HIV-positive patients in developing countries. HIV-infected patients reveal large aggressive tumors, higher-grade (...) malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS

2018 HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)

376. A 30-Year-Old Man with HIV, Fever, and a Rash Full Text available with Trip Pro

receiving intramuscular penicillin G benzathine, he developed intermittent fevers and new papules. Intravenous (IV) acyclovir was initiated for presumed disseminated varicella given his positive varicella-zoster virus IgM and IgG. However, final pathology results revealed a large spirochete burden. The fevers and rash progression were attributed to the development of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. IV acyclovir was discontinued and he completed a course of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. He (...) A 30-Year-Old Man with HIV, Fever, and a Rash Patients who present with papular rashes have a wide differential diagnosis particularly in the setting of immune compromise. A 30-year-old male diagnosed with HIV since 2009, never on antiretroviral therapy, with a nadir CD4 count of 333 cells/mm3 and a current viral load of 44,300 copies/mL, presented with a diffuse monomorphic papular eruption that began on his trunk and extremities and subsequently spread to the penis and scrotum, sparing

2018 Dermatopathology

377. IPT during HIV treatment in Myanmar: high rates of coverage, completion and drug adherence Full Text available with Trip Pro

IPT during HIV treatment in Myanmar: high rates of coverage, completion and drug adherence Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB (...) ) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81.1%) initiated IPT, with 2651 (96.8%) completing a 6- or 9-month course of IPT; 83 (3.1%) interrupted treatment for different reasons, including loss to follow-up (n = 41), side effects (n = 15) or drug adherence issues (n = 9); 6 (0.2%) died. Among the IPT patients, 33 (1.2%) were diagnosed with TB, including 9 (0.3%) while on IPT and 24 (0.9

2018 Public health action

378. Training social workers to enhance patient-centered care for drug-resistant TB-HIV in South Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Training social workers to enhance patient-centered care for drug-resistant TB-HIV in South Africa KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered (...) care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course. Post-training questionnaire scores showed significant overall gains (P = 0.003). A brief training intervention may be a useful and feasible way to engage social workers in patient-centered care for DR-TB and HIV coinfection.

2018 Public health action

379. HIV Replication and Latency in a Humanized NSG Mouse Model during Suppressive Oral Combinational Antiretroviral Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

latency, which is considered a primary barrier to curing HIV. A complete understanding of the establishment and role of HIV latency in vivo would greatly enhance attempts to develop novel HIV purging strategies. An ideal animal model for this purpose should be easy to work with, should have a shortened disease course so that efficacy testing can be completed in a reasonable time, and should have immune correlates that are easily translatable to humans. We therefore describe a novel application (...) HIV Replication and Latency in a Humanized NSG Mouse Model during Suppressive Oral Combinational Antiretroviral Therapy Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging

2018 Journal of virology

380. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-uninfected, rituximab treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

to explore pneumocystis infection in HIV-uninfected NHL patients who received at least three courses of chemotherapy without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who had rituximab-based chemotherapy were included in the experimental (rituximab) group, while the rest of the patients who did not receive any rituximab-based chemotherapy throughout the study period formed the control group. The prevalence rate of pneumocystis (...) Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-uninfected, rituximab treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients Rituximab is associated with a higher incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia infection. Pneumocystis prophylaxis is advised in many immunocompromised populations treated with rituximab. However, the beneficial effect of pneumocystis prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, rituximab-treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients has not been assessed. Thus, we conducted this retrospective study

2018 Scientific reports

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>